Hormonal regulation of the human sterol 27-hydroxylase gene CYP27A1.
ABSTRACT: The nucleotide sequence data reported in this paper will appear in EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database under the accession number AJ 544720. The mitochondrial sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) is a multifunctional cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyses important hydroxylations in the biosynthesis of bile acids and bioactivation of vitamin D(3). Previous results [Babiker, Andersson, Lund, Xiu, Deeb, Reshef, Leitersdorf, Diczfalusy and Bj örkhem (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 26253-26261] suggest that CYP27A1 plays an important role in cholesterol homoeostasis and affects atherogenesis. In the present study, the regulation of the human CYP27A1 gene by growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), dexamethasone, thyroid hormones and PMA was studied. HepG2 cells were transfected transiently with luciferase reporter gene constructs containing DNA fragments flanking the 5'-region of the human CYP27A1 gene. GH, IGF-1 and dexamethasone increased the promoter activity by 2-3-fold, whereas thyroxine (T(4)) and PMA repressed the activity significantly when measured with luciferase activity expressed in the cells. The endogenous CYP27A1 enzyme activity in the cells was stimulated by GH, IGF-1 and dexamethasone, whereas T(4) and PMA inhibited the activity. Experiments with progressive deletion/luciferase reporter gene constructs indicated that the response elements for GH may be localized in a region upstream to position -1094 bp. The putative response elements for dexamethasone were mapped to positions between -792 and -1095 bp. The -451 bp fragment of the human CYP27A1 gene was found to confer the activation by IGF-1, and the inhibition by T(4) and PMA. Results of the present study suggest that CYP27A1 is regulated in human cells by hormones and signal-transduction pathways.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The placenta is essential for supplying nutrients and gases to the developing mammalian young before birth. While all mammals have a functional placenta, only in therian mammals (marsupials and eutherians) does the placenta closely appose or invade the uterine endometrium. The eutherian placenta secretes hormones that are structurally and functionally similar to pituitary growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Marsupial and eutherian mammals diverged from a common ancestor approximately 125 to 148 million years ago and developed distinct reproductive strategies. As in eutherians, marsupials rely on a short-lived but functional placenta for embryogenesis. RESULTS:We characterized pituitary GH, GH-R, IGF-2, PRL and LH? in a macropodid marsupial, the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii. These genes were expressed in the tammar placenta during the last third of gestation when most fetal growth occurs and active organogenesis is initiated. The mRNA of key growth genes GH, GH-R, IGF-2 and PRL were expressed during late pregnancy. We found significant up-regulation of GH, GH-R and IGF-2 after the start of the rapid growth phase of organogenesis which suggests that the placental growth hormones regulate the rapid phase of fetal growth. CONCLUSIONS:This is the first demonstration of the existence of pituitary hormones in the marsupial placenta. Placental expression of these pituitary hormones has clearly been conserved in marsupials as in eutherian mammals, suggesting an ancestral origin of the evolution of placental expression and a critical function of these hormones in growth and development of all therian mammals.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Little is known about the comparative effects of different glucocorticoids on the adrenal and growth hormone (GH) axes in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We sought to compare the effects of hydrocortisone (HC), prednisone (PDN), and dexamethasone (DEX) in children with classic CAH and to investigate a potential role of pharmacogenetics. METHODS:Subjects were randomly assigned to three sequential 6-week courses of HC, PDN, and DEX, each followed by evaluation of adrenal hormones, IGF-1, GH, and body mass index (BMI). Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of genes in the glucocorticoid pathway was also performed. RESULTS:Nine prepubertal subjects aged 8.1?±?2.3 years completed the study. Mean ACTH, androstenedione, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) values were lower following the DEX arm of the study than after subjects received HC (p???0.016) or PDN (p???0.002). 17-OHP was also lower after HC than PDN (p?<?0.001). There was no difference in IGF-1, GH, or change in BMI. SNP analysis revealed significant associations between hormone concentrations, pharmacokinetic parameters, and variants in several glucocorticoid pathway genes (ABCB1, NR3C1, IP013, GLCCI1). CONCLUSIONS:DEX resulted in marked adrenal suppression suggesting that its potency relative to hydrocortisone and prednisone was underestimated. SNPs conferred significant differences in responses between subjects. Although preliminary, these pilot data suggest that incorporating pharmacogenetics has the potential to eventually lead to targeted therapy in children with CAH.
