Inhibition of oxygen evolution in Photosystem II by Cu(II) ions is associated with oxidation of cytochrome b559.
ABSTRACT: We have found that elevated copper concentrations, apart from the inhibition of oxygen evolution, changed the initial states distribution of the oxygen-evolving complex. Already at low concentrations, copper ions oxidized the low-potential form of cytochrome b (559) and also its high-potential form at higher concentrations at which fluorescence quenching was observed. We suggest that the primary target sites in Photosystem II for copper is tyrosine(z), both cytochrome b (559) forms and chlorophyll(z), and that these sites are the source of the copper-induced fluorescence quenching and oxygen evolution inhibition in Photosystem II.
Project description:The development of photochemical activities in isolated barley plastids during illumination of dark-grown plants has been studied and compared with the behaviour of plastocyanin, cytochromes f, b-559(LP), b-563 and b-559(HP) and pigments P546 (C550) and P700. Electron-transport activity dependent on Photosystem 1 and cyclic photophosphorylation dependent on N-methylphenazonium methosulphate (phenazine methosulphate) were very active relative to the chlorophyll content after only a few minutes of illumination of etiolated leaves, and then rapidly declined during the first few hours of greening. By contrast, Photosystem 2 activity (measured with ferricyanide as electron acceptor) and non-cyclic photophosphorylation were not detectable during the first 2(1/2)h of greening, but then increased in total amount in parallel with chlorophyll. The behaviour of the electron carriers suggested their association with either Photosystem 1 or 2 respectively. In the first group were plastocyanin, cytochrome f and cytochrome b-563, whose concentrations in the leaf did not change during greening, and cytochrome b-559(LP) whose concentration fell to one-half its original value, and in the second group were cytochrome b-559(HP) and pigment P546, the concentrations of which closely followed the activities of Photosystem 2. Pigment P700 could not be detected during the first hour, during which time some other form of chlorophyll may take its place in the reaction centre of Photosystem 1. The plastids started to develop grana at about the time that Photosystem 2 activity became detectable.
Project description:1. O2-evolving Photosystem-II particles from the thermophilic blue--green alga Phormidium laminosum contained 1 mol of Mn/13--17 mol of chlorophyll a compared with 1 mol of Mn/65--75 mol of chlorophyll a in unfractionated membranes. 2. At least two-thirds of the Mn in the Photosystem-II particles was removed by mild heating and by treatment with Tris or EDTA, with concomitant loss of O2 evolution. However, irreversible inactivation was also caused by washing in buffers without MgCl2, and this inactivation was not accompanied by a corresponding loss of Mn. 3. Bivalent cations (Mg2+ or Ca2+), Cl- or Br- ions and at least 20% (v/v) glycerol were required for maximum stability of O2 evolution. 4. The Photosystem-II particles were enriched in high-potential cytochrome b-559 (1 mol of cytochrome/50--60 mol of chlorophyll a) and in component C-550, and had a photosynthetic-unit size of 40--70 molecules of chlorophyll a. 5. The absorption spectrum at 77 K showed a preponderance of shorter-wavelength forms of chlorophyll a in the Photosystem-II particles, and in the fluorescence emission spectrum at 77 K there were major chlorophyll fluorescence bands at 684 nm and 695 nm, with almost no fluorescence in the far-red region. 6. Analysis of the lipid and protein contents showed that the Photosystem-II particles were not chemically pure (for example, all of the membrane-bound cytochromes and cytochrome c-549 were present), but their high O2-evolution activity and good optical properties make them useful for functional studies on Photosystem-II and O2 evolution.
