Protein kinase A translocation and insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells: studies with adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis.
ABSTRACT: Activation of protein kinase A (cAMP-dependent protein kinase; PKA) triggers insulin secretion in the beta-cell. Adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT), a bacterial exotoxin with adenylate cyclase activity, and forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase, both dose-dependently increased insulin secretion in the presence, but not the absence, of glucose in insulin-secreting betaTC3 cells. The stimulation of cAMP release by either agent was dose-dependent but glucose-independent. Omission of extracellular Ca(2+) totally abolished the effects of ACT on insulin secretion and cytosolic cAMP accumulation. ACT and forskolin caused rapid and dramatic increases in cytosolic Ca(2+), which were blocked by nifedipine and the omission of extracellular Ca(2+). Omission of glucose completely blocked the effects of forskolin and partially blocked the effects of ACT on cytosolic Ca(2+). PKA alpha, beta and gamma catalytic subunits (Calpha, Cbeta and Cgamma respectively) were identified in betaTC6 cells by confocal microscopy. Glucose and glucagon-like polypeptide-1 (GLP-1) caused translocation of Calpha to the nucleus and of Cbeta to the plasma membrane and the nucleus, but did not affect the distribution of Cgamma. In conclusion, glucose and GLP-1 amplify insulin secretion via cAMP production and PKAbeta activation.
Project description:In the present study, Western-blot and radioreceptor analyses have revealed the presence of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor in pancreatic acinar membranes. Isolated pancreatic acinar membranes, which allow access of functional antibodies to individual components of the signal transduction cascade, were used to examine EGF-induced regulation of adenylate cyclase activity. Forskolin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and to a smaller extent EGF increased cAMP production in pancreatic acinar membranes. Preincubation of the membranes with anti-GS alpha antibody abolished EGF- and VIP-induced cAMP production, but had no effect on forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation. In the presence of either VIP or forskolin, EGF inhibited the VIP- and forskolin-induced cAMP production with an IC50 of 5 nM. Anti-G alpha i1-2 protein antibody, but not anti-G alpha i3 antibody, increased basal cAMP production, indicating that Gi proteins exert an inhibitory influence on basal adenylate cyclase activity. Anti-G alpha i1-2 antibody, but not anti-G alpha i3 antibody, abolished the inhibitory effect of EGF on the forskolin- and VIP-induced cAMP accumulation. A peptide corresponding to the juxtamembrane region in the cytosolic domain of the rat EGF receptor increased cAMP production in pancreatic acinar membranes in an anti-G alpha s antibody-sensitive fashion, whereas the EGF receptor peptide did not mimic the inhibitory effect of the native EGF receptor. The tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and pp60v-src (137-157) inhibited both the stimulatory and the inhibitory effects of EGF on cAMP production. Thus the data of the present study show that EGF regulates adenylate cyclase via activation of Gs and Gi proteins by a tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent mechanism in pancreatic acinar membranes. This leads to stimulation of basal and inhibition of forskolin- and VIP-induced adenylate cyclase activity respectively.
Project description:The neuroprotective actions of PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) in vitro and in vivo suggest that activation of its cognate G protein coupled receptor PAC1 or downstream signaling molecules,and thus activation of PACAP target genes, could be of therapeutic benefit. Here, we show that cultured rat cortical neurons predominantly expressed the PAC1hop and null variants. PACAP receptor activation resulted in the elevation of the two second messengers cAMP and Ca(2+) and expression of the putative neuroprotectant stanniocalcin 1(STC1). PACAP signaling to the STC1 gene proceeded through the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2(ERK1/2), but not through the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), and was mimicked by the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin. PACAP- and forskolin-mediated activation of ERK1/2 occurred through cAMP, but not PKA.These results suggest that STC1 gene induction proceeds through cAMP and ERK1/2, independently of PKA, the canonical cAMP effector. In contrast, PACAP signaling to the BDNF gene proceeded through PKA, suggesting that two different neuroprotective cAMP pathways co-exist in differentiated cortical neurons. The selective activation of a potentially neuroprotective cAMP-dependent pathway different from the canonical cAMP pathway used in many physiological processes, such as memory storage, has implications for pharmacological activation of neuroprotection in vivo.
