Inhibition of staurosporine-induced apoptosis of endothelial cells by activated protein C requires protease-activated receptor-1 and endothelial cell protein C receptor.
ABSTRACT: In a model of staurosporine-induced apoptosis using EAhy926 endothelial cells, inhibition of apoptosis by activated protein C was dose-dependent and required the enzyme's active site, implicating activated protein C-mediated proteolysis. Consistent with this implication, both protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) were required for the anti-apoptotic effects of activated protein C.
Project description:Endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) and protease activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) by themselves play important role in cancer growth and dissemination. Moreover, interactions between the two receptors are essential for tumor progression. EPCR is a cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein localized predominantly on endothelial cells (ECs). It is a vital component of the activated protein C (APC)-mediated anticoagulant and cytoprotective signaling cascade. PAR-1, which belongs to a family of G protein?coupled cell surface receptors, is also widely distributed on endothelial and blood cells, where it plays a critical role in hemostasis. Both EPCR and PAR-1, generally considered coagulation-related receptors, are implicated in carcinogenesis and dissemination of diverse tumor types, and their expression correlates with clinical outcome of cancer patients. Existing data explain some mechanisms by which EPCR/PAR-1 affects cancer growth and metastasis; however, the exact molecular basis of cancer invasion associated with the signaling is still obscure. Here, we discuss the role of EPCR and PAR-1 reciprocal interactions in cancer progression as well as potential therapeutic options targeted specifically to interact with EPCR/PAR-1-induced signaling in cancer patients.
Project description:Endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) was first identified and isolated as a cellular receptor for protein C on endothelial cells. EPCR plays a crucial role in the protein C anticoagulant pathway by promoting protein C activation. In the last decade, EPCR has received wide attention after it was discovered to play a key role in mediating activated protein C (APC)-induced cytoprotective effects, including antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and barrier stabilization. APC elicits cytoprotective signaling through activation of protease activated receptor-1 (PAR1). Understanding how EPCR-APC induces cytoprotective effects through activation of PAR1, whose activation by thrombin is known to induce a proinflammatory response, has become a major research focus in the field. Recent studies also discovered additional ligands for EPCR, which include factor VIIa, Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein, and a specific variant of the T-cell receptor. These observations open unsuspected new roles for EPCR in hemostasis, malaria pathogenesis, innate immunity, and cancer. Future research on these new discoveries will undoubtedly expand our understanding of the role of EPCR in normal physiology and disease, as well as provide novel insights into mechanisms for EPCR multifunctionality. Comprehensive understanding of EPCR may lead to development of novel therapeutic modalities in treating hemophilia, inflammation, cerebral malaria, and cancer.
Project description:Although the binding of endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) to its ligands is well characterized at the biochemical level, it remains unclear how EPCR interaction with its ligands at the cell surface impacts its cellular trafficking. We characterized the cellular localization and trafficking of EPCR in endothelial cells and a heterologous expression system. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy studies revealed that a majority of EPCR is localized on the cell surface in membrane microdomains that are positive for caveolin-1. A small fraction of EPCR is also localized intracellularly in the recycling compartment. Factor VIIa (FVIIa) or activated protein C binding to EPCR promoted the internalization of EPCR. EPCR and EPCR-bound ligands were endocytosed rapidly via a dynamin- and caveolar-dependent pathway. The endocytosed receptor-ligand complexes were accumulated in a recycling compartment before being targeted back to the cell surface. EPCR-mediated FVIIa endocytosis/recycling also resulted in transport of FVIIa from the apical to the basal side. In vivo studies in mice showed that blockade of EPCR with EPCR-blocking antibodies impaired the early phase of FVIIa clearance. Overall, our results show that FVIIa or activated protein C binding to EPCR promotes EPCR endocytosis, and EPCR-mediated endocytosis may facilitate the transcytosis of FVIIa and its clearance from the circulation.
Project description:One- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins from bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) incubated with [gamma-32P]ATP revealed the preferential labelling of a cell-associated 21 kDa substrate. The labelling of this band was detectable within 30 s, increased up to 30 min and was stable for at least 3 h following the wash-out of the ATP. This protein was also labelled after incubation of the cells with [gamma-35S]ATP. Incorporation of radioactivity into the 21 kDa band did not occur if the endothelial cells were treated with low concentrations of trypsin (0.01%) before or after the labelling period. The pattern of BAEC protein phosphorylation by [gamma-32P]ATP was completely different from that of the fetal calf serum used for the cell culture. The presence of serum during the incubation of BAEC with [gamma-32P]ATP did not modify qualitatively the labelling pattern and, in particular, did not enhance the phosphorylation of the 21 kDa substrate; this suggests that neither the kinase nor the 21 kDa substrate are adsorbed serum proteins. Staurosporine, a protein kinase inhibitor with low specificity, decreased the labelling of the 21 kDa protein with an IC50 of 2 nM. In contrast, at 100 nM, staurosporine did not decrease the accumulation of inositol phosphates induced by ATP via the activation of P2y receptors. These data indicate the presence of aortic endothelial cells of an ecto-kinase which uses extracellular ATP to produce the selective and long-lived phosphorylation of a 21 kDa endothelial substrate. Ecto-phosphorylation of this protein might play a role in the modulation of endothelial cell functions by ATP, in addition to the P2y receptors [Boeynaems & Pearson (1990) Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 11, 34-37]. The exquisite sensitivity of ecto-phosphorylation to inhibition by staurosporine and its specific inhibition by some isoquinolinesulphonamide compounds provide potential pharmacological tools to investigate this hypothesis.
