C-Jun N-terminal kinase-interacting protein 1 inhibits gene expression in response to hypertrophic agonists in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes.
ABSTRACT: G(q)-coupled receptor agonists, such as endothelin-1 (ET-1) and phenylephrine (PE), initiate a hypertrophic response in cardiac myocytes that is characterized by increased expression of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), beta-myosin heavy chain (beta-MHC), skeletal muscle alpha-actin (SkalphaA) and ventricular myosin light chain-2 (vMLC2). ET-1 and PE activate both the extracellular signal-regulated kinases and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) in cardiac myocytes, but the extent to which each contributes to the hypertrophic response is uncertain. Here we have used the JNK-binding domain of JNK-interacting protein 1 (JIP-1), a cytosolic scaffold protein that binds to JNK and inhibits its signalling when overexpressed, to assess the contribution of JNK activation to the hypertrophic response. Expression of JIP-1 inhibited the increase in ANF, beta-MHC, SkalphaA and vMLC2 reporter gene expression in response to ET-1 (by 45-86%) and PE (by 56-60%). However, activation of these reporter genes by PMA, which does not activate JNK significantly in myocytes, was much less affected by overexpression of JIP-1. JIP-1 also failed to inhibit reporter gene activation in response to constitutively active Ras or Raf, but attenuated reporter gene activation induced by a constitutively active mutant of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1), an upstream kinase that preferentially activates JNKs, by 50%. Overexpression of JIP-1 also significantly reduced the increase in cell area in response to PE from 63% to 56%, but had no effect on the increase in cell size in response to ET-1 (38%). These results suggest that activation of the JNK pathway contributes to the transcriptional and morphological responses to G(q) receptor-coupled hypertrophic agonists.
Project description:Extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs) are activated rapidly and transiently in response to phenylephrine (PE) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in cardiac myocytes, but whether this is linked to the subsequent development of the hypertrophic phenotype remains equivocal. To investigate this, we examined the dependence of the hypertrophic response on the length of exposure to PE in neonatal myocyte cultures. In addition to the initial transient activation of ERKs (maximum at 5-10 min), PE (10 microM) induced a second, more prolonged peak of activity several hours later. The activity of a transfected atrial natriuretic factor-luciferase reporter gene was increased 10- to 24-fold by PE. This response was inhibited by the alpha(1)-antagonist prazosin (100 nM) and by U0126 (10 microM) and PD184352 (1 microM), inhibitors of ERK activation, irrespective of whether these were added before or up to 24 h after the addition of PE. Prazosin had no effect on ET-1 (50 nM)-stimulated atrial natriuretic factor-luciferase activity. Protein synthesis was enhanced by 35+/-6% by PE, and this was blocked by prazosin added 1 h after the addition of PE, but decreased only by half when added 8 h after PE. Similarly, PE (48 h) increased myocyte area by 49% and this was prevented by prazosin added 1 h after PE, but decreased only by half when added at 24 h. These results demonstrate that prolonged exposure to PE is required to elicit alterations in gene expression, protein synthesis and cell size, characteristic of hypertrophied myocytes, and they confirm that the initial peak of ERK activity is insufficient to trigger hypertrophic responses.
Project description:Treatment of cultured neonatal ventricular myocytes with oncogenic Ras increases their size and stimulates the re-expression of genes which are normally restricted to the fetal stage of ventricular development, including atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and skeletal muscle (SkM)-alpha-actin. To determine which signalling pathways mediate these responses, myocytes were transfected with oncogenic (V12) Ras mutants which interact selectively with different effectors and their effects on luciferase (LUX) reporter plasmids were examined. V12 human Ras (V12HRas), itself, activated ANF-LUX 9. 6-fold, whereas mutants of V12HRas, which selectively stimulate Ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator (Ral.GDS) (E37G), c-Raf (D38E) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3-K; Y40C) enhanced ANF-LUX expression 3.0-, 3.7- and 1.7-fold respectively. The full response of ANF-LUX to V12HRas was restored by using a combination of the individual effector domain mutants. Likewise, SkM-alpha-actin-LUX expression was activated 12.0-, 3.5-, 4.5- and 3. 0-fold by V12HRas, E37G, D38E and Y40C respectively, and a similar pattern of activation was also observed using a c-fos serum-response element-LUX reporter gene. Cell size was also increased by each of the mutants, but simultaneous expression of all three mutant constructs was needed to reconstitute the full effect of V12HRas on cell size (50% increase). Transfection with a constitutively active mutant of PI-3-K (p110K227E) stimulated ANF-LUX, SkM-alpha-actin-LUX, c-fos-serum-response element-LUX and Rous sarcoma virus-LUX by 3.1-, 3.2-, 2.1- and 2.9-fold respectively, but the co-transfected cytomegalovirus-beta-galactosidase reporter gene was activated to a similar extent (1.9-fold). These results suggest that Raf, Ral.GDS and PI-3-K can all transduce transcriptional responses to V12HRas, but that the specific induction of genes associated with the hypertrophic response is not mediated through PI-3-K.
