Regulation of membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase activity by vacuolar H+-ATPases.
ABSTRACT: Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a key enzyme in normal development and malignant processes. The regulation of MT1-MMP activity on the cell surface is a complex process involving autocatalytic processing, tissue inhibitor of MMPs (TIMP) binding and constitutive internalization. However, the fate of internalized MT1-MMP is not known. Acidification of intracellular vacuolar compartments is essential for membrane trafficking, protein sorting and degradation. This acidification is controlled by vacuolar H(+)-ATPases, which can be selectively inhibited by bafilomycin-A(1). Here, we treated human tumour cell lines expressing MT1-MMP with bafilomycin-A(1), and analysed its effects on MT1-MMP activity, internalization and processing. We show that the activity of MT1-MMP on the cell surface is constitutively down-regulated through a vacuolar H(+)-ATPase-dependent degradation process. Blockade of this degradation caused the accumulation of TIMP-free active MT1-MMP molecules on the cell surface, although internalization was not affected. As a consequence of this impaired degradation, pro-MMP-2 activation was strongly enhanced. This study demonstrates that the catalytic activity of MT1-MMP on the cell surface is regulated through a vacuolar H(+)-ATPase-dependent degradation process.
Project description:The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 has a crucial role in extracellular matrix degradation associated with cancer metastasis and angiogenesis. The latent form, pro-MMP-2, is activated on the cell surface by the membrane-tethered membrane type 1 (MT1)-MMP, in a process regulated by the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2. A complex of active MT1-MMP and TIMP-2 binds pro-MMP-2 forming a ternary complex, which permits pro-MMP-2 activation by a TIMP-2-free neighbouring MT1-MMP. It remains unclear how MMP-2 activity in the pericellular space is regulated in the presence of TIMP-2. To address this question, the effect of TIMP-2 on MMP-2 activity in the extracellular space was investigated in live cells, and their isolated plasma membrane fractions, engineered to control the relative levels of MT1-MMP and TIMP-2 expression. We show that both free and inhibited MMP-2 is detected in the medium, and that the net MMP-2 activity correlates with the level of TIMP-2 expression. Studies to displace MT1-MMP-bound TIMP-2 in a purified system with active MMP-2 show minimal displacement of inhibitor, under the experimental conditions, due to the high affinity interaction between TIMP-2 and MT1-MMP. Thus inhibition of MMP-2 activity in the extracellular space is unlikely to result solely as a result of TIMP-2 dissociation from its complex with MT1-MMP. Consistently, immunoblot analyses of plasma membranes, and surface biotinylation experiments show that the level of surface association of TIMP-2 is independent of MT1-MMP expression. Thus low-affinity binding of TIMP-2 to sites distinct to MT1-MMP may have a role in regulating MMP-2 activity in the extracellular space generated by the ternary complex.
Project description:Quiescent cells (in G0) can be stimulated to enter the cell cycle and proceed to DNA synthesis in S-phase by a wide range of growth factors and mitogens. Activation of cell-surface growth factor receptors with intrinsic protein tyrosine kinase activity initiates autophosphorylation of the receptors and subsequent activation of signal transduction cascades. After activation the receptors undergo ligand-induced internalization to endosomes, which become acidified by the action of a vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase). The extent to which vesicular acidification plays a role in mitogenic signalling by receptors with intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity remains unknown. Here we have shown that bafilomycin A1, a specific inhibitor of V-ATPase, inhibits endosome acidification and mitogen-induced DNA synthesis in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. Addition of bafilomycin A1 at successively later times during G1 progressively decreased the inhibition of DNA synthesis such that no inhibition was observed when bafilomycin A1 was added at the onset of S-phase. Bafilomycin A1 also induced a dramatic but reversible change in the morphology of Swiss 3T3 cells. However, the rapid activation of c-fos mRNA accumulation by epidermal growth factor and insulin was unaffected by bafilomycin A1. Together, the results suggest that activation of the V-ATPase plays an important role in the mitogenic signalling pathways that occur during the G1 phase of the cell cycle but is not required for the initial epidermal growth factor and insulin-evoked signalling events that lead to c-fos mRNA expression.