Project description:The cardioactive diterpene forskolin is a known activator of adenylate cyclase, but recently a specific interaction of this compound with the glucose transporter has been identified that results in the inhibition of glucose transport in several human and rat cell types. We have compared the sensitivity of basal and insulin-stimulated hexose transport to inhibition by forskolin in skeletal muscle cells of the L6 line. Forskolin completely inhibited both basal and insulin-stimulated hexose transport when present during the transport assay. The inhibition of basal transport was completely reversible upon removal of the diterpene. In contrast, insulin-stimulated hexose transport did not recover, and basal transport levels were attained instead. This effect of inhibiting (or reversing) the insulin-stimulated fraction of transport is a novel effect of the diterpene. Forskolin treatment also inhibited the stimulated fraction of transport when the stimulus was by 4 beta-phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, reversing back to basal levels. Half-maximal inhibition of the above-basal insulin-stimulated transport was achieved with 35-50 microM-forskolin, and maximal inhibition with 100 microM. Forskolin did not inhibit 125I-insulin binding under conditions where it caused significant inhibition of insulin-stimulated hexose transport. Forskolin significantly elevated the cyclic AMP levels in the cells; however its inhibitory effect on the above basal, insulin-stimulated fraction of hexose transport was not mediated by cyclic AMP since: (i) 8-bromo cyclic AMP and cholera toxin did not mimic this effect of the diterpene, (ii) significant decreases in cyclic AMP levels caused by 2',3'-dideoxyadenosine in the presence of forskolin did not prevent inhibition of insulin-stimulated hexose transport, (iii) isobutylmethylxanthine did not potentiate forskolin effects on glucose transport but did potentiate the elevation in cyclic AMP, and (iv) 1,9-dideoxyforskolin, which does not activate adenylate cyclase, inhibited hexose transport analogously to forskolin. We conclude that forskolin can selectively inhibit the insulin- and phorbol ester-stimulated fraction of hexose transport under conditions where basal transport is unimpaired. The results are compatible with the suggestions that glucose transporters operating in the stimulated state (insulin or phorbol ester-stimulated) differ in their sensitivity to forskolin from transporters operating in the basal state, or, alternatively, that a forskolin-sensitive signal maintains the stimulated transport rate.
Project description:Increasing evidence suggests that ethanol-induced changes in cyclic AMP (cAMP) signal transduction play a critical role in the acute and chronic effects of ethanol. Here we have investigated the effects of ethanol on cAMP signal transduction in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Acute exposure to ethanol had a biphasic effect on glucagon-receptor-dependent cAMP production in intact cells: 25-50 mM-ethanol decreased cAMP, whereas treatment with 100-200 mM-ethanol increased cAMP. After chronic exposure to 50-200 mM-ethanol for 48 h in culture, glucagon-receptor-dependent cAMP levels were increased, but no change in glucagon receptor number was observed. These effects of ethanol were independent of ethanol oxidation. Chronic ethanol treatment also increased adenosine-receptor- and forskolin-stimulated cAMP production. Increased cAMP production was also observed upon stimulation of adenylate cyclase with glucagon, forskolin and F- in membranes isolated from cells cultured with 100 mM-ethanol for 48 h. However, no differences were observed in basal and MnCl2-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. The quantity of alpha i protein was decreased by 35% after chronic ethanol treatment, but no change in the quantity of alpha s protein was detected. Decreased alpha i protein was associated with a decrease in G(i) function, as assessed by the ability of 0.1 nM-guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate and 1 microM-somatostatin to inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. Taken together, these results suggest that chronic exposure to ethanol increases receptor-dependent cAMP production in hepatocytes by decreasing the quantity of alpha i protein at the plasma membrane and thereby decreasing the inhibitory effects of G(i) on adenylate cyclase activity.
