Anti-microbial properties of histone H2A from skin secretions of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.
ABSTRACT: Skin exudates of rainbow trout contain a potent 13.6 kDa anti-microbial protein which, from partial internal amino acid sequencing, peptide mass fingerprinting, matrix-associated laser desorption/ionization MS and amino acid analysis, seems to be histone H2A, acetylated at the N-terminus. The protein, purified to homogeneity by ion-exchange and reversed-phase chromatography, exhibits powerful anti-bacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with minimal inhibitory concentrations in the submicromolar range. Kinetic analysis revealed that at a concentration of 0.3 microM all test bacteria lose viability after 30 min incubation. Weaker activity is also displayed against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The protein is salt-sensitive and has no haemolytic activity towards trout erythrocytes at concentrations below 0.3 microM. Reconstitution of the protein in a planar lipid bilayer strongly disturbs the membrane but does not form stable ion channels, indicating that its anti-bacterial activity is probably not due to pore-forming properties. This is the first report to show that, in addition to its classical function in the cell, histone H2A has extremely strong anti-microbial properties and could therefore help contribute to protection against bacterial invasion.
Project description:The partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of the antimicrobial peptide reported in the present paper has been submitted to the TrEMBL database under the accession number P83338. A 6.7 kDa antimicrobial peptide was isolated from trout skin secretions using acid extraction followed by cation-exchange chromatography, (t)C(18) solid-phase extraction, and C(18) reversed-phase HPLC. The molecular mass of this peptide, which is tentatively named oncorhyncin III, is 6671 Da, as determined by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization MS. N-terminal amino acid sequencing revealed that the first 13 residues of oncorhyncin III are identical with those of the non-histone chromosomal protein H6 from rainbow trout. Hence these data combined with the MS results indicate that oncorhyncin III is likely to be a cleavage product of the non-histone chromosomal protein H6 (residues 1-66) and that it probably contains two methylated residues or one double methylation. The purified peptide exhibits potent antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with minimal inhibitory concentrations in the submicromolar range. The peptide is sensitive to NaCl, and displays no haemolytic activity towards trout erythrocytes at concentrations below 1 microM. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that oncorhyncin III does not cause direct disruption of bacterial cells. Reconstitution of the peptide in planar lipid bilayers strongly disturbs the membranes, but does not induce the formation of stable ion channels. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that oncorhyncin III plays a role in mucosal innate host defence.
Project description:First proposed as antimicrobial agents, histones were later recognized for their role in condensing chromosomes. Histone antimicrobial activity has been reported in innate immune responses. However, how histones kill bacteria has remained elusive. The co-localization of histones with antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in immune cells suggests that histones may be part of a larger antimicrobial mechanism in vivo. Here we report that histone H2A enters E. coli and S. aureus through membrane pores formed by the AMPs LL-37 and magainin-2. H2A enhances AMP-induced pores, depolarizes the bacterial membrane potential, and impairs membrane recovery. Inside the cytoplasm, H2A reorganizes bacterial chromosomal DNA and inhibits global transcription. Whereas bacteria recover from the pore-forming effects of LL-37, the concomitant effects of H2A and LL-37 are irrecoverable. Their combination constitutes a positive feedback loop that exponentially amplifies their antimicrobial activities, causing antimicrobial synergy. More generally, treatment with H2A and the pore-forming antibiotic polymyxin B completely eradicates bacterial growth.
Project description:The induction of oxidation and conjugation enzymes, the scavenging of carcinogen electrophiles, and the inhibition of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) activation were examined as possible mechanisms of anti-carcinogenesis by indole-3-carbinol (I3C). Liver microsomal 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activities were not induced significantly in rainbow trout fed diets containing 500-2000 ppm I3C for 8 days compared to trout fed the control diet. Furthermore, no detectable changes in the specific contents of cytochrome P-450 isozymes LM2 and LM4b, as measured by Western-blotting and immunoquantitation, were found in liver microsomes following dietary I3C administration. Dietary I3C had no significant effect on liver microsomal uridine diphosphate-glucuronyl-transferase activity, measured using the substrates 1-naphthol and testosterone, or on cytosolic glutathione S-transferase activity, measured using the substrate styrene oxide. The ability of I3C or its acid reaction products (RXM; generated by the reaction of I3C with HCl) to act as scavengers for the direct alkylating agent AFB1-8,9-Cl2 was examined. Addition of I3C or RXM to in vitro incubations did not inhibit the covalent binding of AFB1-8,9-Cl2 to calf thymus DNA. Kinetic analyses of microsome-mediated binding of AFB1 to DNA in vitro indicated that RXM inhibited the metabolic activation of AFB1. RXM increased the apparent Km for the AFB1-DNA binding reaction without changing the associated Vmax; the apparent Km values at 0, 3.5, 35, and 350 microM RXM were 35, 38, 66, and 86 microM for trout liver microsomes. RXM also inhibited the activation of AFB1 by rat liver microsomes, but I3C was not an effective inhibitor against AFB1-DNA binding mediated by either rat or trout liver microsomes. The results of the present study indicate that inhibition of microsome-activated AFB1 binding to DNA by I3C products may be of significant importance in I3C inhibition of hepatocarcinogenesis in trout and other species. The inhibition of carcinogen activation by I3C is contrasted with the mechanism of anti-carcinogenesis by beta-naphthoflavone, which involves induction of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes.
