Human recombinant endopeptidase PHEX has a strict S1' specificity for acidic residues and cleaves peptides derived from fibroblast growth factor-23 and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein.
ABSTRACT: The PHEX gene (phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome) encodes a protein (PHEX) with structural homologies to members of the M13 family of zinc metallo-endopeptidases. Mutations in the PHEX gene are responsible for X-linked hypophosphataemia in humans. However, the mechanism by which loss of PHEX function results in the disease phenotype, and the endogenous PHEX substrate(s) remain unknown. In order to study PHEX substrate specificity, combinatorial fluorescent-quenched peptide libraries containing o -aminobenzoic acid (Abz) and 2,4-dinitrophenyl (Dnp) as the donor-acceptor pair were synthesized and tested as PHEX substrates. PHEX showed a strict requirement for acidic amino acid residues (aspartate or glutamate) in S(1)' subsite, with a strong preference for aspartate. Subsites S(2)', S(1) and S(2) exhibited less defined specificity requirements, but the presence of leucine, proline or glycine in P(2)', or valine, isoleucine or histidine in P(1) precluded hydrolysis of the substrate by the enzyme. The peptide Abz-GFSDYK(Dnp)-OH, which contains the most favourable residues in the P(2) to P(2)' positions, was hydrolysed by PHEX at the N-terminus of aspartate with a k(cat)/ K(m) of 167 mM(-1) x s(-1). In addition, using quenched fluorescence peptides derived from fibroblast growth factor-23 and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein sequences flanked by Abz and N -(2,4-dinitrophenyl)ethylenediamine, we showed that these physiologically relevant proteins are potential PHEX substrates. Finally, our results clearly indicate that PHEX does not have neprilysin-like substrate specificity.
Project description:Internally quenched fluorescent (IQF) peptide substrates originating from FRET (Förster Resonance Energy Transfer) are powerful tool for examining the activity and specificity of proteases, and a variety of donor/acceptor pairs are extensively used to design individual substrates and combinatorial libraries. We developed a highly sensitive and adaptable donor/acceptor pair that can be used to investigate the substrate specificity of cysteine proteases, serine proteases and metalloproteinases. This novel pair comprises 7-amino-4-carbamoylmethylcoumarin (ACC) as the fluorophore and 2,4-dinitrophenyl-lysine (Lys(DNP)) as the quencher. Using caspase-3, caspase-7, caspase-8, neutrophil elastase, legumain, and two matrix metalloproteinases (MMP2 and MMP9), we demonstrated that substrates containing ACC/Lys(DNP) exhibit 7 to 10 times higher sensitivity than conventional 7-methoxy-coumarin-4-yl acetic acid (MCA)/Lys(DNP) substrates; thus, substantially lower amounts of substrate and enzyme can be used for each assay. We therefore propose that the ACC/Lys(DNP) pair can be considered a novel and sensitive scaffold for designing substrates for any group of endopeptidases. We further demonstrate that IQF substrates containing unnatural amino acids can be used to investigate protease activities/specificities for peptides containing post-translationally modified amino acids. Finally, we used IQF substrates to re-investigate the P1-Asp characteristic of caspases, thus demonstrating that some human caspases can also hydrolyze substrates after glutamic acid.
Project description:Metallocarboxypeptidases (MCP) of the M32 family of peptidases have been identified in a number of prokaryotic organisms but they are absent from eukaryotic genomes with the remarkable exception of those of trypanosomatids. The genome of Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of Sleeping Sickness, encodes one such MCP which displays 72% identity to the characterized TcMCP-1 from Trypanosoma cruzi. As its orthologue, TcMCP-1, Trypanosoma brucei MCP is a cytosolic enzyme expressed in both major stages of the parasite. Purified recombinant TbMCP-1 exhibits a significant hydrolytic activity against the carboxypeptidase B substrate FA (furylacryloil)-Ala-Lys at pH 7.0-7.8 resembling the T. cruzi enzyme. Several divalent cations had little effect on TbMCP-1 activity but increasing amounts of Co(2+) inhibited the enzyme. Despite having similar tertiary structure, both protozoan MCPs display different substrate specificity with respect to P1 position. Thus, TcMCP-1 enzyme cleaved Abz-FVK-(Dnp)-OH substrate (where Abz: o-aminobenzoic acid and Dnp: 2,4-dinitrophenyl) whereas TbMCP-1 had no activity on this substrate. Comparative homology models and sequence alignments using TcMCP-1 as a template led us to map several residues that could explain this difference. To verify this hypothesis, site-directed mutagenesis was undertaken replacing the TbMCP-1 residues by those present in TcMCP-1. We found that the substitution A414M led TbMCP-1 to gain activity on Abz-FVK-(Dnp)-OH, thus showing that this residue is involved in specificity determination, probably being part of the S1 sub-site. Moreover, the activity of both protozoan MCPs was explored on two vasoactive compounds such as bradykinin and angiotensin I resulting in two different hydrolysis patterns.
