Different modes of internalization of apoptotic alkyl-lysophospholipid and cell-rescuing lysophosphatidylcholine.
ABSTRACT: The synthetic alkyl-lysophospholipid (ALP), Et-18-OCH3 (1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine), can induce apoptosis in tumour cells. Unlike conventional chemotherapeutic drugs, ALP acts at the cell-membrane level. We have reported previously that ALP is internalized, and interferes with phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis de novo, which appeared to be essential for survival in lymphoma cells [Van der Luit, Budde, Ruurs, Verheij and Van Blitterswijk (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 39541-39547]. Here, we report that, in HeLa cells, ALP accumulates in lipid rafts, and that internalization is inhibited by low temperature, monensin, disruption of lipid rafts and expression of a dominant-negative mutant of dynamin bearing a replacement of Lys44 with alanine (K44A). Thus ALP is internalized via raft- and dynamin-mediated endocytosis. Dynamin-K44A alleviated the ALP-induced inhibition of PC synthesis and rescued the cells from apoptosis induction. Additional cell rescue was attained by exogenous lysoPC, which after internalization serves as an alternative substrate for PC synthesis (through acylation). Unlike ALP, and despite the high structural similarity to ALP, lysoPC uptake did not occur via lipid rafts and did not depend on functional dynamin, indicating no involvement of endocytosis. Albumin back-extraction experiments suggested that (radiolabelled) lysoPC undergoes transbilayer movement (flipping). We conclude that ALP is internalized by endocytosis via lipid rafts to cause apoptosis, while exogenous cell-rescuing lysoPC traverses the plasma membrane outside rafts by flipping. Additionally, our data imply the importance of ether bonds in lyso-phospholipids, such as in ALP, for partitioning in lipid rafts.
Project description:Intestinal mucosal inflammation is associated with epithelial wounds that rapidly reseal by migration of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Cell migration involves cycles of cell-matrix adhesion/deadhesion that is mediated by dynamic turnover (assembly and disassembly) of integrin-based focal adhesions. Integrin endocytosis appears to be critical for deadhesion of motile cells. However, mechanisms of integrin internalization during remodeling of focal adhesions of migrating IECs are not understood. This study was designed to define the endocytic pathway that mediates internalization of beta(1)-integrin in migrating model IECs. We observed that, in SK-CO15 and T84 colonic epithelial cells, beta(1)-integrin is internalized in a dynamin-dependent manner. Pharmacological inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis or macropinocytosis and small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knock down of clathrin did not prevent beta(1)-integrin internalization. However, beta(1)-integrin internalization was inhibited following cholesterol extraction and after overexpression of lipid raft protein, caveolin-1. Furthermore, internalized beta(1)-integrin colocalized with the lipid rafts marker cholera toxin, and siRNA-mediated knockdown of caveolin-1 and flotillin-1/2 increased beta(1)-integrin endocytosis. Our data suggest that, in migrating IEC, beta(1)-integrin is internalized via a dynamin-dependent lipid raft-mediated pathway. Such endocytosis is likely to be important for disassembly of integrin-based cell-matrix adhesions and therefore in regulating IEC migration and wound closure.
Project description:The ALP (alkyl-lysophospholipid) edelfosine (1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine; Et-18-OCH3) induces apoptosis in S49 mouse lymphoma cells. To this end, ALP is internalized by lipid raft-dependent endocytosis and inhibits phosphatidylcholine synthesis. A variant cell-line, S49AR, which is resistant to ALP, was shown previously to be unable to internalize ALP via this lipid raft pathway. The reason for this uptake failure is not understood. In the present study, we show that S49AR cells are unable to synthesize SM (sphingomyelin) due to down-regulated SMS1 (SM synthase 1) expression. In parental S49 cells, resistance to ALP could be mimicked by small interfering RNA-induced SMS1 suppression, resulting in SM deficiency and blockage of raft-dependent internalization of ALP and induction of apoptosis. Similar results were obtained by treatment of the cells with myriocin/ISP-1, an inhibitor of general sphingolipid synthesis, or with U18666A, a cholesterol homoeostasis perturbing agent. U18666A is known to inhibit Niemann-Pick C1 protein-dependent vesicular transport of cholesterol from endosomal compartments to the trans-Golgi network and the plasma membrane. U18666A reduced cholesterol partitioning in detergent-resistant lipid rafts and inhibited SM synthesis in S49 cells, causing ALP resistance similar to that observed in S49AR cells. The results are explained by the strong physical interaction between (newly synthesized) SM and available cholesterol at the Golgi, where they facilitate lipid raft formation. We propose that ALP internalization by lipid-raft-dependent endocytosis represents the retrograde route of a constitutive SMS1- and lipid-raft-dependent membrane vesicular recycling process.