Project description:A series of 7-deazaneplanocin A (7-DNPA, 2) analogues were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro antiviral activity against HBV and HCV. The syntheses of target carbocyclic nucleosides were accomplished via a convergent procedure. 7-Substitutions were introduced by using 7-substituted-7-deaza heterocyclic base precursors (F, Cl, Br, and I) or via substitution reactions after the synthesis of the carbocyclic nucleosides. Among the synthesized compounds, 2, 13-15, 24, and 27 exhibited significant anti-HCV activity (EC(50) ranged from 1.8 to 20.1 microM) and compounds 2, 15, 22, and 24 demonstrated moderate to potent anti-HBV activity (EC(50) = 0.3-3.3 microM). In addition, compound 24 also showed activity against lamivudine- and adefovir-associated HBV mutants.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus, a human pathogen associated with many illnesses and post-surgical infections, can resist treatment due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains and through biofilm formation. The current treatments for chronic biofilm infections are antibiotics and/or surgical removal of the contaminated medical device. Due to higher morbidity and mortality rates associated with overuse/misuse of antibiotics, alternate treatments are essential. This study reports the antibiofilm activity of avian erythrocyte histones against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy revealed membrane damage to bacteria in histone-treated biofilms. Histones and indolicidin (positive control) increased the expression of apsS and apsR, which are associated with the Antimicrobial Peptide (AMP) sensor/regulator system in S. aureus. The expression of dltB, and vraF, associated with AMP resistance mechanisms, were under histone inducible control in the biofilm-embedded bacterial cells. The time kill kinetics for histones against S. aureus revealed a rapid biocidal activity (<5?min). Purified erythrocyte-specific histone H5 possessed 3-4 fold enhanced antimicrobial activity against planktonic cells compared to the histone mixture (H1, H2A, H2B, H3, H4, H5). These results demonstrate the promise of histones and histone-like derivatives as novel antibiotics against pathogens in their planktonic and biofilm forms.
Project description:Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play an important role in the innate defense mechanisms in humans and animals. We have isolated and studied a set of antimicrobial peptides from leukocytes of the Russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii belonging to a subclass of chondrosteans, an ancient group of bony fish. Structural analysis of the isolated peptides, designated as acipensins (Ac), revealed in leukocytes of the Russian sturgeon six novel peptides with molecular masses of 5336.2 Da, 3803.0 Da, 5173.0 Da, 4777.5 Da, 5449.4 Da, and 2740.2 Da, designated as Ac1-Ac6, respectively. Complete primary structures of all the isolated peptides were determined, and the biological activities of three major components - Ac1, Ac2, and Ac6 - were examined. The peptides Ac1, Ac2, Ac3, Ac4, and Ac5 were found to be the N-terminal acetylated fragments 1-0, 1-5, 1-9, 1-4, and 1-1 of the histone H2A, respectively, while Ac6 was shown to be the 62-5 fragment of the histone H2A. The peptides Ac1 and Ac2 displayed potent antimicrobial activity towards Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria (Escherichia coli ML35p, Listeria monocytogenes EGD, MRSA ATCC 33591) and the fungus Candida albicans 820, while Ac6 proved effective only against Gram-negative bacteria. The efficacy of Ac 1 and Ac2 towards the fungus and MRSA was reduced upon an increase in the ionic strength of the solution. Ac1, Ac2, and Ac6, at concentrations close to their minimum inhibitory concentrations, enhanced the permeability of the E.coli ML35p outer membrane to the chromogenic marker, but they did not affect appreciably the permeability of the bacterial inner membrane in comparison with a potent pore-forming peptide, protegrin 1. Ac1, Ac2, and Ac6 revealed no hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes at concentrations of 1 to 40 μM and had no cytotoxic effect (1 to 20 μM) on K-562 and U-937 cells in vitro. Our findings suggest that histone-derived peptides serve as important anti-infective host defense molecules.