Project description:Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in host blood vessels is a key triggering event in the pathogenesis of severe childhood malaria, which is responsible for about one million deaths every year. Sequestration is mediated by specific interactions between members of the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family and receptors on the endothelial lining. Severe childhood malaria is associated with expression of specific PfEMP1 subtypes containing domain cassettes (DCs) 8 and 13 (ref. 3), but the endothelial receptor for parasites expressing these proteins was unknown. Here we identify endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), which mediates the cytoprotective effects of activated protein C, as the endothelial receptor for DC8 and DC13 PfEMP1. We show that EPCR binding is mediated through the amino-terminal cysteine-rich interdomain region (CIDR?1) of DC8 and group A PfEMP1 subfamilies, and that CIDR?1 interferes with protein C binding to EPCR. This PfEMP1 adhesive property links P. falciparum cytoadhesion to a host receptor involved in anticoagulation and endothelial cytoprotective pathways, and has implications for understanding malaria pathology and the development of new malaria interventions.
Project description:Essentials APC elicits cytoprotective responses in endothelial cells via EPCR-dependent cleavage of PAR1. APC inhibits LPS-mediated translocation and extracellular secretion of HMGB1 in endothelial cells. Signaling activity of APC inhibits LPS-mediated acetylation of HMGB1 by epigenetic mechanisms. APC inhibits LPS-mediated HMGB1 expression in CD31-positive endothelial cells in cremaster muscle. SUMMARY: Background Activated protein C (APC) inhibits high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) signaling and its lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated release by endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR)-dependent activation of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) in endothelial cells. Post-translational acetylation is known to modulate the subcellular localization of HMGB1, and its hyperacetylated form is translocated to the cytoplasm of innate immune cells before being secreted into the extracellular space. Objective To determine whether APC inhibits LPS-mediated HMGB1 secretion from endothelial cells by modulating its acetylation status. Methods The subcellular localization of HMGB1 in LPS-treated endothelial cells was monitored in the absence and presence of APC by western blot analysis of fractionated cell lysates and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Results Both western blot and immunofluorescence data indicated that APC effectively inhibits LPS-mediated translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by EPCR-dependent and PAR1-dependent mechanisms. When EPCR was ligated by the Gla-domain of protein C/APC, thrombin also inhibited LPS-mediated HMGB1 translocation. Further studies revealed that APC inhibits the translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by inhibiting LPS-mediated hyperacetylation of HMGB1 by (de)acetylating enzymes. Furthermore, the translocated HMGB1 was found to be associated with lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 in LPS-treated endothelial cells. The in vivo relevance of these findings was investigated in the mouse cremaster muscle, and this demonstrated that both wild-type APC and a signaling-selective mutant of APC inhibit LPS-mediated HMGB1 expression and translocation in CD31-positive endothelial cells. Conclusion These results suggest that APC inhibits LPS-mediated cytoplasmic translocation and secretion of HMGB1 in endothelial cells by epigenetic mechanisms.
Project description:Cytoadhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) is associated with severe malaria. It has been postulated that parasite binding could exacerbate microvascular coagulation and endothelial dysfunction in cerebral malaria by impairing the protein C-EPCR interaction, but the extent of binding inhibition has not been fully determined. Here we expressed the cysteine-rich interdomain region (CIDR?1) domain from a variety of domain cassette (DC) 8 and DC13 P.?falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 proteins and show they interact in a distinct manner with EPCR resulting in weak, moderate and strong inhibition of the activated protein C (APC)-EPCR interaction. Overall, there was a positive correlation between CIDR?1-EPCR binding activity and APC blockade activity. In addition, our analysis from a combination of mutagenesis and blocking antibodies finds that an Arg81 (R81) in EPCR plays a pivotal role in CIDR?1 binding, but domains with weak and strong APC blockade activity were distinguished by their sensitivity to inhibition by anti-EPCR mAb 1535, implying subtle differences in their binding footprints. These data reveal a previously unknown functional heterogeneity in the interaction between P.?falciparum and EPCR and have major implications for understanding the distinct clinical pathologies of cerebral malaria and developing new treatment strategies.
