A proteomic study reveals novel insights into the diversity of aquaporin forms expressed in the plasma membrane of plant roots.
ABSTRACT: Aquaporins are channel proteins that facilitate the diffusion of water across cell membranes. The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes 35 full-length aquaporin homologues. Thirteen of them belong to the plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) subfamily and predominantly sit at the plasma membrane (PM). In the present work we combine separations of membrane proteins (by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis) with identification by MS (matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time-of-flight and electrospray-ionization tandem MS) to take an inventory of aquaporin isoforms expressed in the PM of Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Our analysis provides direct evidence for the expression of five PIPs (PIP1;1, PIP1;5, PIP2;1, PIP2;2 and PIP2;7) in the root PM and suggests the presence of at least three other PIP isoforms. In addition, we show that the same PIP isoform can be present under several forms with distinct isoelectric points. More specifically, we identify phosphorylated aquaporins in the PIP1 and PIP2 subgroups and suggest the existence of other post-translational modifications. Their identification should provide clues to reveal novel molecular mechanisms for aquaporin regulation.
Project description:A thorough analysis, using MS, of aquaporins expressed in plant root PM (plasma membrane) was performed, with the objective of revealing novel post-translational regulations. Here we show that the N-terminal tail of PIP (PM intrinsic protein) aquaporins can exhibit multiple modifications and is differentially processed between members of the PIP1 and PIP2 subclasses. Thus the initiating methionine was acetylated or cleaved in native PIP1 and PIP2 isoforms respectively. In addition, several residues were detected to be methylated in PIP2 aquaporins. Lys3 and Glu6 of PIP2;1, one of the most abundant aquaporins in the PM, occurred as di- and mono-methylated residues respectively. Ectopic expression in Arabidopsis suspension cells of PIP2;1, either wild-type or with altered methylation sites, revealed an interplay between methylation at the two sites. Measurements of water transport in PM vesicles purified from these cells suggested that PIP2;1 methylation does not interfere with the aquaporin intrinsic water permeability. In conclusion, the present study identifies methylation as a novel post-translational modification of aquaporins, and even plant membrane proteins, and may represent a critical advance towards the identification of new regulatory mechanisms of membrane transport.
Project description:Detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) microdomains, or "raft lipids", are key components of the plasma membrane (PM), being involved in membrane trafficking, signal transduction, cell wall metabolism or endocytosis. Proteins imbibed in these domains play important roles in these cellular functions, but there are few studies concerning DRMs under abiotic stress. In this work, we determine DRMs from the PM of broccoli roots, the lipid and protein content, the vesicles structure, their water osmotic permeability and a proteomic characterization focused mainly in aquaporin isoforms under salinity (80 mM NaCl). Based on biochemical lipid composition, higher fatty acid saturation and enriched sterol content under stress resulted in membranes, which decreased osmotic water permeability with regard to other PM vesicles, but this permeability was maintained under control and saline conditions; this maintenance may be related to a lower amount of total PIP1 and PIP2. Selective aquaporin isoforms related to the stress response such as PIP1;2 and PIP2;7 were found in DRMs and this protein partitioning may act as a mechanism to regulate aquaporins involved in the response to salt stress. Other proteins related to protein synthesis, metabolism and energy were identified in DRMs independently of the treatment, indicating their preference to organize in DMRs.