Project description:A systematic analysis of the peptide sequences and lengths of several homologues of bioactive peptides and of a number of quenched-fluorescence (qf) opioid- and bradykinin-related peptides was performed to determine the main features leading the oligopeptides to hydrolysis by the recombinant rat testis thimet oligopeptidase (EC 126.96.36.199). The results indicate that a minimum substrate length of six amino acids is required and that among the oligopeptides six to thirteen amino acid residues long, their susceptibility as substrates is highly variable. Thimet oligopeptidase was able to hydrolyse, with similar catalytic efficiency, peptide bonds having hydrophobic or hydrophilic amino acids as well as proline in the P1 position of peptides, ranging from a minimum of six to a maximum of approximately thirteen amino acid residues. An intriguing observation was the shift of the cleavage site, at a Leu-Arg bond in qf dynorphin-(2-8) [qf-Dyn2-8; Abz-GGFLRRV-EDDnp, where Abz stands for o-aminobenzoyl and EDDnp for N-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)ethylenediamine], to Arg-Arg in qf-Dyn2-8Q, in which Gln was substituted for Val at its C-terminus. Similarly, a cleavage site displacement was also observed with the hydrolysis of the internally quenched-fluorescence bradykinin analogues containing Gln at the C-terminal position, namely Abz-RPPGFSPFR-EDDnp and Abz-GFSPFR-EDDnp are cleaved at the Phe-Ser bond, but Abz-RPPGFSPFRQ-EDDnp and Abz-GFSPFRQ-EDDnp are cleaved at the Pro-Phe bond.
Project description:We have systematically examined the S3 to S3' subsite substrate specificity requirements of cathepsin K using internally quenched fluorescent peptides derived from the lead sequence Abz-KLRFSKQ-EDDnp [where Abz is o -aminobenzoic acid and EDDnp is N -(2,4-dinitrophenyl)ethylenediamine]. We assayed six series of peptides, in which each position except Gln was substituted with various natural amino acids. The results indicated that the S3-S1 subsite requirements are more restricted than those of S1'-S3'. Cathepsin K preferentially accommodates hydrophobic amino acids with aliphatic side chains (Leu, Ile and Val) in the S2 site. Modifications at P1 residues also have a large influence on cathepsin K activity. Positively charged residues (Arg and Lys) represent the best accepted amino acids in this position, although a particular preference for Gly was found as well. Subsite S3 accepted preferentially basic amino acids such as Lys and Arg. A broad range of amino acids was accommodated in the remaining subsites. We further explored the acceptance of a Pro residue in the P2 position by cathepsin K in order to develop specific substrates for the enzyme. Two series of peptides with the general sequences Abz-KXPGSKQ-EDDnp and Abz-KPXGSKQ-EDDnp (where X denotes the position of the amino acid that is altered) were synthesized. The substrates Abz-KPRGSKQ-EDDnp and Abz-KKPGSKQ-EDDnp were cleaved by cathepsin K at the Arg-Gly and Gly-Ser bonds respectively, and have been shown to be specific for cathepsin K when compared with other lysosomal cysteine proteases such as cathepsins L and B and with the aspartyl protease cathepsin D.
Project description:We characterized the extended substrate binding site of recombinant oligopeptidase B enzymes from Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc-OP) and Trypanosoma brucei (Tb-OP), evaluating the specificity of their S3, S2, S1', S2' and S3' subsites. Five series of internally quenched fluorescent peptides based on the substrate Abz-AGGRGAQ-EDDnp [where Abz is o -aminobenzoic acid and EDDnp is N -(2,4-dinitrophenyl)ethylenediamine] were designed to contain amino acid residues with side chains of a minimum size, and each residue position of this substrate was modified. Synthetic peptides of different lengths derived from the human kininogen sequence were also examined, and peptides of up to 17 amino acids were found to be hydrolysed by Tc-OP and Tb-OP. These two oligopeptidases were essentially arginyl hydrolases, since for all peptides examined the only cleavage site was the Arg-Xaa bond. We also demonstrated that Tc-OP and Tb-OP have a very specific carboxypeptidase activity for basic amino acids, which depends on the presence of at least of a pair of basic amino acids at the C-terminal end of the substrate. The peptide with triple Arg residues (Abz-AGRRRAQ-EDDnp) was an efficient substrate for Tc-OP and Tb-OP: the Arg-Ala peptide bond was cleaved first and then two C-terminal Arg residues were successively removed. The S1' subsite seems to be an important determinant of the specificity of both enzymes, showing a preference for Tyr, Ser, Thr and Gln as hydrogen donors. The presence of these amino acids at P1' resulted in substrates that were hydrolysed with K (m) values in the sub-micromolar range. Taken together, this work supports the view that oligopeptidase B is a specialized protein-processing enzyme with a specific carboxypeptidase activity. Excellent substrates were obtained for Tb-OP and Tc-OP (Abz-AMRRTISQ-EDDnp and Abz-AHKRYSHQ-EDDnp respectively), which were hydrolysed with remarkably high k (cat) and low K (m) values.
