C-terminal heparin-binding domain of fibronectin regulates integrin-mediated cell spreading but not the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase.
ABSTRACT: Fibronectin (FN) stimulates multiple signalling events including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. During cell spreading, both the cell-binding domain and the C-terminal heparin-binding domain (HepII) of FN co-operatively regulate cytoskeleton organization. However, in comparison with the large number of studies on the functions of cell-binding domain, there is little information about the role of HepII. We therefore investigated the effect of HepII on integrin-mediated cell spreading and adhesion on FN and MAPK activation. In contrast with cells on FN substrates, rat embryo fibroblasts on FN120, which lacks HepII, were less spread, had weaker adhesion to FN and failed to form focal adhesions and actin stress fibres. Phosphotyrosine was present in the focal contacts of rat embryo fibroblasts on FN within 30 min but was absent from cells on FN120. Overall, tyrosine phosphorylation was much less in cell lysates from cells on FN120, with decreased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase ('pp125FAK') on tyrosine-397, implying additional regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation by HepII. Nevertheless, adhesion-mediated MAPK activity was similar in cells on FN and on FN120. Furthermore, cells spread on FN and on FN120 substrates showed similar MAPK activation in response to treatment with epidermal growth factor and with platelet-derived growth factor. Consistently, overexpression of syndecan-4, which binds to HepII, enhanced cell spreading and adhesion on FN but did not affect integrin-mediated MAPK activation. We therefore conclude that both HepII and syndecan-4 regulate integrin-mediated cell spreading but not MAPK activation.
Project description:Adhesion modulatory proteins are important effectors of cell-matrix interactions during tissue remodeling and regeneration. They comprise a diverse group of matricellular proteins that confer antiadhesive properties to the extracellular matrix (ECM). We compared the inhibitory effects of two adhesion modulatory proteins, fibulin-1 and tenascin-C, both of which bind to the C-terminal heparin-binding (HepII) domain of fibronectin (FN) but are structurally distinct. Here, we report that, like tenascin-C, fibulin-1 inhibits fibroblast spreading and cell-mediated contraction of a fibrin-FN matrix. These proteins act by modulation of focal adhesion kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling. The inhibitory effects were bypassed by lysophosphatidic acid, an activator of RhoA GTPase. Fibroblast response to fibulin-1, similar to tenascin-C, was dependent on expression of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-4, which also binds to the HepII domain. Therefore, blockade of HepII-mediated signaling by competitive binding of fibulin-1 or tenascin-C represents a shared mechanism of adhesion modulation among disparate modulatory proteins.
Project description:Heterotropic association of tissue transglutaminase (TG2) with extracellular matrix-associated fibronectin (FN) can restore the adhesion of fibroblasts when the integrin-mediated direct binding to FN is impaired using RGD-containing peptide. We demonstrate that the compensatory effect of the TG-FN complex in the presence of RGD-containing peptides is mediated by TG2 binding to the heparan sulfate chains of the syndecan-4 cell surface receptor. This binding mediates activation of protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) and its subsequent interaction with beta(1) integrin since disruption of PKCalpha binding to beta(1) integrins with a cell-permeant competitive peptide inhibits cell adhesion and the associated actin stress fiber formation. Cell signaling by this process leads to the activation of focal adhesion kinase and ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinases. Fibroblasts deficient in Raf-1 do not respond fully to the TG-FN complex unless either the full-length kinase competent Raf-1 or the kinase-inactive domain of Raf-1 is reintroduced, indicating the involvement of the Raf-1 protein in the signaling mechanism. We propose a model for a novel RGD-independent cell adhesion process that could be important during tissue injury and/or remodeling whereby TG-FN binding to syndecan-4 activates PKCalpha leading to its association with beta(1) integrin, reinforcement of actin-stress fiber organization, and MAPK pathway activation.
Project description:Fibronectin (FN) is known to transduce signal(s) to rescue cells from detachment-induced apoptosis (anoikis) through an integrin-mediated survival pathway. However, the functions of individual FN domains have not been studied in detail. In the present study we investigated whether the interaction of the cell-binding domain of FN with integrin is sufficient to rescue rat embryo fibroblasts (REFs) from detachment-induced apoptosis. REFs attached and spread normally after plating on substrates coated with either intact FN or a FN fragment, FN120, that contains the cell-binding domain but lacks the C-terminal heparin-binding domain, HepII. REFs on FN maintained a well-spread fibroblastic shape and even proliferated in serum-free medium at 20 h after plating. In contrast, previously well-spread REFs on FN120 started losing fibroblastic shape with time and detached from FN120-coated plates after approx. 8 h. Nuclear condensation indicated apototic cell death. This was due to the decreased activity/stability of focal adhesion kinase (pp125FAK) in the absence of HepII domain. A peptide in the HepII domain [peptide V, WQPPRARI (single-letter amino acid codes)], which has previously been implicated in cytoskeletal organization, rescued apoptotic changes. Consistently, pp125FAK phosphorylation was increased, and both cleavage of pp125FAK and activation of caspase 3 on FN120 were partly blocked by peptide V. Thus the interaction of the cell-binding domain with integrin has a major role in cell survival but is itself not sufficient for cell survival. One or more additional survival signals come from the HepII domain to regulate pp125FAK activity/stability.