Project description:Human fibroblasts and HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells express membrane-type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), the cell surface activator of gelatinase A, in separate forms of 63 kDa, 60 kDa and in some cases 43 kDa. In the present work the interrelationships between MT1-MMP processing and gelatinase A activation were analysed using HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells as a model. It was found that MT1-MMP was synthesized as a 63 kDa protein, which was constitutively processed to a 60 kDa active enzyme with N-terminal Tyr112, as shown by immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting and sequence analyses. Co-immunoprecipitation results indicated that only the active 60 kDa form of MT1-MMP bound gelatinase A at the cell surface. Both the activation of pro-MT1-MMP and the membrane binding of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases type 2 (TIMP-2) and gelatinase A, and subsequent activation of gelatinase A, were inhibited by calcium ionophores. Although the active MT1-MMP was required for cell surface binding and activation of gelatinase A, it was inefficient in activating gelatinase A in fibroblasts or in control HT-1080 cells alone. Low expression levels of TIMP-2 and rapid synthesis of MT1-MMP were found to be critical for gelatinase A activation. In HT-1080 cells, MT1-MMP was further processed to an inactive, 43 kDa cell surface form when overexpressed, or when the cells were treated with PMA. Under these conditions, the activated gelatinase A was detected in the culture medium, in cell membrane extracts and in MT1-MMP-containing complexes. These results indicate that proteolytic processing (activation and degradation/inactivation) of MT1-MMP and MT1-MMP/TIMP-2 relationships at the cell surface are important regulatory levels in the control of gelatinolytic activity.
Project description:Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP; MMP14) is known to activate pro-matrix metalloproteinase-2 (pro-MMP-2; progelatinase A) on the cell surface. To analyse the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) effect on activation of pro-MMP-2 by MT1-MMP, we have expressed the full-size MT1-MMP (fMT1-MMP) and a transmembrane (TM)-domain-deleted soluble MT1-MMP (sMT1-MMP) in the baculovirus/Sf9 (Spodoptera frugiperda 9) insect-cell system, where neither endogenous gelatinolytic MMPs nor TIMP-2 are expressed. Both fMT1-MMP and sMT1-MMP expressed in the expression system were found not to contain the pro-domain and were able to activate the TIMP-2-free pro-MMP-2. Both in the insect cells and in vitro, activation of pro-MMP-2 by fMT1-MMP was enhanced at low concentrations of TIMP-2 and inhibited by its higher concentrations. The maximal enhancing effect was detected at 0.05 molar fraction of TIMP-2/fMT1-MMP. In contrast, activation of pro-MMP-2 by sMT1-MMP was dose-dependently inhibited by TIMP-2. These results demonstrate that the TM domain of MT1-MMP is not required for the ability to activate pro-MMP-2, but is required for the enhancing effect of TIMP-2 on pro-MMP-2 activation by recruiting pro-MMP-2 to the MT1-MMP-TIMP-2 complex as a cell-surface pro-MMP-2 receptor. Moreover, our data strongly suggest that the pro-domain of MT1-MMP is not required for the TIMP-2-mediated enhancing effect on pro-MMP-2 activation. In addition, the pro-MMP-2 in the MT1-MMP-TIMP-2-pro-MMP-2 ternary complex was not activated without external activator, but readily by addition of sMT1-MMP. This result demonstrates that MT1-MMP free of TIMP-2 would be the enzyme responsible for activation of the pro-MMP-2 in the ternary complex under physiological conditions.
