Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase promotes survival of cardiac myocytes after oxidative stress.
ABSTRACT: Reperfusion injury occurs when ischaemic tissue is reperfused. It involves the generation and release of reactive oxygen that activates numerous signalling pathways and initiates cell death. Exposure of isolated cardiac myocytes to chronic hypoxia followed by reoxygenation results in the early activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and death by apoptosis of approx. 30% of the myocytes. Although JNK activation has been described in a number of models of ischaemia/reperfusion, the contribution of JNK activation to cell fate has not been established. Here we report that the activation of JNK by reoxygenation correlates with myocyte survival. Transfection of myocytes with JNK pathway interfering plasmid vectors or infection with adenoviral vectors support the hypothesis that JNK is protective. Transfection or infection with JNK inhibitory mutants increased the rates of apoptosis by almost 2-fold compared with control cultures grown aerobically or subjected to hypoxia and reoxygenation. Caspase 9 activity, measured by LEHD cleavage, increased >3-fold during reoxygenation and this activity was enhanced significantly at all times in cultures infected with dominant negative JNK adenovirus. Hypoxia-reoxygenation mediated a biphasic (2.6- and 2.9-fold) activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, as well as a small increase of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) secretion, but treatments with the p38 MAPK-specific inhibitor SB203580 or saturating levels of a TNFalpha-1 blocking antibody provided only partial protection against apoptosis. The results suggest that JNK activation is protective and that the pathway is largely independent of p38 MAPK or secreted TNFalpha.
Project description:BACKGROUND:AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) is a stress-activated kinase that protects against cardiomyocyte injury during ischemia and reperfusion. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), a mitogen activated protein kinase, is activated by ischemia and reperfusion. NF-?B is an important transcription factor involved in ischemia and reperfusion injury. METHODS AND RESULTS:The intrinsic activation of AMPK attenuates the inflammation which occurred during ischemia/reperfusion through the modulation of the JNK mediated NF-?B signaling pathway. Rat cardiac myoblast H9c2 cells were subjected to hypoxia and/or reoxygenation to investigate the signal transduction that occurred during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. Mitochondrial function was measured by the Seahorse XF24 V7 PS system. Hypoxia treatment triggered AMPK activation in H9c2 cells in a time dependent manner. The inhibition of hypoxic AMPK activation through a pharmacological approach (Compound C) or siRNA knockdown of AMPK ? catalytic subunits caused dramatic augmentation in JNK activation, inflammatory NF-?B phosphorylation, and apoptosis during hypoxia and reoxygenation. Inhibition of AMPK activation significantly impaired mitochondrial function and increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during hypoxia and reoxygenation. In contrast, pharmacological activation of AMPK by metformin significantly inhibited mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening and ROS generation. Moreover, AMPK activation significantly attenuated the JNK-NF-?B signaling cascade and inhibited mRNA and protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-? and IL-6, during hyopoxia/reoxygenation in H9c2 cells. Intriguingly, both pharmacologic inhibition of JNK by JNK-IN-8 and siRNA knockdown of JNK signaling pathway attenuated NF-?B phosphorylation and apoptosis but did not affect AMPK activation in response to hypoxia and reoxygenation. CONCLUSIONS:AMPK activation modulates JNK-NF-?B signaling cascade during hypoxia and reoxygenation stress conditions. Cardiac AMPK activation plays a critical role in maintaining mitochondrial function and inhibiting the inflammatory response caused by ischemic insults.
Project description:Background After acute myocardial infarction, the recovery of ischemic myocardial blood flow may cause myocardial reperfusion injury, which reduces the efficacy of myocardial reperfusion. Ways to reduce and prevent myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are of great clinical significance in the treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction. TRAF1 (tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1) is an important adapter protein that is implicated in molecular events regulating immunity, inflammation, and cell death. Little is known about the role and impact of TRAF1 in myocardial I/R injury. Methods and Results TRAF1 expression is markedly induced in wild-type mice and cardiomyocytes after I/R or hypoxia/reoxygenation stimulation. I/R models were established in TRAF1 knockout mice and wild type mice (n=10 per group). We demonstrated that TRAF1 deficiency protects against myocardial I/R-induced loss of heat function, inflammation, and cardiomyocyte death. In addition, overexpression of TRAF1 in primary cardiomyocytes promotes hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced inflammation and apoptosis in vitro. Mechanistically, TRAF1 promotes myocardial I/R injury through regulating ASK1 (apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1)-mediated JNK/p38 (c-Jun N-terminal kinase/p38) MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascades. Conclusions Our results indicated that TRAF1 aggravates the development of myocardial I/R injury by enhancing the activation of ASK1-mediated JNK/p38 cascades. Targeting the TRAF1-ASK1-JNK/p38 pathway provide feasible therapies for cardiac I/R injury.