Project description:The plant aquaporin plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIP) subfamily represents one of the main gateways for water exchange at the plasma membrane (PM). A fraction of this subfamily, known as PIP1, does not reach the PM unless they are coexpressed with a PIP2 aquaporin. Although ubiquitous and abundantly expressed, the role and properties of PIP1 aquaporins have therefore remained masked. Here, we unravel how FaPIP1;1, a fruit-specific PIP1 aquaporin from Fragaria x ananassa, contributes to the modulation of membrane water permeability (Pf) and pH aquaporin regulation. Our approach was to combine an experimental and mathematical model design to test its activity without affecting its trafficking dynamics. We demonstrate that FaPIP1;1 has a high water channel activity when coexpressed as well as how PIP1-PIP2 affects gating sensitivity in terms of cytosolic acidification. PIP1-PIP2 random heterotetramerization not only allows FaPIP1;1 to arrive at the PM but also produces an enhancement of FaPIP2;1 activity. In this context, we propose that FaPIP1;1 is a key participant in the regulation of water movement across the membranes of cells expressing both aquaporins.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS The inner cortical cells (IC-cells) of legume root nodules have been previously shown to regulate the resistance to nodule O2 diffusion by a rapid contraction/expansion mechanism, which controls the volume of intercellular spaces and their occlusion by a liquid phase. The expression of aquaporins in IC-cells was also found to be involved in this nodule O2 diffusion mechanism. The aim of this study was to compare the expression of plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIP) aquaporin isoforms with tonoplast intrinsic protein (gamma-TIP) in both IC-cells and adjacent cell types.Using immunogold labelling in ultra-thin sections of Glycine max nodules, the expression of two PIP isoforms was observed and compared with the gamma-TIP pattern.The plasma membrane aquaporins PIP1 and PIP2 were expressed more in IC-cells and endodermis than in pericycle and infected cells. The tonoplast aquaporin gamma-TIP has shown a distribution pattern similar to that of the PIPs.PIPs and gamma-TIP aquaporins are highly expressed in both plasmalemma and tonoplast of nodule IC-cells. This distribution is consistent with the putative role of water fluxes associated with the regulation of nodule conductance to O2 diffusion and the subsequent ATP-dependent nitrogenase activity. In the endodermis, these aquaporins might also be involved in nutrient transport between the infected zone and vascular traces.
Project description:In plants, aquaporins play a crucial role in regulating root water transport in response to environmental and physiological cues. Controls achieved at the post-translational level are thought to be of critical importance for regulating aquaporin function. To investigate the general molecular mechanisms involved, we performed, using the model species Arabidopsis, a comprehensive proteomic analysis of root aquaporins in a large set of physiological contexts. We identified nine physiological treatments that modulate root hydraulics in time frames of minutes (NO and H2O2 treatments), hours (mannitol and NaCl treatments, exposure to darkness and reversal with sucrose, phosphate supply to phosphate-starved roots), or days (phosphate or nitrogen starvation). All treatments induced inhibition of root water transport except for sucrose supply to dark-grown plants and phosphate resupply to phosphate-starved plants, which had opposing effects. Using a robust label-free quantitative proteomic methodology, we identified 12 of 13 plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) aquaporin isoforms, 4 of the 10 tonoplast intrinsic protein isoforms, and a diversity of post-translational modifications including phosphorylation, methylation, deamidation, and acetylation. A total of 55 aquaporin peptides displayed significant changes after treatments and enabled the identification of specific and as yet unknown patterns of response to stimuli. The data show that the regulation of PIP and tonoplast intrinsic protein abundance was involved in response to a few treatments (i.e. NaCl, NO, and nitrate starvation), whereas changes in the phosphorylation status of PIP aquaporins were positively correlated to changes in root hydraulic conductivity in the whole set of treatments. The identification of in vivo deamidated forms of aquaporins and their stimulus-induced changes in abundance may reflect a new mechanism of aquaporin regulation. The overall work provides deep insights into the in vivo post-translational events triggered by environmental constraints and their possible role in regulating plant water status.
Project description:PIP1;2 and PIP2;1 are aquaporins that are highly expressed in roots and bring a major contribution to root water transport and its regulation by hormonal and abiotic factors. Interactions between cellular proteins or with other macromolecules contribute to forming molecular machines. Proteins that molecularly interact with PIP1;2 and PIP2;1 were searched to get new insights into regulatory mechanisms of root water transport. For that, a immuno-purification strategy coupled to protein identification and quantification by mass spectrometry (IP-MS) of PIPs was combined with data from the literature, to build thorough PIP1;2 and PIP2;1 interactomes, sharing about 400 interacting proteins. Such interactome revealed PIPs to behave as a platform for recruitment of a wide range of transport activities and provided novel insights into regulation of PIP cellular trafficking by osmotic and oxidative treatments. This work also pointed a role of lipid signaling in PIP function and enhanced our knowledge of protein kinases involved in PIP regulation. In particular we show that 2 members of the receptor-like kinase (RLK) family (RKL1 (At1g48480) and Feronia (At3g51550)) differentially modulate PIP activity through distinct molecular mechanisms. The overall work opens novel perspectives in understanding PIP regulatory mechanisms and their role in adjustment of plant water status.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In the post-genomic era newly sequenced genomes can be used to deduce organismal functions from our knowledge of other systems. Here we apply this approach to analyzing the aquaporin gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana. The aquaporins are intrinsic membrane proteins that have been characterized as facilitators of water flux. Originally termed major intrinsic proteins (MIPs), they are now also known as water channels, glycerol facilitators and aqua-glyceroporins, yet recent data suggest that they facilitate the movement of other low-molecular-weight metabolites as well. RESULTS:The Arabidopsis genome contains 38 sequences with homology to aquaporin in four subfamilies, termed PIP, TIP, NIP and SIP. We have analyzed aquaporin family structure and expression using the A. thaliana genome sequence, and introduce a new NMR approach for the purpose of analyzing water movement in plant roots in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:Our preliminary data indicate a strongly transcellular component for the flux of water in roots.