Project description:Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling promotes brain development and plasticity. Altered IGF-1 expression has been associated to autism spectrum disorders (ASD). IGF-1 levels were found increased in the blood and decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of ASD children. Accordingly, IGF-1 treatment can rescue behavioral deficits in mouse models of ASD, and IGF-1 trials have been proposed for ASD children. IGF-1 is mainly synthesized in the liver, and its synthesis is dependent on growth hormone (GH) produced in the pituitary gland. GH also modulates cognitive functions, and altered levels of GH have been detected in ASD patients. Here, we analyzed the expression of GH, IGF-1, their receptors, and regulatory hormones in the neuroendocrine system of adult male mice lacking the homeobox transcription factor Engrailed-2 (En2 (-/-) mice). En2 (-/-) mice display ASD-like behaviors (social interactions, defective spatial learning, increased seizure susceptibility) accompanied by relevant neuropathological changes (loss of cerebellar and forebrain inhibitory neurons). Recent studies showed that En2 modulates IGF-1 activity during postnatal cerebellar development. We found that GH mRNA expression was markedly deregulated throughout the neuroendocrine axis in En2 (-/-) mice, as compared to wild-type controls. In mutant mice, GH mRNA levels were significantly increased in the pituitary gland, blood, and liver, whereas decreased levels were detected in the hippocampus. These changes were paralleled by decreased levels of GH protein in the hippocampus but not other tissues of En2 (-/-) mice. IGF-1 mRNA was significantly up-regulated in the liver and down-regulated in the En2 (-/-) hippocampus, but no differences were detected in the levels of IGF-1 protein between the two genotypes. Our data strengthen the notion that altered GH levels in the hippocampus may be involved in learning disabilities associated to ASD.
Project description:The contribution of the gonadotropic axis to skeletal sexual dimorphism (SSD) was clarified in recent years. Studies with animal models of estrogen receptor (ER) or androgen receptor (AR) null mice, as well as mice with bone cell-specific ablation of ER or AR, revealed that both hormones play major roles in skeletal acquisition, and that estrogen regulates skeletal accrual in both sexes. The growth hormone (GH) and its downstream effector, the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are also major determinants of peak bone mass during puberty and young adulthood, and play important roles in maintaining bone integrity during aging. A few studies in both humans and animal models suggest that in addition to the differences in sex steroid actions on bone, sex-specific effects of GH and IGF-1 play essential roles in SSD. However, the contributions of the somatotropic (GH/IGF-1) axis to SSD are controversial and data is difficult to interpret. GH/IGF-1 are pleotropic hormones that act in an endocrine and autocrine/paracrine fashion on multiple tissues, affecting body composition as well as metabolism. Thus, understanding the contribution of the somatotropic axis to SSD requires the use of mouse models that will differentiate between these two modes of action. Elucidation of the relative contribution of GH/IGF-1 axis to SSD is significant because GH is approved for the treatment of normal children with short stature and children with congenital growth disorders. Thus, if the GH/IGF-1 axis determines SSD, treatment with GH may be tailored according to sex. In the following review, we give an overview of the roles of sex steroids in determining SSD and how they may interact with the GH/IGF-1 axis in bone. We summarize several mouse models with impaired somatotropic axis and speculate on the possible contribution of that axis to SSD.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pituitary dysfunction including growth hormone (GH) deficiency may be associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Since the relationships among GH, IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and development of NAFLD without hypopituitarism are unclear, we examined the role of these hormones in the development of NAFLD based on clinical, laboratory and liver histology data. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 55 consecutive patients (20 males and 35 females) with NAFLD. RESULTS: Aspartate amino transferase (AST), AST/ALT, platelet count and IGF-1, levels were significantly associated with differences in fibrosis, since these variables differed between stage 0-1 and stage 2-3 NAFLD. In multivariate analysis, platelet count (P = 0.0223, relative risk (RR), 5.899; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.288-27.017), and IGF-1 (P = 0.0363, RR, 4.568; 95% CI, 1.101-18.945) showed significant associations with stage 2-3 NAFLD. Additionally, hyaluronic acid levels had a negative relationship with IGF-1 and the IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio. There was no relationship of fibrosis with GH level, but decreased GH (P = 0.0414, RR, 0.199; 95% CI, 0.042-0.989) was significantly associated with steatosis of stage 2-3. Low GH/IGF-1 and GH/IGFBP-3 ratios were found in advanced steatosis. CONCLUSION: GH, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 are associated with hepatic fibrosis and steatosis in NAFLD. Low levels of IGF-1 might be associated with fibrosis while low level of GH with hepatic steatosis.