Project description:Stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha) binding to its cognate receptor, CXCR4, regulates a variety of cellular functions such as stem cell homing, trafficking, and differentiation. However, the role of the SDF-1alpha-CXCR4 axis in modulating myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury is unknown.In mice subjected to ischemic preconditioning, myocardial SDF-1alpha mRNA was found to be increased 3 hours later (P<0.05). Myocardial SDF-1alpha and CXCR4 mRNA and protein were found to be expressed in both cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts. SDF-1alpha production increased significantly after 1 or 4 hours of hypoxia and 18 hours of reoxygenation in cultured myocytes (P<0.05) but did not change in fibroblast cultures. In isolated myocytes, CXCR4 activation by SDF-1alpha resulted in increased phosphorylation of both ERK 1/2 and AKT and decreased phosphorylation of JNK and p38. Cultured myocytes pretreated with SDF-1alpha were resistant to hypoxia/reoxygenation damage, exhibiting less lactate dehydrogenase release, trypan blue uptake, and apoptotic cell death (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay) (P<0.05). This protective effect was blocked by the CXCR4 selective antagonist AMD3100. In vivo, administration of SDF-1alpha before 30 minutes of coronary occlusion followed by 4 hours of reperfusion decreased infarct size (P<0.05). The decrease in infarct size with SDF-1alpha administration also was blocked by AMD3100.We conclude that SDF-1alpha and its receptor, CXCR4, constitute a paracrine or autocrine axis in cardiac myocytes that is activated in response to preconditioning and hypoxic stimuli, recruiting the antiapoptotic kinases ERK and AKT and promoting an antiapoptotic program that confers protection against ischemia/reperfusion damage.
Project description:Oxidative stress plays a critical role in ischemia/reperfusion-injury, atherosclerosis, and aging. It causes cell damage that leads to apoptosis via uncertain mechanisms. Because conditioned medium from cardiac myocytes subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation induces extensive apoptosis of cardiac myocytes under normoxia, we hypothesized that a humoral factor released from the hypoxic/reoxygenated cardiac myocytes mediates apoptosis. We identified an apoptosis-inducing humoral factor in the hypoxia/reoxygenation-conditioned medium. Here, we found that eIF5A undergoes tyrosine sulfation in the trans-Golgi and is rapidly secreted from cardiac myocytes in response to hypoxia/reoxygenation; then, eIF5A induces apoptosis by acting as a pro-apoptotic ligand. The apoptosis of cardiac myocytes induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation or ultraviolet irradiation was suppressed by anti-eIF5A neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in vitro. Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (but not ischemia alone) markedly increased the plasma levels of eIF5A, and treatment with anti-eIF5A neutralizing mAbs significantly reduced myocardial injury. These results identify an important, novel specific biomarker and a critical therapeutic target for oxidative stress-induced cell injury.
Project description:Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major complication of reperfusion therapy in myocardial infarction. Ischemic myocardium produces a variety of peptides. We recently identified PDRPS7 as a novel peptide in cardiomyocytes that can be induced by hypoxia. However, the role of PDRPS7 is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of PDRPS7 on hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced injury in rat cardiomyoblast H9c2 cells and NRCMs. We found that PDRPS7 improved cell survival and attenuated lactate dehydrogenase leakage following H/R in H9c2 cells and NRCMs. PDRPS7 also alleviated H/R-induced pulsation reduction in NRCMs. Moreover, H/R-induced cell apoptosis was decreased in the presence of PDRPS7. H/R-induced reactive oxygen species generation was reduced by PDRPS7; in addition, PDRPS7 did not impact H2 O2 -induced cell injury. Signaling analysis demonstrated that H/R increased the phosphorylation levels of JNKs, ERKs, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases. However, PDRPS7 only attenuated H/R-induced JNK phosphorylation, but not phosphorylation of ERKs and p38. PDRPS7 protected cardiomyocytes from apoptosis by inhibiting JNK phosphorylation and c-Jun phosphorylation pathways, markedly upregulating anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression and inhibiting that of pro-apoptotic Bax and cleaved caspase-3. Importantly, pharmacological activation of JNKs diminished the protective effect of PDRPS7 in terms of cell survival against H/R stimulation. In summary, our study identified PDRPS7 as a novel cardioprotective peptide against H/R challenge and this action was mediated, at least in part, through inactivation of JNKs.
Project description:Ubiquitin-specific peptidase 10 (USP10) protein is a deubiquitination enzyme involved in many important biological processes. However, the function of USP10 in hepatic ischaemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the role of USP10 in hepatic I/R injury. USP10 Heterozygote mice and primary hepatocytes were used to construct hepatic I/R models. The effect of USP10 on hepatic I/R injury was examined via pathological and molecular analyses. Our results indicated that USP10 was significantly downregulated in the livers of mice after hepatic I/R injury and in hepatocytes subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation stimulation. USP10 Heterozygote mice exhibited exacerbated hepatic I/R injury, as evidenced by enhanced liver inflammation via the NF-?B signalling pathway and increased hepatocyte apoptosis. Additionally, USP10 overexpression inhibited hepatocyte inflammation and apoptosis in hepatic I/R injury in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, our study demonstrated that USP10 knockdown exerted its detrimental effects on hepatic I/R injury by inducing activation of the transforming growth factor ?-activated kinase 1 (TAK1)-JNK/p38 signalling pathways. TAK1 was required for USP10 function in hepatic I/R injury as TAK1 inhibition abolished USP10 function in vitro. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that USP10 plays a protective role in hepatic I/R injury by inhibiting the activation of the TAK1-JNK/p38 signalling pathways. Modulation of USP10/TAK1 might be a promising strategy to prevent this pathological process.