Project description:Photosystem II (PS II) is unique among photosynthetic reaction centers in having secondary electron donors that compete with the primary electron donors for reduction of P680(+). We have characterized the photooxidation and dark decay of the redox-active accessory chlorophylls (Chl) and beta-carotenes (Car) in oxygen-evolving PS II core complexes by near-IR absorbance and EPR spectroscopies at cryogenic temperatures. In contrast to previous results for Mn-depleted PS II, multiple near-IR absorption bands are resolved in the light-minus-dark difference spectra of oxygen-evolving PS II core complexes including two fast-decaying bands at 793 and 814 nm and three slow-decaying bands at 810, 825, and 840 nm. We assign these bands to chlorophyll cation radicals (Chl(+)). The fast-decaying bands observed after illumination at 20 K could be generated again by reilluminating the sample. Quantization by EPR gives a yield of 0.85 radicals per PS II, and the yield of oxidized cytochrome b 559 by optical difference spectroscopy is 0.15 per PS II. Potential locations of Chl(+) and Car(+) species, and the pathways of secondary electron transfer based on the rates of their formation and decay, are discussed. This is the first evidence that Chls in the light-harvesting proteins CP43 and CP47 are oxidized by P680(+) and may have a role in Chl fluorescence quenching. We also suggest that a possible role for negatively charged lipids (phosphatidyldiacylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol identified in the PS II structure) could be to decrease the redox potential of specific Chl and Car cofactors. These results provide new insight into the alternate electron-donation pathways to P680(+).
Project description:Light-induced production of superoxide (O2*-) in spinach PSII (photosystem II) membrane particles was studied using EPR spin-trapping spectroscopy. The presence of exogenous PQs (plastoquinones) with a different side-chain length (PQ-n, n isoprenoid units in the side-chain) enhanced O2*- production in the following order: PQ-1>PQ-2>>PQ-9. In PSII membrane particles isolated from the tobacco cyt (cytochrome) b559 mutant which carries a single-point mutation in the beta-subunit and also has a decreased amount of the alpha-subunit, the effect of PQ-1 was less than in the wild-type. The increase in LP (low-potential) cyt b559 content, induced by the incubation of spinach PSII membrane particles at low pH, resulted in a significant increase in O2*- formation in the presence of PQ-1, whereas it had little effect on O2*- production in the absence of PQ-1. The enhancement of O2*- formation induced by PQ-1 was not abolished by DCMU [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea]. Under anaerobic conditions, dark oxidation of LP cyt b559 increased, as pH was decreased. The presence of molecular oxygen significantly enhanced dark oxidation of LP cyt b559. Based on these findings it is suggested that short-chain PQs stimulate O2*- production via a mechanism that involves electron transfer from Pheo- (pheophytin) to LP cyt b559 and subsequent auto-oxidation of LP cyt b559.
Project description:Copper(II) complexes with the first-generation quinolone antibacterial agent norfloxacin containing a nitrogen donor heterocyclic ligand 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) were prepared and characterized by IR, EPR spectra, molar conductivity, and elemental analyses. The experimental data suggest that norfloxacin was coordinated to copper(II) through the carboxylato and ketone oxygen atoms. The interaction of the copper(II) complexes with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated using fluorescence quenching of the tryptophan residues and copper(II) EPR spectroscopy. The results of fluorescence titration revealed that copper(II) complexes have a moderate ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of the albumins through a static quenching mechanism. EPR experiments showed that BSA and HSA Cu(II) sites compete with NOR for Cu(II)-bipy and Cu(II)-phen to form protein mixed-ligand complexes. Copper(II) complexes, together with the corresponding ligands, were evaluated for their trypanocidal activity in vitro against Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. The tests performed using bloodstream trypomastigotes showed that the Cu(II)-N-donor precursors and the metal complexes were more active than the free fluoroquinolone.
Project description:Cytochrome b 559 (Cyt b 559) is one of the essential components of the Photosystem II reaction center (PSII). Despite recent accomplishments in understanding the structure and function of PSII, the exact physiological function of Cyt b 559 remains unclear. Cyt b 559 is not involved in the primary electron transfer pathway in PSII but may participate in secondary electron transfer pathways that protect PSII against photoinhibition. Site-directed mutagenesis studies combined with spectroscopic and functional analysis have been used to characterize Cyt b 559 mutant strains and their mutant PSII complex in higher plants, green algae, and cyanobacteria. These integrated studies have provided important in vivo evidence for possible physiological roles of Cyt b 559 in the assembly and stability of PSII, protecting PSII against photoinhibition, and modulating photosynthetic light harvesting. This mini-review presents an overview of recent important progress in site-directed mutagenesis studies of Cyt b 559 and implications for revealing the physiological functions of Cyt b 559 in PSII.