Project description:We investigated the ability of phenylephrine (PE), an alpha-adrenergic agonist and promoter of hypertrophic growth in the ventricular myocyte, to activate the three best-characterized mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) subfamilies, namely p38-MAPKs, SAPKs/JNKs (i.e. stress-activated protein kinases/c-Jun N-terminal kinases) and ERKs (extracellularly responsive kinases), in perfused contracting rat hearts. Perfusion of hearts with 100 microM PE caused a rapid (maximal at 10 min) 12-fold activation of two p38-MAPK isoforms, as measured by subsequent phosphorylation of a p38-MAPK substrate, recombinant MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2). This activation coincided with phosphorylation of p38-MAPK. Endogenous MAPKAPK2 was activated 4-5-fold in these perfusions and this was inhibited completely by the p38-MAPK inhibitor, SB203580 (10 microM). Activation of p38-MAPK and MAPKAPK2 was also detected in non-contracting hearts perfused with PE, indicating that the effects were not dependent on the positive inotropic/chronotropic properties of the agonist. Although SAPKs/JNKs were also rapidly activated, the activation (2-3-fold) was less than that of p38-MAPK. The ERKs were activated by perfusion with PE and the activation was at least 50% of that seen with 1 microM PMA, the most powerful activator of the ERKs yet identified in cardiac myocytes. These results indicate that, in addition to the ERKs, two MAPK subfamilies, whose activation is more usually associated with cellular stresses, are activated by the Gq/11-protein-coupled receptor (Gq/11PCR) agonist, PE, in whole hearts. These data indicate that Gq/11PCR agonists activate multiple MAPK signalling pathways in the heart, all of which may contribute to the overall response (e.g. the development of the hypertrophic phenotype).
Project description:Human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CM) are being developed for tissue repair and as a model system for cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. However, the signaling requirements of their growth have not yet been fully characterized. We showed that hESC-CM retain their capacity for increase in size in long-term culture. Exposing hESC-CM to hypertrophic stimuli such as equiaxial cyclic stretch, angiotensin II, and phenylephrine (PE) increased cell size and volume, percentage of hESC-CM with organized sarcomeres, levels of ANF, and cytoskeletal assembly. PE effects on cell size were separable from those on cell cycle. Changes in cell size by PE were completely inhibited by p38-MAPK, calcineurin/FKBP, and mTOR blockers. p38-MAPK and calcineurin were also implicated in basal cell growth. Inhibitors of ERK, JNK, and CaMK II partially reduced PE effects; PKG or GSK3? inhibitors had no effect. The role of p38-MAPK was confirmed by an additional pharmacological inhibitor and adenoviral infection of hESC-CM with a dominant-inhibitory form of p38-MAPK. Infection of hESC-CM with constitutively active upstream MAP2K3b resulted in an increased cell size, sarcomere and cytoskeletal assembly, elongation of the cells, and induction of ANF mRNA levels. siRNA knockdown of p38-MAPK inhibited PE-induced effects on cell size. These results reveal an important role for active protein kinase signaling in hESC-CM growth and hypertrophy, with potential implications for hESC-CM as a novel in vitro test system. This article is part of a special issue entitled, "Cardiovascular Stem Cells Revisited".