Project description:We have examined in detail the specificity of the subsites S1, S2, S1' and S2' for the carboxydipeptidase activity of cathepsin B by synthesizing and assaying four series of internally quenched fluorescent peptides based on the sequence Dnp-GFRFW-OH, where Dnp (2,4-dinitrophenyl) is the quenching group of the fluorescence of the tryptophan residue. Each position, except the glycine, was substituted with 15 different naturally occurring amino acids. Based on the results we obtained, we also synthesized efficient and sensitive substrates that contained o -aminobenzoic acid and 3-Dnp-(2,3-diaminopropionic acid), or epsilon-amino-Dnp-Lys, as the fluorescence donor-receptor pair. The higher kinetic parameter values for the carboxydipeptidase compared with the endopeptidase activity of cathepsin B allowed an accurate analysis of its specificity. The subsite S1 accepted preferentially basic amino acids for hydrolysis; however, substrates with phenylalanine and aliphatic side-chain-containing amino acids at P1 had lower K m values. Despite the presence of Glu245 at S2, this subsite presented clear preference for aromatic amino acid residues, and the substrate with a lysine residue at P2 was hydrolysed better than that containing an arginine residue. S1' is essentially a hydrophobic subsite, and S2' has particular preference for phenylalanine or tryptophan residues.
Project description:Mca-Gly-Asp-Ala-Glu-Tyr(PO(3)H(2))-Ala- Ala-Lys(DNP)-Arg-NH(2), where Mca is (7-methoxycoumarin-4-yl)acetyl and DNP is 2,4-dinitrophenyl, was synthesized as a fluorogenic substrate for protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). In the peptide, the fluorescent Mca group is quenched efficiently by the DNP group. Although the fluorescence intensity of the substrate was practically unchanged upon PTP-catalysed dephosphorylation, it increased approx. 120-fold upon subsequent treatment with chymotrypsin. Analysis by HPLC showed that chymotrypsin cleaved only the dephosphorylated substrate at the Tyr-Ala bond. Thus with the aid of chymotrypsin, dephosphorylation of the substrate can be measured fluorometrically. A strictly linear correlation was observed between PTP concentration and dephosphorylation rate. The fluorogenic substrate was dephosphorylated by some PTPs much more rapidly than the corresponding (32)P-labelled substrate used for comparison, whereas alkaline phosphatase dephosphorylated the two substrates at similar rates. The fluorogenic substrate is therefore more specific for PTPs than the radiolabelled substrate. The assay with the fluorogenic substrate could be applied to the estimation of kinetc parameters and measurement of PTP activity in crude-enzyme preparations. The lower detection limit of our assay (1 microM substrate in 200 microliter of reaction mixture) was estimated to be 0.2-0.4 pmol, whereas it was estimated to be about 1 pmol in the assay that used (32)P-labelled peptide (specific radioactivity of approx. 1000 c.p.m. /pmol). Our assay is simple, specific, highly sensitive and non-radioisotopic, and hence would contribute greatly to the development of PTP biology.