Project description:Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is known to play a key role in regulating insulin action, and it is well documented that in several cases of physiological insulin resistance its concentration is increased. Since late pregnancy in the rat is associated with liver insulin resistance, we have studied possible alterations of some cellular mechanisms regulating the cAMP metabolism. (1) Liver cAMP concentration was shown to be increased by some 30% and 50% at 18 and 22 days of pregnancy respectively, compared with virgins. (2) Basal adenylate cyclase activity was higher only in the 18-days-pregnant rat, and the forskolin-stimulated maximal activity was similar in the three groups of animals. (3) alpha s protein is decreased in term-pregnant rats; however, coupling between Gs and adenylate cyclase is only impaired in the 18-days-pregnant animals, and stimulation by glucagon is impaired in both groups of pregnant animals. (4) Gi-2 protein was shown to be unable to elicit the tonic inhibition of adenylate cyclase in pregnant rats, although it was only decreased at 22 days of gestation. The increased alpha i-2 level detected by immunoblotting at 18 days of gestation did not correlate with its decreased ADP-ribosylation, suggesting that the protein is somehow modified at this stage. (5) Pregnancy is associated with a decrease in membrane phosphodiesterase activity. Our results show that late pregnancy is associated with increases in liver cAMP levels that might be involved in eliciting the characteristic insulin-resistant state, and suggest that mechanisms leading to these increments are changing during this phase of gestation.
Project description:In early studies, both cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cGMP were considered as potential secondary messengers regulating the conductivity of the vertebrate photoreceptor plasma membrane. Later discovery of the cGMP specificity of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels has shifted attention to cGMP as the only secondary messenger in the phototransduction cascade, and cAMP is not considered in modern schemes of phototransduction. Here, we report evidence that cAMP may also be involved in regulation of the phototransduction cascade. Using a suction pipette technique, we recorded light responses of isolated solitary rods from the frog retina in normal solution and in the medium containing 2 µM of adenylate cyclase activator forskolin. Under forskolin action, flash sensitivity rose more than twofold because of a retarded photoresponse turn-off. The same concentration of forskolin lead to a 2.5-fold increase in the rod outer segment cAMP, which is close to earlier reported natural day/night cAMP variations. Detailed analysis of cAMP action on the phototransduction cascade suggests that several targets are affected by cAMP increase: (a) basal dark phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity decreases; (b) at the same intensity of light background, steady background-induced PDE activity increases; (c) at light backgrounds, guanylate cyclase activity at a given fraction of open channels is reduced; and (d) the magnitude of the Ca(2+) exchanger current rises 1.6-fold, which would correspond to a 1.6-fold elevation of [Ca(2+)](in). Analysis by a complete model of rod phototransduction suggests that an increase of [Ca(2+)](in) might also explain effects (b) and (c). The mechanism(s) by which cAMP could regulate [Ca(2+)](in) and PDE basal activity is unclear. We suggest that these regulations may have adaptive significance and improve the performance of the visual system when it switches between day and night light conditions.
Project description:The mechanisms whereby activation of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A or the Ca2+-phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C amplifies insulin release were studied with mouse islets. Forskolin and the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) were used to stimulate adenylate cyclase and protein kinase C respectively. The sulphonylurea tolbutamide was used to initiate insulin release in the presence of 3 mM-glucose. Tolbutamide alone inhibited 86Rb+ efflux, depolarized beta-cell membrane, triggered electrical activity, accelerated 45Ca2+ influx and efflux and stimulated insulin release. Forskolin alone only slightly inhibited 86Rb+ efflux, but markedly increased the effects of tolbutamide on electrical activity, 45Ca2+ influx and efflux, and insulin release. In the absence of Ca2+, only the inhibition of 86Rb+ efflux persisted. TPA (100 nM) alone slightly accelerated 45Ca2+ efflux and insulin release without affecting 45Ca2+ influx or beta-cell membrane potential. It increased the effects of tolbutamide on 45Ca2+ efflux and insulin release without changing 86Rb+ efflux, 45Ca2+ influx or electrical activity. Omission of extracellular Ca2+ suppressed all effects due to the combination of TPA and tolbutamide, but not those of TPA alone. Though ineffective alone, 10 nM-TPA amplified the releasing action of tolbutamide without affecting its ionic and electrical effects. In conclusion, the two amplification systems of insulin release involve at least partially distinct mechanisms. The cyclic AMP but not the protein kinase C system initiating signal (Ca2+ influx) triggered by the primary secretagogue.