Project description:Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) has been consistently shown to be the predominant isoform of NOS and/or NOS-derived NO that may be involved in the myocardial remodeling including cardiac hypertrophy. However, the direct functional contribution of NOS1 in this process remains to be elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, we attempted to use silent RNA and adenovirus mediated silencing or overexpression to investigate the role of NOS1 and the associated molecular signaling mechanisms during OKphenylephrine (PE)-induced cardiac hypertrophy growth in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVMs). We found that the expression of NOS1 was enhanced in PE-induced hypertrophic cardiomyocytes. Moreover, LVNIO treatment, a selective NOS1 inhibitor, significantly decreased PE-induced NRVMs hypertrophy and [3H]-leucine incorporation. We demonstrated that NOS1 gene silencing attenuated both the increased size and the transcriptional activity of the hypertrophic marker atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) induced by PE stimulation. Further investigation suggested that deficiency of NOS1-induced diminished NRVMS hypertrophy resulted in decreased calcineurin protein expression and activity (assessed by measuring the transcriptional activity of NFAT) and, an increased activity of the anti-hypertrophic pathway, GSK-3? (estimated by its augmented phosphorylated level). In contrast, exposing the NOS1 overexpressed NRVMs to PE-treatment further increased the hypertrophic growth, ANF transcriptional activity and calcineurin activity. Together, the results of the present study suggest that NOS1 is directly involved in controlling the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.
Project description:Protein kinase D (PKD) is a nodal point in cardiac hypertrophic signaling. It triggers nuclear export of class II histone deacetylase (HDAC) and regulates transcription. Although this pathway is thought to be critical in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, little is known about spatiotemporal aspects of PKD activation at the myocyte level. Here, we demonstrate that in adult cardiomyocytes two important neurohumoral stimuli that induce hypertrophy, endothelin-1 (ET1) and phenylephrine (PE), trigger comparable global PKD activation and HDAC5 nuclear export, but via divergent spatiotemporal PKD signals. PE-induced HDAC5 export is entirely PKD-dependent, involving fleeting sarcolemmal PKD translocation (for activation) and very rapid subsequent nuclear import. In contrast, ET1 recruits and activates PKD that remains predominantly sarcolemmal. This explains why PE-induced nuclear HDAC5 export in myocytes is totally PKD-dependent, whereas ET1-induced HDAC5 export depends more prominently on InsP(3) and CaMKII signaling. Thus α-adrenergic and ET-1 receptor signaling via PKD in adult myocytes feature dramatic differences in cellular localization and translocation in mediating hypertrophic signaling. This raises new opportunities for targeted therapeutic intervention into distinct limbs of this hypertrophic signaling pathway.
Project description:Although MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinases are implicated in cell proliferation and differentiation in many cell types, the role of MAP kinases in cardiac hypertrophy remains unclear. We examined the role of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAP kinase in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertrophy compared with phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. Both Ang II and phenylephrine activated ERKs to a similar extent, whereas phenylephrine caused stronger and more sustained activation of JNK and p38 than Ang II. PD98059, a specific inhibitor of MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK),inhibited Ang II-induced, but not phenylephrine-induced, expression of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) at both the mRNA and polypeptide levels. SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 and some JNK isoforms, did not show significant effects on ANF expression induced by Ang II or phenylephrine. Although PD98059 and dominant-negative MEK1 blocked Ang II-induced activation of the ANF promoter, SB203580 or dominant-negative MEK kinase 1 (MEKK1) showed no effect. Phenylephrine-induced ANF promoter activation was significantly inhibited by SB203580 and dominant-negative MEKK1, but not by PD98059 or dominant-negative MEK1. Dominant-negative Ras inhibited both ERK activation and ANF up-regulation by Ang II, whereas constitutively active forms of Ras and MEK were sufficient to activate the ANF promoter. Dominant-negative Ras also partly inhibited the phenylephrine-induced activation of ANF promoter. PD98059 did not affect other markers of Ang II-induced hypertrophy, such as skeletal alpha-actin and c-fos expression, increases in the rate of protein synthesis or rapid sarcomeric actin organization. These results suggest that Ang II uses ERK for ANF expression, whereas phenylephrine uses other pathways. The Ras/ERK pathway selectively mediates ANF expression in various phenotypes observed in Ang II-induced hypertrophy. The ERK pathway mediates an agonist-specific and phenotype-specific response in cardiac hypertrophy.