Project description:The fibronectin receptors alpha(5)beta(1) integrin and syndecan-4 cocluster in focal adhesions and coordinate cell migration by making individual contributions to the suppression of RhoA activity during matrix engagement. p190Rho-guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein (GAP) is known to inhibit RhoA during the early stages of cell spreading in an Src-dependent manner. This paper dissects the mechanisms of p190RhoGAP regulation and distinguishes the contributions of alpha(5)beta(1) integrin and syndecan-4. Matrix-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of p190RhoGAP is stimulated solely by engagement of alpha(5)beta(1) integrin and is independent of syndecan-4. Parallel engagement of syndecan-4 causes redistribution of the tyrosine-phosphorylated pool of p190RhoGAP between membrane and cytosolic fractions by a mechanism that requires direct activation of protein kinase C alpha by syndecan-4. Activation of both pathways is necessary for the efficient regulation of RhoA and, as a consequence, focal adhesion formation. Accordingly, we identify p190RhoGAP as the convergence point for adhesive signals mediated by alpha(5)beta(1) integrin and syndecan-4. This molecular mechanism explains the cooperation between extracellular matrix receptors during cell adhesion.
Project description:Fibronectin (FN) deposition mediated by fibroblasts is an important process in matrix remodeling and wound healing. By monitoring the deposition of soluble biotinylated FN, we show that the stress-induced TG-FN matrix, a matrix complex of tissue transglutaminase (TG2) with its high affinity binding partner FN, can increase both exogenous and cellular FN deposition and also restore it when cell adhesion is interrupted via the presence of RGD-containing peptides. This mechanism does not require the transamidase activity of TG2 but is activated through an RGD-independent adhesion process requiring a heterocomplex of TG2 and FN and is mediated by a syndecan-4 and ?1 integrin co-signaling pathway. By using ?5 null cells, ?1 integrin functional blocking antibody, and a ?5?1 integrin targeting peptide A5-1, we demonstrate that the ?5 and ?1 integrins are essential for TG-FN to compensate RGD-induced loss of cell adhesion and FN deposition. The importance of syndecan-2 in this process was shown using targeting siRNAs, which abolished the compensation effect of TG-FN on the RGD-induced loss of cell adhesion, resulting in disruption of actin skeleton formation and FN deposition. Unlike syndecan-4, syndecan-2 does not interact directly with TG2 but acts as a downstream effector in regulating actin cytoskeleton organization through the ROCK pathway. We demonstrate that PKC? is likely to be the important link between syndecan-4 and syndecan-2 signaling and that TG2 is the functional component of the TG-FN heterocomplex in mediating cell adhesion via its direct interaction with heparan sulfate chains.
Project description:In this study, we investigated the involvement of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) in the adhesion of arteriolar vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) to fibronectin (FN) and in the mechano-responsiveness of VSMC focal adhesions (FA).ILK was visualized in VSMC by expressing EGFP-ILK and it was knocked down using ILK-shRNA constructs. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to characterize VSMC interactions with FN, VSMC stiffness and to apply and measure forces at a VSMC single FA site.ILK was localized to FA and silencing ILK promoted cell spreading, enhanced cell adhesion, reduced cell proliferation and reduced downstream phosphorylation of GSK-3beta and PKB/Akt. AFM studies demonstrated that silencing ILK enhanced alpha5beta1 integrin adhesion to FN and enhanced VSMC contraction in response to a pulling force applied at the level of a single FN-FA site.ILK functions in arteriolar VSMC appear linked to multiple signaling pathways and processes that inhibit cell spreading, cell adhesion, FA formation, adhesion to FN and the mechano-responsiveness of FN-FA sites.
Project description:Cell spreading, adhesion and remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) involve bi-directional signalling and physical linkages between the ECM, integrins and the cell cytoskeleton. The actin-binding proteins talin1 and 2 link ligand-bound integrins to the actin cytoskeleton and increase the affinity of integrin for the ECM. Here we report that depletion of talin2 in talin1-null (talin1(-/-)) cells did not affect the initiation of matrix-activated spreading or Src family kinase (SFK) activation, but abolished the ECM-integrin-cytoskeleton linkage and sustained cell spreading and adhesion. Specifically, focal adhesion assembly, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signalling and traction force generation on substrates were severely affected. The talin1 head domain restored beta1 integrin activation but only full-length talin1 restored the ECM-cytoskeleton linkage and normal cytoskeleton organization. Our results demonstrate three biochemically distinct steps in fibronectin-activated cell spreading and adhesion: (1) fibronectin-integrin binding and initiation of spreading, (2) fast cell spreading and (3) focal adhesion formation and substrate traction. We suggest that talin is not required for initial cell spreading. However, talin provides the important mechanical linkage between ligand-bound integrins and the actin cytoskeleton required to catalyse focal adhesion-dependent pathways.