Project description:Irisin, a newly identified hormone, is critical to modulating body metabolism, thermogenesis and reducing oxidative stresses. However, whether irisin protects the heart against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury remains unknown. In this study, we determine the effect of irisin on myocardial I/R injury in the Langendorff perfused heart and cultured myocytes. Adult C57/BL6 mice were treated with irisin (100?mg/kg) or vehicle for 30?min to elicit preconditioning. The isolated hearts were subjected to 30?min ischemia followed by 30?min reperfusion. Left ventricular function was measured and infarction size were determined using by tetrazolium staining. Western blot was employed to determine myocardial SOD-1, active-caspase 3, annexin V, p38, and phospho-p38. H9c2 cardiomyoblasts were exposed to hypoxia and reoxygenation for assessment of the effects of irisin on mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Irisin treatment produced remarkable improvements in ventricular functional recovery, as evident by the increase in RPP and attenuation in LVEDP. As compared to the vehicle treatment, irisin resulted in a marked reduction of myocardial infarct size. Notably, irisin treatment increased SOD-1 and p38 phosphorylation, but suppressed levels of active-caspase 3, cleaved PARP, and annexin V. In cardiomyoblasts exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation, irisin treatment significantly attenuated hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R), as indicated by the reduction of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and apoptotic cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, irisin treatments suppressed the opening of mPTP, mitochondrial swelling, and protected mitochondria function. Our results indicate that irisin serves as a novel approach to eliciting cardioprotection, which is associated with the improvement of mitochondrial function.
Project description:Diabetes impedes vascular repair and causes vasoregression in the brain after stroke, but mechanisms underlying this response are still unclear. We hypothesized that excess peroxynitrite formation in diabetic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury inactivates the p85 subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) by nitration and diverts the PI3K-Akt survival signal to the p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase apoptosis pathway. Nitrotyrosine (NY), Akt and p38 activity, p85 nitration, and caspase-3 cleavage were measured in brains from control, diabetic (GK), or metformin-treated GK rats subjected to sham or stroke surgery and in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs) from Wistar and GK rats subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. GK rat brains showed increased NY, caspase-3 cleavage, and p38 activation and decreased Akt activation. Metformin attenuated stroke-induced nitrative signaling in GK rats. GK rat BMVECs showed increased basal nitrative stress compared with controls. A second hit by hypoxia/reoxygenation injury dramatically increased the nitration of p85 and activation of p38 but decreased Akt. These effects were associated with impairment of angiogenic response and were restored by treatment with the peroxynitrite scavenger 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrinato iron III chloride or the nitration inhibitor epicatechin. Our results provide evidence that I/R-induced peroxynitrite inhibits survival, induces apoptosis, and promotes peroxynitrite as a novel therapeutic target for the improvement of reparative angiogenesis after stroke in diabetes.
Project description:Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide peptide (GLPP) scavenges oxygen free radicals that are a key factor in the pathogenesis of renal ischemia reperfusion injury (RIRI). The aim of this study was to determine whether GLPP could attenuate RIRI by counteracting the oxidative stress. The mechanism involved was assessed by an in vivo mouse RIRI model and an in vitro hypoxia/reoxygenation model, and tunicamycin-stimulated NRK-52E cells were used to explore the GLPP-mediated alleviation of ER stress. Experimental results showed that renal dysfunction and morphological damage were reduced in GLPP-treated group. The imbalance of redox status was reversed and production of ROS was reduced by GLPP. RIRI-induced mitochondrial- and ER stress-dependent apoptosis were dramatically inhibited in GLPP-treated group. Intriguingly, JNK activation in the kidney with RIRI or hypoxia/reoxygenation was inhibited by GLPP. These results suggest that the protective effect of GLPP against RIRI may be due to reducing oxidative stress, alleviating the mitochondrial and ER stress-dependent apoptosis caused by excessive ROS.
Project description:Daxx is a regulatory protein for apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) which activates c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 pathways in response to stressors such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha). Here, we show that TNFalpha treatment induces the accumulation of Daxx protein through ASK1 activation by preventing its proteasome-dependent degradation. ASK1 directly phosphorylates Daxx at Ser(176) and Ser(184) and Daxx is required for the sustained activation of JNK. Tumorigenic mutant p53, which binds to Daxx and inhibits Daxx-dependent activation of ASK1, prevents Daxx phosphorylation and stabilization. When mutant p53 was depleted in cancer cells, Daxx was accumulated and the cell-killing effect of TNFalpha was restored. Our results indicate that Daxx not only activates ASK1 but also is a downstream target of ASK1 and that accumulated Daxx further activates ASK1. Thus, the Daxx-ASK1 positive feedback loop amplifying JNK/p38 signaling plays an important role in the cell-killing effects of stressors, such as TNFalpha. Tumorigenic mutant p53 disrupts this circuit and makes cells more tolerable to stresses, as its gain-of-function mechanism.