Project description:11 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta-HSD) is a key enzyme in glucocorticoid metabolism, catalysing the conversion of active glucocorticoids into their inactive 11-keto metabolites, thus regulating glucocorticoid access to intracellular receptors. The type 1 isoform (11 beta-HSD 1) (EC 18.104.22.168) is widely distributed, with particularly high levels in liver, where accumulating evidence suggests that it acts as an 11 beta-reductase, regenerating active glucocorticoids. Investigation of the function and regulation of 11 beta-HSD 1 in liver has been hampered by the lack of hepatic cell lines which express 11 beta-HSD 1. Here, we describe 11 beta-HSD 1 mRNA expression and activity in 2S FAZA cells, a continuously cultured rat liver cell line. In intact 2S FAZA cells 11 beta-HSD 1 acts predominantly as a reductase, with very low dehydrogenase activity. In 2S FAZA cells 11 beta-HSD 1 activity and mRNA expression are regulated by hormones, with dexamethasone increasing activity and insulin, forskolin and insulin-like growth factor 1 decreasing it. Transfection of 2S FAZA cells with a luciferase reporter gene driven by the proximal promoter of the rat 11 beta-HSD 1 gene demonstrates that sequences which can mediate the responses to insulin, dexamethasone and forskolin all lie within 1800 bp of the transcription start site.
Project description:IGF-I is an anabolic factor that mediates GH and PTH actions in bone. Expression of skeletal Igf1 differs for inbred strains of mice, and Igf expression levels correlate directly with bone mass. Previously we reported that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?2 activation in bone marrow suppressed Igf1 expression and that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?2 activation-induced Nocturnin (Noc) expression, a circadian gene with peak expression at light offset, which functions as a deadenylase. In 24-h studies we found that Igf1 mRNA exhibited a circadian rhythm in femur with the lowest Igf1 transcript levels at night when Noc transcripts were highest. Immunoprecipitation/RT-PCR analysis revealed a physical interaction between Noc protein and Igf1 transcripts. To clarify which portions of the Igf1 3' untranslated region (UTR) were necessary for regulation by Noc, we generated luciferase constructs containing various lengths of the Igf1 3'UTR. Noc did not affect the 170-bp short-form 3'UTR, but suppressed luciferase activity in constructs bearing the longer-form 3'UTR, which contains a number of potential regulatory motifs involved in mRNA degradation. C57BL/6J mice have low skeletal Igf1 mRNA compared with C3H/HeJ mice, and the Igf1 3' UTR is polymorphic between these strains. Interestingly, the activity of luciferase constructs bearing the long-form 3'UTR from C57BL/6J mice were repressed by Noc overexpression, whereas those bearing the corresponding region from C3H/HeJ were not. In summary, Noc interacts with Igf1 in a strain- and tissue-specific manner and reduces Igf1 expression by targeting the longer form of the Igf1 3'UTR. Posttranscriptional regulation of Igf1 may be critically important during skeletal acquisition and maintenance.
Project description:Mouse models of cystic fibrosis (CF) display increased sulfotransferase 1E1 (SULT1E1) activity in hepatocytes of cystic fibrosis transmembrane receptor (CFTR)-deficient animals. SULT1E1 is responsible for the sulfation and inactivation of beta-estradiol (E2) at physiological concentrations. IGF-1 message levels in CFTR(-/-) mouse livers were positively correlated with body weight and negatively correlated with SULT1E1 activity. Growth hormone (GH) is important in the regulation of hepatic IGF-1 expression indicating that E2 levels are involved with GH signaling in hepatocytes. To investigate the effects of E2 and SULT1E1 activity on GH signal transduction in human hepatocytes, SULT1E1 was stably expressed in HepG2 cells. Effects of increased E2 sulfation on the GH signaling pathway and E2-regulated gene expression were examined. Pretreatment of HepG2 cells with 10nM E2 prior to GH stimulation increased STAT5b phosphorylation and IGF-1 expression. In SULT1E1-transfected HepG2 cells, GH-stimulated STAT5b phosphorylation was significantly decreased. E2 treatment had no effect on STAT5b phosphorylation in the absence of GH stimulation. E2 also had no effect on Jak-2 phosphorylation. E2 has an apparent rapid action on increasing GH-stimulated STAT5b phosphorylation that was not attenuated by the estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780. Physiological levels of E2 in HepG2 cells increase GH stimulation of IGF-1 production apparently through increased phosphorylated STAT5b levels and transcriptional activation of the IGF-1 gene. The enhanced SULT1E1 activity may have a role in inhibiting GH-stimulated STAT5b phosphorylation and IGF-1 synthesis via the sulfation and inactivation of E2.