Project description:When clathrin-dependent endocytosis is inhibited in HeLa cells by overexpression of a K44A (Lys(44)-->Ala) mutant of the GTPase dynamin, high-affinity binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to the EGF receptor (EGFR) is disrupted [Ringerike, Stang, Johannessen, Sandnes, Levy and Madshus (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 16639-16642]. We now report that the effect of [K44A]dynamin on EGF binding was counteracted by incubation with the non-specific kinase inhibitor staurosporine (SSP), implying that a protein kinase is responsible for disrupted high-affinity binding of EGF upon overexpression of [K44A]dynamin. The effect of [K44A]dynamin on EGF binding was not due to altered phosphorylation of the EGFR, suggesting that the activated kinase is responsible for phosphorylation of a substrate other than EGFR. The number of EGFR molecules was increased in cells overexpressing [K44A]dynamin, while the number of proto-oncoprotein ErbB2 molecules was unaltered. EGF-induced receptor dimerization was not influenced by overexpression of [K44A]dynamin. ErbB2-EGFR heterodimer formation was found to be ligand-independent, and the number of heterodimers was not altered by overexpression of [K44A]dynamin. Neither SSP nor the phorbol ester PMA, which disrupts high-affinity EGF-EGFR interaction, had any effect on the EGFR homo- or hetero-dimerization. Furthermore, the EGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of ErbB2 was not affected by overexpression of [K44A]dynamin, implying that EGFR-ErbB2 dimers were fully functional. Our results strongly suggest that high-affinity binding of EGF and EGFR-ErbB2 heterodimerization are regulated by different mechanisms.
Project description:To understand the role of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in the internalization of normal cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) in neuronal cells, N2a cells were depleted of clathrin by RNA interference. PrP(c) internalization via the constitutive endocytic pathway in the absence of Cu(2+) and the stimulated pathway in the presence of Cu(2+) were measured in both control and clathrin-depleted cells. Depletion of clathrin had almost no effect on the internalization of PrP(c) either in the presence or absence of Cu(2+), in contrast to the marked reduction observed in transferrin uptake. By contrast, the internalization of PrP(c) was inhibited by the raft-disrupting drugs filipin and nystatin, and by the dominant-negative dynamin-1 mutant dynamin-1 K44A, both in the presence and absence of Cu(2+). The internalized PrP(c) was found to colocalize with cargo that traffic in the Arf6 pathway and in large vacuoles in cells expressing the Arf6 dominant-active mutant. These results show that PrP(c) is internalized in a clathrin-independent pathway that is associated with Arf6.
Project description:Dynamin GTPase activity is required for its biological function in clathrin-mediated endocytosis; however, the role of self-assembly has not been unambiguously established. Indeed, overexpression of a dynamin mutant, Dyn1-K694A, with impaired ability to self-assemble has been shown to stimulate endocytosis in HeLa cells (Sever et al., Nature 1999, 398, 481). To identify new, assembly-incompetent mutants of dynamin 1, we made point mutations in the GTPase effector/assembly domain (GED) and tested for their effects on self-assembly and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Mutation of three residues, I690, K694, and I697, suggests that interactions with an amphipathic helix in GED are required for self-assembly. In particular, Dyn1-I690K failed to exhibit detectable assembly-stimulated GTPase activity under all assay conditions. Overexpression of this assembly-incompetent mutant inhibited transferrin endocytosis as potently as the GTPase-defective dominant-negative mutant, Dyn1-K44A. However, worm-like endocytic intermediates accumulated in cells expressing Dyn1-I690K that were structurally distinct from long tubules that accumulated in cells expressing Dyn1-K44A. Together these results provide new structural insight into the role of GED in self-assembly and assembly-stimulated GTPase activity and establish that dynamin self-assembly is essential for clathrin-mediated endocytosis.
Project description:The entry of two dengue virus (DENV) serotypes into Vero cells was analysed using biochemical inhibitors, dominant negative mutants of cellular proteins involved in endocytic pathways, fluorescence microscopy and infectivity determinations. By treatment with dansylcadaverine and chlorpromazine and overexpression of a dominant negative form of the Eps15 protein, a clathrin-mediated endocytosis for productive DENV-1 internalization into Vero cells was demonstrated whereas the infectious entry of DENV-2 in the same cell system was independent of clathrin. Treatment with the inhibitors nystatin and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, as well as transfection of Vero cells with dominant negative caveolin-1, had no effect on DENV-2 virus infection. It was also shown, by using the K44A mutant and the inhibitor dynasore, that dynamin was required for DENV-2 entry. Consequently, the infectious entry of DENV-2 into Vero cells occurs by a non-classical endocytic pathway independent of clathrin, caveolae and lipid rafts, but dependent on dynamin. By contrast, DENV-2 entry into A549 cells was clathrin-dependent, as previously reported in HeLa, C6/36 and BS-C-1 cells. Our results conclusively show, for the first time, a differential mode of infective entry for DENV-1 and DENV-2 into a common host cell, Vero cells, as well as alternative entry pathways for a given serotype, DENV-2, into different types of cells.