Project description:The quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence caused by photodamage of Photosystem II (qI) is a well recognized phenomenon, where the nature and physiological role of which are still debatable. Paradoxically, photodamage to the reaction centre of Photosystem II is supposed to be alleviated by excitation quenching mechanisms which manifest as fluorescence quenchers. Here we investigated the time course of PSII photodamage in vivo and in vitro and that of picosecond time-resolved chlorophyll fluorescence (quencher formation). Two long-lived fluorescence quenching processes during photodamage were observed and were formed at different speeds. The slow-developing quenching process exhibited a time course similar to that of the accumulation of photodamaged PSII, while the fast-developing process took place faster than the light-induced PSII damage. We attribute the slow process to the accumulation of photodamaged PSII and the fast process to an independent quenching mechanism that precedes PSII photodamage and that alleviates the inactivation of the PSII reaction centre.
Project description:Evergreen conifers in boreal forests can survive extremely cold (freezing) temperatures during long dark winter and fully recover during summer. A phenomenon called "sustained quenching" putatively provides photoprotection and enables their survival, but its precise molecular and physiological mechanisms are not understood. To unveil them, here we have analyzed seasonal adjustment of the photosynthetic machinery of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) trees by monitoring multi-year changes in weather, chlorophyll fluorescence, chloroplast ultrastructure, and changes in pigment-protein composition. Analysis of Photosystem II and Photosystem I performance parameters indicate that highly dynamic structural and functional seasonal rearrangements of the photosynthetic apparatus occur. Although several mechanisms might contribute to 'sustained quenching' of winter/early spring pine needles, time-resolved fluorescence analysis shows that extreme down-regulation of photosystem II activity along with direct energy transfer from photosystem II to photosystem I play a major role. This mechanism is enabled by extensive thylakoid destacking allowing for the mixing of PSII with PSI complexes. These two linked phenomena play crucial roles in winter acclimation and protection.
Project description:The main cofactors involved in the oxygen evolution activity of Photosystem II (PSII) are located in two proteins, D1 (PsbA) and D2 (PsbD). In Thermosynechococcus elongatus, a thermophilic cyanobacterium, the D1 protein is encoded by either the psbA(1) or the psbA(3) gene, the expression of which is dependent on environmental conditions. It has been shown that the energetic properties of the PsbA1-PSII and those of the PsbA3-PSII differ significantly (Sugiura, M., Kato, Y., Takahashi, R., Suzuki, H., Watanabe, T., Noguchi, T., Rappaport, F., and Boussac, A. (2010) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1797, 1491-1499). In this work the structural stability of PSII upon a PsbA1/PsbA3 exchange was investigated. Two deletion mutants lacking another PSII subunit, PsbJ, were constructed in strains expressing either PsbA1 or PsbA3. The PsbJ subunit is a 4-kDa transmembrane polypeptide that is surrounded by D1 (i.e. PsbA1), PsbK, and cytochrome b(559) (Cyt b(559)) in existing three-dimensional models. It is shown that the structural properties of the PsbA3/?PsbJ-PSII are not significantly affected. The polypeptide contents, the Cyt b(559) properties, and the proportion of PSII dimer were similar to those found for PsbA3-PSII. In contrast, in PsbA1/?PsbJ-PSII the stability of the dimer is greatly diminished, the EPR properties of the Cyt b(559) likely indicates a decrease in its redox potential, and many other PSII subunits are lacking. These results shows that the 21-amino acid substitutions between PsbA1 and PsbA3, which appear to be mainly conservative, must include side chains that are involved in a network of interactions between PsbA and the other PSII subunits.
Project description:The photochemistry of the isolated Photosystem II reaction-centre core from pea and the green alga Scenedesmus was examined by e.s.r. Two types of triplet spectrum were observed in addition to the spin-polarized reaction-centre triplet previously identified. The additional triplet formed on continuous illumination at 4.2 K was attributed to a monomeric phaeophytin molecule. The second triplet, which was stable in the dark at 4.2 K following illumination, was assigned to the radical pair Donor+I-. This provides evidence that an electron donor to chlorophyll P680 is present on the polypeptide D1-polypeptide D2-cytochrome b-559 core complex.