Project description:Endothelial Protein C Receptor (EPCR) is a Major Histocompatibility Complex homologue, with established roles downregulating coagulation and in endothelial protection. Expressed predominantly on endothelium, EPCR affects inflammatory, apoptotic and cell proliferation pathways by binding to activated protein C (APC). However, EPCR can also be expressed on cancer cells, although the underlying reasons are unclear. Moreover, although EPCR has been linked with chemosensitivity in lung cancer, its clinical significance in many tumours is unknown. Here, we explored its significance in colorectal cancer (CRC). Bioinformatic methods revealed EPCR overexpression in many epithelial cancers, which was confirmed on CRC epithelial tumour cells by immunohistochemistry. EPCR upregulation resulted from gene amplification and DNA hypomethylation, and occurred in concert with a cohort of neighbouring genes on chromosome 20q, a region previously implicated in chemoresistance. As in endothelial cells, EPCR reproducibly mediated ERK pathway activation in a model CRC cell line following APC treatment. However, EPCR knockdown studies failed to highlight compelling EPCR-intrinsic impact on CRC cell phenotype, with limited effects on chemosensitivity and no effect on invasion observed, while EPCR appeared to decrease CRC cell migration. Consistent with these observations, differential EPCR expression did not influence response to chemotherapy in a human CRC cohort. Our results provide a compelling explanation for how EPCR is upregulated in diverse epithelial malignancies. They indicate that the clinical significance of EPCR varies across different tumour types. Furthermore, they raise the possibility that the prognostic significance of EPCR in certain tumours relates significantly to co-upregulation of neighbouring genes on chromosome 20q. Therefore, efforts to exploit EPCR as a prognostic marker should be focussed on specific tumours, and in such scenarios EPCR-co-dysregulated genes may represent potential axes for therapeutic intervention.
Project description:The direct cytoprotective activities of activated protein C (APC) on cells convey therapeutic, relevant, beneficial effects in injury and disease models in vivo and require the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) and protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1). Thrombin also activates PAR1, but its effects on cells contrast APC's cytoprotective effects. To gain insights into mechanisms for these contrasting cellular effects, protease activated receptor 3 (PAR3) activation by APC and thrombin was studied. APC cleaved PAR3 on transfected and endothelial cells in the presence of EPCR. Remarkably, APC cleaved a synthetic PAR3 N-terminal peptide at Arg41, whereas thrombin cleaved at Lys38. On cells, APC failed to cleave R41Q-PAR3, whereas K38Q-PAR3 was still cleaved by APC but not by thrombin. PAR3 tethered-ligand peptides beginning at amino acid 42, but not those beginning at amino acid 39, conveyed endothelial barrier-protective effects. In vivo, the APC-derived PAR3 tethered-ligand peptide, but not the thrombin-derived PAR3 peptide, blunted vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced vascular permeability. These data indicate that PAR3 cleavage by APC at Arg41 can initiate distinctive APC-like cytoprotective effects. These novel insights help explain the differentiation of APC's cytoprotective versus thrombin's proinflammatory effects on cells and suggest a unique contributory role for PAR3 in the complex mechanisms underlying APC cytoprotective effects.
Project description:Wound healing is an important outcome of tissue damage and can be stimulated by adenosine released from cells during events such as tissue injury, ischaemia or tumour growth. The aim of this research was to determine the potency and efficacy of adenosine A1, A2A and A2B receptor agonists on the rate of wound healing and cell proliferation in human EA.hy926 endothelial cells. Real-time PCR data showed that only adenosine A1, A2A and A2B receptor mRNA were expressed in this cell line. All three adenosine receptor agonists, CPA, CGS21680 and NECA, significantly increased the rate of wound healing in human EAhy926 endothelial cells with the following order of potency CGS21680>CPA>NECA and efficacy CPA>NECA>CGS21680. The selective adenosine A1, A2A and A2B receptor antagonists, DPCPX, ZM241385 and MRS1754 (all at 10 nM), reversed the effects of their respective agonists. EAhy926 endothelial cell proliferation was also significantly increased with the adenosine A1 and A2B receptor agonists, CPA and NECA. Western blot analysis demonstrated that adenosine A2A and A1 receptor protein levels were highly expressed compared with the adenosine A2B receptors in the EAhy926 endothelial cell lines. While all three adenosine A1, A2A and A2B receptor subtypes contribute to cell proliferation and wound healing in human EAhy926 endothelial cells, treatments selectively targeting receptor subtypes may further enhance wound healing.