Project description:Conserved translocator proteins (TSPOs) mediate cell stress responses possibly in a cell-type-specific manner. This work reports on the molecular function of plant TSPO and their possible evolutionary divergence. Arabidopsis thaliana TSPO (AtTSPO) is stress induced and has a conserved polybasic, plant-specific N-terminal extension. AtTSPO reduces water loss by depleting aquaporin PIP2;7 in the plasma membrane. Herein, AtTSPO was found to bind phosphoinositides in vitro, but only full-length AtTSPO or chimeric mouse TSPO with an AtTSPO N-terminus bound PI(4,5)P2in vitro and modified PIP2;7 levels in vivo. Expression of AtTSPO but not its N-terminally truncated variant enhanced phospholipase C activity and depleted PI(4,5)P2 from the plasma membrane and its enrichment in Golgi membranes. Deletion or point mutations within the AtTSPO N-terminus affected PI(4,5)P2 binding and almost prevented AtTSPO-PIP2;7 interaction in vivo. The findings imply functional divergence of plant TSPOs from bacterial and animal counterparts via evolutionary acquisition of the phospholipid-interacting N-terminus.
Project description:Drought and high salinity are environmental conditions that cause adverse effects on the growth and productivity of crops. Aquaporins are small integral membrane proteins that belong to the family of the major intrinsic proteins (MIPs), with members in animals, plants and microbes, where they facilitate the transport of water and/or small neutral solutes thereby affecting water balance. In this study we characterized two aquaporin genes namely, plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP2;7) and tonoplast intrinsic protein TIP1;3 from Jatropha curcas that are localised to the plasma membrane and vacuole respectively. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines over-expressing JcPIP2;7 and JcTIP1;3 under a constitutive promoter show improved germination under high salt and mannitol compared to control seeds. These transgenic plants also show increased root length under abiotic stress conditions compared to wild type Col-0 plants. Transgenic lines exposed to drought conditions by withholding water for 20 days, were able to withstand water stress and attained normal growth after re-watering unlike control plants which could not survive. Transgenic lines also had better seed yield than control under salt stress. Importantly, seed viability of transgenic plants grown under high salt concentration was 35%-45% compared to less than 5% for control seeds obtained from plants growing under salt stress. The effect of JcPIP2;7 and JcTIP1;3 on improving germination and seed viability in drought and salinity make these important candidates for genetic manipulation of plants for growth in saline soils.
Project description:Major facilitators of water movement through plant cell membranes include aquaporin proteins. Wheat is among the largest and most important cereal crops worldwide; however, unlike other model plants such as rice, maize and Arabidopsis, little has been reported on wheat major intrinsic proteins (MIPs). This study presents a comprehensive computational identification of 349 new wheat expressed sequence tags (ESTs), encoding 13 wheat aquaporin genes. Identified aquaporins consist of 6 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIP) and 1 TIP showing high sequence similarity with rice aquaporins. We also identified 4 NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIP) and 2 SIP members that showed more divergence. Further, expression analysis of the aquaporin genes using the available EST information in UniGene revealed their transcripts were differentially regulated in various stress- and tissue-specific libraries. Allele specific Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) were designed using PIP as the target gene and validated on a core set of Indian wheat genotypes. A 3D theoretical model of the wheat aquaporin protein was built by homology modeling and could prove to be useful in the further functional characterization of this protein. Collectively with expression and bioinformatics analysis, our results support the idea that the genes identified in this study signify an important genetic resource providing potential targets to modify the water use properties of wheat.