Project description:Fundamental cellular processes including angiogenesis and cell migration require a proteolytic cascade driven by interactions of membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MT1-MMP) and progelatinase A (proMMP-2) that are dependent on the presence of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP-2). There are unique interactions between TIMP-2 and MT1-MMP, which we have previously defined, and here we identify TIMP-2 sequence motifs specific for proMMP-2 binding in the context of its activation by MT1-MMP. A TIMP-2 mutant encoding the C-terminal domain of TIMP-4 showed loss of proMMP-2 activation, indicating that the C-terminal domain of TIMP-2 is important in establishing the trimolecular complex between MT1-MMP, TIMP-2 and proMMP-2. This was confirmed by analysis of a TIMP-4 mutant encoding the C-terminal domain of TIMP-2, which formed a trimolecular complex and promoted proMMP-2 processing to the intermediate form. Mutants encoding TIMP-4 from Cys(1) to Leu(185) and partial tail sequence of TIMP-2 showed some gain of activating capability relative to TIMP-4. The identified residues were subsequently mutated in TIMP-2 (E(192)-D(193) to I(192)-Q(193)) and this inhibitor showed a significantly reduced ability to facilitate proMMP-2 processing by MT1-MMP. Furthermore, the tail-deletion mutant Delta(186-194)TIMP-2 was completely incapable of promoting proMMP-2 activation by MT1-MMP. Thus the C-terminal tail residues of TIMP-2 are important determinants for stable trimolecular complex formation between TIMP-2, proMMP-2 and MT1-MMP and play an important role in MT1-MMP-mediated processing to the intermediate and final active forms of MMP-2 at the cell surface.
Project description:Renal carcinoma cells express Membrane Type 1-Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP, MMP-14) to degrade extracellular matrix components and a range of bioactive molecules to allow metastasis and cell proliferation. The activity of MT1-MMP is modulated by the endogenous inhibitors, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases (TIMPs). In this study, we describe a novel strategy that would enable a "designer" TIMP-1 tailored specifically for MT1-MMP inhibition (V4A/P6V/T98L; Kiapp 1.66 nM) to be targeted to the plasma membrane for more effective MT1-MMP inhibition. To achieve this, we fuse the designer TIMP-1 to the glycosyl-phosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchor of the prion protein to create a membrane-tethered, high-affinity TIMP variant named "T1Pr ?MT1" that is predominantly located on the cell surface and co-localised with MT1-MMP. Confocal microscopy shows that T1Pr ?MT1 is found throughout the cell surface in particular the membrane ruffles where MT1-MMP is most abundant. Expression of T1Pr ?MT1 brings about a complete abrogation of the gelatinolytic activity of cellular MT1-MMP in HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells whilst in renal carcinoma cells CaKi-1, the GPI-TIMP causes a disruption in MMP-mediated proteolysis of ECM components such as fibronectin, collagen I and laminin that consequently triggers a downstream senescence response. Moreover, the transduced cells also suffer from an impairment in proliferation and survival in vitro as well as in NOD/SCID mouse xenograft. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the GPI anchor of prion could be exploited as a targeting device in TIMP engineering for MT1-MMP inhibition with a potential in renal carcinoma therapy.
Project description:Focal degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) is the first step in the invasion of cancer cells. MT1-MMP is a potent membrane proteinase employed by aggressive cancer cells. In our previous study, we reported that MT1-MMP was preferentially located at membrane protrusions called invadopodia, where MT1-MMP underwent quick turnover. Our computer simulation and experiments showed that this quick turnover was essential for the degradation of ECM at invadopodia (Hoshino, D., et al., (2012) PLoS Comp. Biol., 8: e1002479). Here we report on characterization and analysis of the ECM-degrading activity of MT1-MMP, aiming at elucidating a possible reason for its repetitive insertion in the ECM degradation. First, in our computational model, we found a very narrow transient peak in the activity of MT1-MMP followed by steady state activity. This transient activity was due to the inhibition by TIMP-2, and the steady state activity of MT1-MMP decreased dramatically at higher TIMP-2 concentrations. Second, we evaluated the role of the narrow transient activity in the ECM degradation. When the transient activity was forcibly suppressed in computer simulations, the ECM degradation was heavily suppressed, indicating the essential role of this transient peak in the ECM degradation. Third, we compared continuous and pulsatile turnover of MT1-MMP in the ECM degradation at invadopodia. The pulsatile insertion showed basically consistent results with the continuous insertion in the ECM degradation, and the ECM degrading efficacy depended heavily on the transient activity of MT1-MMP in both models. Unexpectedly, however, low-frequency/high-concentration insertion of MT1-MMP was more effective in ECM degradation than high-frequency/low-concentration pulsatile insertion even if the time-averaged amount of inserted MT1-MMP was the same. The present analysis and characterization of ECM degradation by MT1-MMP together with our previous report indicate a dynamic nature of MT1-MMP at invadopodia and the importance of its transient peak in the degradation of the ECM.