Project description:In the eukaryotic nucleus, DNA is packaged in the form of nucleosomes, each of which comprises about 147 base pairs of DNA wrapped around a histone protein octamer. The position and histone composition of nucleosomes is governed by ATP-dependent chromatin remodellers1-3 such as the 15-subunit INO80 complex 4 . INO80 regulates gene expression, DNA repair and replication by sliding nucleosomes, the exchange of histone H2A.Z with H2A, and the positioning of?+?1 and -1 nucleosomes at promoter DNA5-8. The structures and mechanisms of these remodelling reactions are currently unknown. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of the evolutionarily conserved core of the INO80 complex from the fungus Chaetomium thermophilum bound to a nucleosome, at a global resolution of 4.3?Å and with major parts at 3.7?Å. The INO80 core cradles one entire gyre of the nucleosome through multivalent DNA and histone contacts. An Rvb1/Rvb2 AAA+ ATPase heterohexamer is an assembly scaffold for the complex and acts as a 'stator' for the motor and nucleosome-gripping subunits. The Swi2/Snf2 ATPase motor binds to nucleosomal DNA at superhelical location -6, unwraps approximately 15 base pairs, disrupts the H2A-DNA contacts and is poised to pump entry DNA into the nucleosome. Arp5 and Ies6 bind superhelical locations -2 and -3 to act as a counter grip for the motor, on the other side of the H2A-H2B dimer. The Arp5 insertion domain forms a grappler element that binds the nucleosome dyad, connects the Arp5 actin-fold and entry DNA over a distance of about 90?Å and packs against histone H2A-H2B near the 'acidic patch'. Our structure together with biochemical data 8 suggests a unified mechanism for nucleosome sliding and histone editing by INO80. The motor is part of a macromolecular ratchet, persistently pumping entry DNA across the H2A-H2B dimer against the Arp5 grip until a large nucleosome translocation step occurs. The transient exposure of H2A-H2B by motor activity as well as differential recognition of H2A.Z and H2A may regulate histone exchange.
Project description:The eukaryotic histone heterodimer H2A-H2B folds through an obligatory dimeric intermediate that forms in a nearly diffusion-limited association reaction in the stopped-flow dead time. It is unclear whether there is partial folding of the isolated monomers before association. To address the possible contributions of structure in the monomers to the rapid association, we characterized H2A and H2B monomers in the absence of their heterodimeric partner. By far-UV circular dichroism, the H2A and H2B monomers are 15% and 31% helical, respectively--significantly less than observed in X-ray crystal structures. Acrylamide quenching of the intrinsic Tyr fluorescence was indicative of tertiary structure. The H2A and H2B monomers exhibit free energies of unfolding of 2.5 and 2.9 kcal mol(-1), respectively; at 10 microM, the sum of the stability of the monomers is approximately 60% of the stability of the native dimer. The helical content, stability, and m values indicate that H2B has a more stable, compact structure than H2A. The monomer m values are larger than expected for the extended histone fold motif, suggesting that the monomers adopt an overly collapsed structure. Stopped-flow refolding-initiated from urea-denatured monomers or the partially folded monomers populated at low denaturant concentrations-yielded essentially identical rates, indicating that monomer folding is productive in the rapid association and folding of the heterodimer. A series of Ala and Gly mutations were introduced into H2A and H2B to probe the importance of helix propensity on the structure and stability of the monomers. The mutational studies show that the central alpha-helix of the histone fold, which makes extensive intermonomer contacts, is structured in H2B but only partially folded in H2A.
Project description:Genome replication, transcription and repair require the assembly/disassembly of the nucleosome. Histone chaperones are regulators of this process by preventing formation of non-nucleosomal histone-DNA complexes. Aprataxin and polynucleotide kinase like factor (APLF) is a non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA repair factor that possesses histone chaperone activity in its acidic domain (APLFAD). Here, we studied the molecular basis of this activity using biochemical and structural methods. We find that APLFAD is intrinsically disordered and binds histone complexes (H3-H4)2 and H2A-H2B specifically and with high affinity. APLFAD prevents unspecific complex formation between H2A-H2B and DNA in a chaperone assay, establishing for the first time its specific histone chaperone function for H2A-H2B. On the basis of a series of nuclear magnetic resonance studies, supported by mutational analysis, we show that the APLFAD histone binding domain uses two aromatic side chains to anchor to the ?1-?2 patches on both H2A and H2B, thereby covering most of their DNA-interaction surface. An additional binding site on both APLFAD and H2A-H2B may be involved in the handoff between APLF and DNA or other chaperones. Together, our data support the view that APLF provides not only a scaffold but also generic histone chaperone activity for the NHEJ-complex.
Project description:Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are humoral innate immune components of fishes that provide protection against pathogenic infections. Histone derived antimicrobial peptides are reported to actively participate in the immune defenses of fishes. Present study deals with identification of putative antimicrobial sequences from the histone H2A of sicklefin chimaera, Neoharriotta pinnata. A 52 amino acid residue termed Harriottin-1, a 40 amino acid Harriottin-2, and a 21 mer Harriottin-3 were identified to possess antimicrobial sequence motif. Physicochemical properties and molecular structure of Harriottins are in agreement with the characteristic features of antimicrobial peptides, indicating its potential role in innate immunity of sicklefin chimaera. The histone H2A sequence of sicklefin chimera was found to differ from previously reported histone H2A sequences. Phylogenetic analysis based on histone H2A and cytochrome oxidase subunit-1 (CO1) gene revealed N. pinnata to occupy an intermediate position with respect to invertebrates and vertebrates.