Project description:The counter-regulatory effects of beta-adrenergic stimulation and cyclic AMP on the insulin-like action of growth hormone (GH) on the subcellular distribution of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) receptors were studied in fat cells from hypophysectomized (Hx) and sham-operated rats. For comparison, the effect of insulin on this process was also studied. Basal IGF-II binding was increased by approx. 2-fold in cells from Hx as compared with sham-operated animals. The stimulatory effect of insulin was decreased in Hx cells, mainly due to a basal redistribution but also to a reduced total number of receptors. GH exerted an acute insulin-like effect in cells from Hx rats and stimulated the translocation of IGF-II receptors from an intracellular pool to the plasma membrane. beta-Adrenergic stimulation with isoprenaline or addition of the non-metabolizable cyclic AMP-analogue N6-monobutyryl cyclic AMP induced a cellular resistance to both GH and insulin and also reduced the responsiveness to these hormones. Adenosine exerted a modulatory effect on both hormones. Binding of 125I-labelled GH to its receptors was not significantly changed by any of these factors. It is concluded that: (1) beta-adrenergic stimulation and cyclic AMP induce a cellular GH resistance at a level distal to the GH-binding site, and (2) the insulin-like effect of GH shares a common pathway with insulin which occurs at the post-binding level.
Project description:Leptin is an important cytokine for regulating energy homeostasis, however, relatively little is known about its function and control in teleost fishes or other ectotherms, particularly with regard to interactions with the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) growth regulatory axis. Here we assessed the regulation of LepA, the dominant paralog in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and other teleosts under altered nutritional state, and evaluated how LepA might alter pituitary growth hormone (GH) and hepatic insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) that are known to be disparately regulated by metabolic state. Circulating LepA, and lepa and lepr gene expression increased after 3-weeks fasting and declined to control levels 10days following refeeding. This pattern of leptin regulation by metabolic state is similar to that previously observed for pituitary GH and opposite that of hepatic GHR and/or IGF dynamics in tilapia and other fishes. We therefore evaluated if LepA might differentially regulate pituitary GH, and hepatic GH receptors (GHRs) and IGFs. Recombinant tilapia LepA (rtLepA) increased hepatic gene expression of igf-1, igf-2, ghr-1, and ghr-2 from isolated hepatocytes following 24h incubation. Intraperitoneal rtLepA injection, on the other hand, stimulated hepatic igf-1, but had little effect on hepatic igf-2, ghr1, or ghr2 mRNA abundance. LepA suppressed GH accumulation and gh mRNA in pituitaries in vitro, but had no effect on GH release. We next sought to test if abolition of pituitary GH via hypophysectomy (Hx) affects the expression of hepatic lepa and lepr. Hypophysectomy significantly increases hepatic lepa mRNA abundance, while GH replacement in Hx fish restores lepa mRNA levels to that of sham controls. Leptin receptor (lepr) mRNA was unchanged by Hx. In in vitro hepatocyte incubations, GH inhibits lepa and lepr mRNA expression at low concentrations, while higher concentration stimulates lepa expression. Taken together, these findings indicate LepA gene expression and secretion increases with fasting, consistent with the hormones function in promoting energy expenditure during catabolic stress. It would also appear that LepA might play an important role in stimulating GHR and IGFs to potentially spare declines in these factors during catabolism. Evidence also suggests for the first time in teleosts that GH may exert important regulatory effects on hepatic LepA production, insofar as physiological levels (0.05-1 nM) suppresse lepa mRNA accumulation. Leptin A, may in turn exert negative feedback effects on basal GH mRNA abundance, but not secretion.