Project description:1. The actions of the beta-adrenoceptor agonist isoprenaline on glucose and glycogen metabolism, in the presence of various concentrations of insulin, were investigated in isolated soleus muscle preparations taken from eu-, hyper- and hypothyroid rats. 2. Hyperthyroidism, induced by 3,3',5-tri-iodo-D-thyronine (T3) administration for 5 days, increased the rate of lactate formation and suppressed the rate of glycogen synthesis in soleus muscle in response to isoprenaline, even in the presence of physiological or supraphysiological insulin concentrations. 3. Hypothyroidism, induced by administration of 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil for 4 weeks, decreased the rate of isoprenaline-stimulated lactate formation at all insulin concentrations, but significantly decreased the responsiveness of lactate formation only at low insulin concentrations. In the presence of 100 or 10,000 mu-units of insulin/ml, the ability of isoprenaline to suppress the rate of glycogen synthesis was markedly impaired (inhibition at 100 mu-units of insulin/ml and 1 micro-M-isoprenaline: eu- 72.6 +/- 2.9%; hypo-41.0 +/- 2.1%; P less than 0.001). 4. Hyperthyroidism had no effect on the number or affinity of beta-adrenoceptors, defined by 125I-pindolol binding, or beta-adrenoceptor- or forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in membrane preparations of gastrocnemius muscle, whereas hypothyroidism increased the beta-adrenoceptor density and decreased the beta-adrenoceptor-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity, without affecting the receptor affinity or forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. 5. It is concluded that there is a complex interplay between insulin, catecholamines and thyroid hormones to regulate skeletal-muscle glucose metabolism. The changes observed in muscles in hypothyroidism may be explained, at least in part, by changes in beta-adrenoceptor-G-protein-adenylate cyclase coupling affecting the generation of cyclic AMP and the regulation of some of the key enzymes of glycogen metabolism; in contrast, the changes observed in muscles in hyperthyroidism do not appear to result from alterations at the level of the receptor-mediated second-messenger generation.
Project description:We have examined the mechanisms of cAMP-induced gallbladder relaxation by recording isometric tension and membrane potential in the intact tissue, and global intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) and F-actin content in isolated myocytes. Both the phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor, IBMX (100 microM) and the adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin (2 microM) caused decreases in basal tone that exhibited similar kinetics. IBMX and forskolin both caused concentration dependent, right-downward shifts in the concentration-response curves of KCl and cholecystokinin (CCK). IBMX and forskolin elicited a membrane hyperpolarization that was almost completely inhibited by the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (K(ATP)) channel blocker, glibenclamide (10 microM). IBMX also induced an increase in large-conductance Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) (BK) channel currents, although the simultaneous blockade of BK and K(ATP) channels did not block IBMX- and forskolin-induced relaxations. Ca(2+) influx activated by L-type Ca(2+) channel activation or store depletion was also impaired by IBMX and forskolin, indicating a general impairment in Ca(2+) entry mechanisms. IBMX also decreases [Ca(2+)](i) transients activated by CCK and 3,6-Di-O-Bt-IP(4)-PM, a membrane permeable analog of inositol triphosphate, indicating an impairment in Ca(2+) release through IP(3) receptors. Ionomycin-induced [Ca(2+)](i) transients were not altered by IBMX, but the contractile effects of the Ca(2+) ionophore were reduced in the presence of IBMX, suggesting that cAMP can decrease Ca(2+) sensitivity of the contractile apparatus. A depolymerization of the thin filament could be reason for this change, as forskolin induced a decrease in F-actin content. In conclusion, these findings suggest that multiple, redundant intracellular processes are affected by cAMP to induce gallbladder relaxation.
Project description:The adenylate cyclase system of normal mouse islets was characterized. The pH optimum of the system was 7.6. The enzyme preparation contained particulate phosphodiesterase activity. This could be removed by treatment with 0.4% (v/v) Triton X-100 or inhibited by 8mm-theophylline in the presence of 2mm-cyclic AMP (adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate). ATP at 0.32mm produced one-half maximal enzyme activity. The enzyme was stimulated in the presence of F(-) and strongly inhibited by Ca(2+). The isolated enzyme retained hormonal sensitivity and was stimulated by glucagon, pancreozymin and secretin at physiological concentrations. Glucose at 17mm, 8mm and 2mm had no direct effect on the activity of the enzyme; neither did galactose at the same concentrations. Groups of islets incubated in 17mm- or 2mm-glucose for 5 or 15min and then homogenized and assayed for adenylate cyclase activity showed no differences in adenylate cyclase activity. The results suggest that the mechanism of glucose-mediated insulin release is not via the adenylate cyclase system. Hormones, however, could mediate insulin secretion via their effects on the adenylate cyclase system.