Project description:The RNA binding protein Human antigen R (HuR) interacts with specific AU-rich domains in target mRNAs and is highly expressed in many cell types, including cardiomyocytes. However, the role of HuR in cardiac physiology is largely unknown. Our results show that HuR undergoes cytoplasmic translocation, indicative of its activation, in hypertrophic cardiac myocytes. Specifically, HuR cytoplasmic translocation is significantly increased in NRVMs (neonatal rat ventricular myocytes) following treatment with phenylephrine or angiotensin II, agonists of two independent G?q-coupled GPCRs known to induce hypertrophy. This Gq-mediated HuR activation is dependent on p38 MAP kinase, but not canonical Gq-PKC signaling. Furthermore, we show that HuR activation is necessary for Gq-mediated hypertrophic growth of NRVMs as siRNA-mediated knockdown of HuR inhibits hypertrophy as measured by cell size and expression of ANF (atrial natriuretic factor). Additionally, HuR overexpression is sufficient to induce hypertrophic cell growth. To decipher the downstream mechanisms by which HuR translocation promotes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, we assessed the role of HuR in the transcriptional activity of NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells), the activation of which is a hallmark of cardiac hypertrophy. Using an NFAT-luciferase reporter assay, we show an acute inhibition of NFAT transcriptional activity following pharmacological inhibition of HuR. In conclusion, our results identify HuR as a novel mediator of cardiac hypertrophy downstream of the Gq-p38 MAPK pathway, and suggest modulation of NFAT activity as a potential mechanism.
Project description:Activation of the phosphatase calcineurin and its downstream targets, transcription factors of the NFAT family, results in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Recently, it has been shown that the dual specificity tyrosine (Y) phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) is able to antagonize calcineurin signaling by directly phosphorylating NFATs. We thus hypothesized that DYRK1A might modulate the hypertrophic response of cardiomyocytes. In a model of phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of DYKR1A completely abrogated the hypertrophic response and significantly reduced the expression of the natriuretic peptides ANF and BNP. Furthermore, DYRK1A blunted cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by overexpression of constitutively active calcineurin and attenuated the induction of the hypertrophic gene program. Conversely, knockdown of DYRK1A, utilizing adenoviruses encoding for a specific synthetic miRNA, resulted in an increase in cell surface area accompanied by up-regulation of ANF- mRNA. Similarly, treatment of cardiomyocytes with harmine, a specific inhibitor of DYRK1A, revealed cardiomyocyte hypertrophy on morphological and molecular level. Moreover, constitutively active calcineurin led to robust induction of an NFAT-dependent luciferase reporter, whereas DYRK1A attenuated calcineurin-induced reporter activation in cardiomyocytes. Conversely, both knockdown and pharmacological inhibition of DYRK1A significantly augmented the effect of calcineurin in this assay. In summary, we identified DYRK1A as a novel negative regulator of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Mechanistically, this effect appears to be mediated via inhibition of NFAT transcription factors.
Project description:The heart manifests hypertrophic growth in response to elevation of afterload pressure. Cardiac myocyte growth involves new protein synthesis and membrane expansion, of which a number of cellular quality control machineries are stimulated to maintain function and homeostasis. The unfolded protein response is potently induced during cardiac hypertrophy to enhance protein-folding capacity and eliminate terminally misfolded proteins. However, whether the unfolded protein response directly regulates cardiac myocyte growth remains to be fully determined. Here, we show that GRP78 (glucose-regulated protein of 78 kDa)-an endoplasmic reticulum-resident chaperone and a critical unfolded protein response regulator-is induced by cardiac hypertrophy. Importantly, overexpression of GRP78 in cardiomyocytes is sufficient to potentiate hypertrophic stimulus-triggered growth. At the in vivo level, TG (transgenic) hearts overexpressing GRP78 mount elevated hypertrophic growth in response to pressure overload. We went further to show that GRP78 increases GATA4 (GATA-binding protein 4) level, which may stimulate Anf (atrial natriuretic factor) expression and promote cardiac hypertrophic growth. Silencing of GATA4 in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes significantly diminishes GRP78-mediated growth response. Our results, therefore, reveal that protein-folding chaperone GRP78 may directly enhance cardiomyocyte growth by stimulating cardiac-specific transcriptional factor GATA4.