Project description:The ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family of proteins is involved in a variety of cellular interactions, including cell adhesion and ecto- domain shedding. Here we show that ADAM 12 binds to cell surface syndecans. Three forms of recombinant ADAM 12 were used in these experiments: the cys-teine-rich domain made in Escherichia coli (rADAM 12-cys), the disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domain made in insect cells (rADAM 12-DC), and full-length human ADAM 12-S tagged with green fluorescent protein made in mammalian cells (rADAM 12-GFP). Mesenchymal cells specifically and in a dose-dependent manner attach to ADAM 12 via members of the syndecan family. After binding to syndecans, mesenchymal cells spread and form focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. Integrin beta1 was responsible for cell spreading because function-blocking monoclonal antibodies completely inhibited cell spreading, and chondroblasts lacking beta1 integrin attached but did not spread. These data suggest that mesenchymal cells use syndecans as the initial receptor for the ADAM 12 cysteine-rich domain-mediated cell adhesion, and then the beta1 integrin to induce cell spreading. Interestingly, carcinoma cells attached but did not spread on ADAM 12. However, spreading could be efficiently induced by the addition of either 1 mM Mn(2+) or the beta1 integrin-activating monoclonal antibody 12G10, suggesting that in these carcinoma cells, the ADAM 12-syndecan complex fails to modulate the function of beta1 integrin.
Project description:Clustering of alphavbeta3 integrin after interaction with the RGD-like integrin-binding sequence present in neuronal Thy-1 triggers formation of focal adhesions and stress fibers in astrocytes via RhoA activation. A putative heparin-binding domain is present in Thy-1, raising the possibility that this membrane protein stimulates astrocyte adhesion via engagement of an integrin and the proteoglycan syndecan-4. Indeed, heparin, heparitinase treatment and mutation of the Thy-1 heparin-binding site each inhibited Thy-1-induced RhoA activation, as well as formation of focal adhesions and stress fibers in DI TNC(1) astrocytes. These responses required both syndecan-4 binding and signaling, as evidenced by silencing syndecan-4 expression and by overexpressing a syndecan-4 mutant lacking the intracellular domain, respectively. Furthermore, lack of RhoA activation and astrocyte responses in the presence of a PKC inhibitor or a dominant-negative form of PKCalpha implicated PKCalpha and RhoA activation in these events. Therefore, combined interaction of the astrocyte alphavbeta3-integrin-syndecan-4 receptor pair with Thy-1, promotes adhesion to the underlying matrix via PKCalpha- and RhoA-dependent pathways. Importantly, signaling events triggered by such receptor cooperation are shown here to be the consequence of cell-cell rather than cell-matrix interactions. These observations are likely to be of widespread biological relevance because Thy-1-integrin binding is reportedly relevant to melanoma invasion, monocyte transmigration through endothelial cells and host defense mechanisms.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Syndecans regulate cell migration thus having key roles in scarring and wound healing processes. Our previous results have shown that Thy-1/CD90 can engage both ?v?3 integrin and Syndecan-4 expressed on the surface of astrocytes to induce cell migration. Despite a well-described role of Syndecan-4 during cell movement, information is scarce regarding specific Syndecan-4 partners involved in Thy-1/CD90-stimulated cell migration. METHODS:Mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of complexes precipitated with the Syndecan-4 cytoplasmic tail peptide was used to identify potential Syndecan-4-binding partners. The interactions found by MS were validated by immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assays. The conducted research employed an array of genetic, biochemical and pharmacological approaches, including: PAR-3, Syndecan-4 and Tiam1 silencing, active Rac1 GEFs affinity precipitation, and video microscopy. RESULTS:We identified PAR-3 as a Syndecan-4-binding protein. Its interaction depended on the carboxy-terminal EFYA sequence present on Syndecan-4. In astrocytes where PAR-3 expression was reduced, Thy-1-induced cell migration and focal adhesion disassembly was impaired. This effect was associated with a sustained Focal Adhesion Kinase activation in the siRNA-PAR-3 treated cells. Our data also show that Thy-1/CD90 activates Tiam1, a PAR-3 effector. Additionally, we found that after Syndecan-4 silencing, Tiam1 activation was decreased and it was no longer recruited to the membrane. Syndecan-4/PAR-3 interaction and the alteration in focal adhesion dynamics were validated in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells, thereby identifying this novel Syndecan-4/PAR-3 signaling complex as a general mechanism for mesenchymal cell migration involved in Thy-1/CD90 stimulation. CONCLUSIONS:The newly identified Syndecan-4/PAR-3 signaling complex participates in Thy-1/CD90-induced focal adhesion disassembly in mesenchymal cells. The mechanism involves focal adhesion kinase dephosphorylation and Tiam1 activation downstream of Syndecan-4/PAR-3 signaling complex formation. Additionally, PAR-3 is defined here as a novel adhesome-associated component with an essential role in focal adhesion disassembly during polarized cell migration. These novel findings uncover signaling mechanisms regulating cell migration, thereby opening up new avenues for future research on Syndecan-4/PAR-3 signaling in processes such as wound healing and scarring.