Project description:The kininogenase activities of mouse (mK1), rat (rK1) and human (hK1) tissue kallikreins were assayed with the bradykinin-containing synthetic peptides Abz-MTEMARRPPGFSPFRSVTVQNH2 (where Abz stands for o-aminobenzoyl) and Abz-MTSVIRRPPGFSPFRAPRV-NH2, which correspond to fragments Met374-Gln393 and Met375-Val393 of mouse and rat LMWKs (low-molecular-mass kininogens) with the addition of Abz. Bradykinin was released from these peptides by the mK1- and rK1-mediated hydrolysis of Arg-Arg and Arg-Ser (or Arg-Ala) peptide bonds. However, owing to preferential hydrolysis of Phe-Arg compared with the Arg-Ala bond in the peptide derived from rat LMWK, hK1 released bradykinin only from the mouse LMWK fragment and preferentially released des-[Arg9]bradykinin from the rat LMWK fragment (Abz-MTSVIRRPPGFSPFRAPRV-NH2). The formation of these hydrolysis products was examined in more detail by determining the kinetic parameters for the hydrolysis of synthetic, internally quenched fluorescent peptides containing six N- or C-terminal amino acids of bradykinin added to the five downstream or upstream residues of mouse and rat kininogens respectively. One of these peptides, Abz-GFSPFRAPRVQ-EDDnp (where EDDnp stands for ethylenediamine 2,4-dinitrophenyl), was preferentially hydrolysed at the Phe-Arg bond, confirming the potential des-[Arg9]bradykinin-releasing activity of hK1 on rat kininogen. The proline residue that is two residues upstream of bradykinin in rat kininogen is, in part, responsible for this pattern of hydrolysis, since the peptide Abz-GFSPFRASRVQ-EDDnp was preferentially cleaved at the Arg-Ala bond by hK1. Since this peptidase accepts the arginine or phenylalanine residue at its S1 subsite, this preference seems to be determined by the prime site of the substrates. These findings also suggested that the effects observed in rats overexpressing hK1 should consider the activation of B1 receptors by des-[Arg9]bradykinin. For further comparison, two short internally quenched fluorescent peptides that bind to hK1 with affinity in the nM range and some inhibitors described previously for hK1 were also assayed with mK1 and rK1.
Project description:Glucuronides and mercapturates were examined as possible high-affinity substrates for a low-affinity ATP-dependent transport system for 2,4-dinitrophenyl S-glutathione (DNP-SG) in mouse L1210 cells. Initial inhibitor studies with inside-out vesicles revealed that the low-affinity transport of [3H]DNP-SG (Km 450 microM) exhibits a high sensitivity to N-acetyl 2,4-dinitrophenyl cysteine (NAc-DNP-Cys) (Ki 5.0 microM) and alpha-naphthyl beta-D-glucuronide (naphthyl glucuronide) (Ki 8.5 microM). Direct transport measurements showed the presence of ATP-dependent uptake activities for NAc-DNP-[35S]Cys and naphthyl [14C] glucuronide, and Km values for half-maximal transport were comparable to the Ki values of these compounds for inhibition of [3H]DNP-SG transport. Transport of [3H]DNP-SG, NAc-DNP-[35S]Cys and naphthyl [14C]glucuronide each showed the same sensitivity to various anions and anion conjugates. Inhibition was competitive and was most potent for bilirubin ditaurate, indoprofen, 4-biphenylacetic acid, 4-acridine 4 beta-D-glucuronide, N-acetyl leukotriene E4, 17 beta-oestradiol 3 beta-D-glucuronide and taurolithocholate 3-sulphate. Inside-out vesicles from human erythrocytes contain a comparable ATP-dependent transport system. These results show that NAc-DNP-Cys and naphthyl glucuronide are high-affinity substrates for a single system identified previously as a low-affinity transporter of DNP-SG. Substrate and inhibitor studies identify this system as a novel multispecific organic-anion transport system (MOAT4) that accommodates glucuronides and mercapturates and is distinct from other MOAT transporters. Human erythrocytes contain an additional ATP-dependent system for NAc-DNP-Cys (Km 33 microM) that does not transport monoglucuronides.
Project description:DL-2-Amino-3-(7-methoxy-4-coumaryl)propionic acid, a new fluorescent amino acid (abbreviated to Amp), has been synthesized to provide an alternative to tryptophan in quenched fluorescent peptide substrates for peptidases. The model compound Ac-DL-Amp-NH2 was intensely fluorescent with an excitation maximum at 328 nm and an emission maximum at 392 nm. Fmoc (fluoren-9-ylmethoxycarbonyl)-DL-Amp was made to allow the solid-phase synthesis of Amp-containing peptides by the Fmoc-polyamide method. The peptide derivative Dnp (2,4-dinitrophenyl)-Pro-Leu-Gly-Pro-DL-Amp-D-Lys was cleaved by thimet peptidase at the Leu-Gly bond, with a 20-fold enhancement of fluorescence. The value of kcat./Km for thimet peptidase was 6.7 x 10(5) M-1.s-1, compared with the value of 2.4 x 10(5) M-1.s-1 for the tryptophan-containing analogue, Dnp-Pro-Leu-Gly-Pro-Trp-D-Lys.