Project description:Tetraspanin CD82 suppresses cell migration, tumor invasion, and tumor metastasis. To determine the mechanism by which CD82 inhibits motility, most studies have focused on the cell surface CD82, which forms tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs) with other transmembrane proteins, such as integrins. In this study, we found that CD82 undergoes endocytosis and traffics to endosomes and lysosomes. To determine the endocytic mechanism of CD82, we demonstrated that dynamin and clathrin are not essential for CD82 internalization. Depletion or sequestration of sterol in the plasma membrane markedly inhibited the endocytosis of CD82. Despite the demand on Cdc42 activity, CD82 endocytosis is distinct from macropinocytosis and the documented dynamin-independent pinocytosis. As a TEM component, CD82 reorganizes TEMs and lipid rafts by redistributing cholesterol into these membrane microdomains. CD82-containing TEMs are characterized by the cholesterol-containing microdomains in the extreme light- and intermediate-density fractions. Moreover, the endocytosis of CD82 appears to alleviate CD82-mediated inhibition of cell migration. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that lipid-dependent endocytosis drives CD82 trafficking to late endosomes and lysosomes, and CD82 reorganizes TEMs and lipid rafts through redistribution of cholesterol.
Project description:The tight junction (TJ) determines epithelial barrier function. Actin depolymerization disrupts TJ structure and barrier function, but the mechanisms of this effect remain poorly understood. The goal of this study was to define these mechanisms. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein-, enhanced yellow fluorescent protein-, or monomeric red fluorescent protein 1-fusion proteins of beta-actin, occludin, claudin-1, ZO-1, clathrin light chain A1, and caveolin-1 were imaged by time-lapse multidimensional fluorescence microscopy with simultaneous measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). Actin depolymerization was induced with latrunculin A (LatA). Within minutes of LatA addition TER began to fall. This coincided with occludin redistribution and internalization. In contrast, ZO-1 and claudin-1 redistribution occurred well after maximal TER loss. Occludin internalization and TER loss, but not actin depolymerization, were blocked at 14 degrees C, suggesting that membrane traffic is required for both events. Inhibition of membrane traffic with 0.4 M sucrose also blocked occludin internalization and TER loss. Internalized occludin colocalized with caveolin-1 and dynamin II, but not with clathrin, and internalization was blocked by dominant negative dynamin II (K44A), but not by Eps15Delta95-295 expression. Inhibition of caveolae-mediated endocytosis by cholesterol extraction prevented both LatA-induced TER loss and occludin internalization. Thus, LatA-induced actin depolymerization causes TJ structural and functional disruption by mechanisms that include caveolae-mediated endocytosis of TJ components.
Project description:HM1.24/Bst2/CD317 is a protein highly expressed in multiple myeloma cells and has unique topology with two membrane anchor domains, an NH2-terminal transmembrane domain and a glycosylphosphatidylinositol attached to the COOH terminus. We show here that human HM1.24 is localized not only on the cell surface but also in the trans-Golgi network and/or recycling endosomes, where it resides in detergent-resistant microdomains, lipid rafts. In contrast to other glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, HM1.24 was internalized from lipid rafts on the cell surface by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Interestingly, a non-canonical tyrosine-based motif, which contains two tyrosine residues, Tyr-6 and Tyr-8, present in the NH2-terminal cytoplasmic tail, was essential for endocytosis through interaction with an Deltaa-adaptin, but not mu2-subunit, of the AP-2 complex. Indeed, an appendage domain of alpha-adaptin was identified as a protein interacting with the cytoplasmic tail of HM1.24. Furthermore, overexpression of the appendage domain of alpha-adaptin in cells depleted of alpha-adaptin could rescue the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of HM1.24 but not of the transferrin receptor. Taken together, our findings suggest that clathrin-dependent endocytosis of human HM1.24 from the cell surface lipid rafts is mediated by direct interaction with alpha-adaptin.
Project description:Dynamin is a 100 kDa GTPase that organizes into helical assemblies at the base of nascent clathrin-coated vesicles. Formation of these oligomers stimulates the intrinsic GTPase activity of dynamin, which is necessary for efficient membrane fission during endocytosis. Recent evidence suggests that the transition state of dynamin's GTP hydrolysis reaction serves as a key determinant of productive fission. Here, we present the structure of a transition-state-defective dynamin mutant K44A trapped in a prefission state at 12.5 Å resolution. This structure constricts to 3.7 nm, reaching the theoretical limit required for spontaneous membrane fission. Computational docking indicates that the ground-state conformation of the dynamin polymer is sufficient to achieve this superconstricted prefission state and reveals how a two-start helical symmetry promotes the most efficient packing of dynamin tetramers around the membrane neck. These data suggest a model for the assembly and regulation of the minimal dynamin fission machine.