Project description:Tumor cells use membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) for invasion and metastasis. However, the signaling mechanisms that underlie MT1-MMP regulation in cancer have remained unclear. Using a systematic gain-of-function kinome screen for MT1-MMP activity, we have here identified kinases that significantly enhance MT1-MMP activity in tumor cells. In particular, we discovered an MT1-MMP/FGF receptor-4 (FGFR4) membrane complex that either stimulates or suppresses MT1-MMP and FGFR4 activities, depending on a tumor progression-associated polymorphism in FGFR4. The FGFR4-R388 allele, linked to poor cancer prognosis, increased collagen invasion by decreasing lysosomal MT1-MMP degradation. FGFR4-R388 induced MT1-MMP phosphorylation and endosomal stabilization, and surprisingly, the increased MT1-MMP in return enhanced FGFR4-R388 autophosphorylation. A phosphorylation-defective MT1-MMP was stabilized on the cell surface, where it induced simultaneous FGFR4-R388 internalization and dissociation of cell-cell junctions. In contrast, the alternative FGFR4-G388 variant down-regulated MT1-MMP, and the overexpression of MT1-MMP and particularly its phosphorylation-defective mutant vice versa induced FGFR4-G388 degradation. These results provide a mechanistic basis for FGFR4-R388 function in cancer invasion.
Project description:MT1-MMP (membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase) is a membrane-anchored MMP that can be shed to the extracellular milieu. In the present study we report the primary structure and activity of the major soluble form of MT1-MMP. MS analysis of the purified 50-kDa soluble MT1-MMP form shows that the enzyme extends from Tyr112 to Val524, indicating that formation of this species requires a proteolytic cleavage within the stem region. In agreement, deletion of the entire stem region of MT1-MMP inhibited shedding of the 50-kDa species. A recombinant 50-kDa species (Tyr112-Val524) expressed in cells exhibited enzymatic activity against pro-MMP-2 and galectin-3, and thus this species is a competent protease. The recombinant 50-kDa soluble form also decreased the level of surface-associated TIMP-2 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2) when administered to cells expressing wild-type membrane-anchored MT1-MMP, suggesting that ectodomain shedding of MT1-MMP can alter the MMP/TIMP balance on the cell surface. A approximately 53-kDa species of MT1-MMP was also isolated from a non-detergent extract of human breast carcinoma tissue and was found to lack the cytosolic tail, as determined with specific MT1-MMP domain antibodies. Together, these data show that MT1-MMP ectodomain shedding is a physiological process that may broaden MT1-MMP activity to the pericellular space.
Project description:Metastatic cancer cells express Membrane Type 1-Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) to degrade the extracellular matrix in order to facilitate migration and proliferation. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2 is the endogenous inhibitor of the MMP. Here, we describe a novel and highly effective fusion strategy to enhance the delivery of TIMP-2 to MT1-MMP. We can reveal that TIMP-2 fused to the haemopexin +/- transmembrane domains of MT1-MMP (two chimeras named T2PEX+TM and T2PEX) are able to interact with MT1-MMP on the cell surface as well as intracellularly. In the case of T2PEX+TM, there is even a clear sign of MT1-MMP:T2PEX+TM aggregation by the side of the nucleus to form aggresomes. In vitro, T2PEX+TM and T2PEX suppress the gelatinolytic and invasive abilities of cervical carcinoma (HeLa) and HT1080 fibrosarcoma cancer cells significantly better than wild type TIMP-2. In mouse xenograft, we further demonstrate that T2PEX diminishes cervical carcinoma growth by 85% relative to the control. Collectively, our findings indicate the effectiveness of the fusion strategy as a potential targeted approach in cancer inhibition.