Secrets of insulin and IGF-1 regulation of insulin secretion revealed.
ABSTRACT: There has been ongoing controversy over the respective roles of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors and insulin receptors in controlling insulin release from beta-cells of the pancreas. An acute knock-down experiment exploiting small interfering RNA approaches provides a resolution: both are required.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is unrivalled the deadliest gastrointestinal cancer in the western world. There is substantial evidence implying that insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling axis prompt PDAC into an advanced stage by enhancing tumor growth, metastasis and by driving therapy resistance. Numerous efforts have been made to block Insulin/IGF signaling pathway in cancer therapy. However, therapies that target the IGF1 receptor (IGF-1R) and IGF subtypes (IGF-1 and IGF-2) have been repeatedly unsuccessful. This failure may not only be due to the complexity and homology that is shared by Insulin and IGF receptors, but also due to the complex stroma-cancer interactions in the pancreas. Shedding light on the interactions between the endocrine/exocrine pancreas and the stroma in PDAC is likely to steer us toward the development of novel treatments. In this review, we highlight the stroma-derived IGF signaling and IGF-binding proteins as potential novel therapeutic targets in PDAC.
Project description:The all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) isomer, 9-cis-retinoic acid (9cRA), activates retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) in vitro. RARs control multiple genes, whereas RXRs serve as partners for RARs and other nuclear receptors that regulate metabolism. Physiological function has not been determined for 9cRA, because it has not been detected in serum or multiple tissues with analytically validated assays. Here, we identify 9cRA in mouse pancreas by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), and show that 9cRA decreases with feeding and after glucose dosing and varies inversely with serum insulin. 9cRA reduces glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in mouse islets and in the rat ?-cell line 832/13 within 15 min by reducing glucose transporter type 2 (Glut2) and glucokinase (GK) activities. 9cRA also reduces Pdx-1 and HNF4? mRNA expression, ?8- and 80-fold, respectively: defects in Pdx-1 or HNF4? cause maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY4 and 1, respectively), as does a defective GK gene (MODY2). Pancreas ?-cells generate 9cRA, and mouse models of reduced ?-cell number, heterozygous Akita mice, and streptozotocin-treated mice have reduced 9cRA. 9cRA is abnormally high in glucose-intolerant mice, which have ?-cell hypertropy, including mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) and ob/ob and db/db mice. These data establish 9cRA as a pancreas-specific autacoid with multiple mechanisms of action and provide unique insight into GSIS.
Project description:Peptides derived from the glucagon gene Gcg, for example, glucagon and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), act as physiological regulators of fuel metabolism and are thus of major interest in the pathogenesis of diseases, such as type-2 diabetes and obesity, and their therapeutic management. Glicentin-related pancreatic polypeptide (GRPP) is a further, 30 amino acid Gcg-derived peptide identified in human, mouse, rat, and pig. However, the potential glucoregulatory function of this peptide is largely unknown. Here, we synthesized rat GRPP (rGRPP) and a closely related peptide, rat GRPP-like peptide (rGRPP-LP), and investigated their actions in the liver and pancreas of adult male rats by employing isolated-perfused organ preparations. Rat GRPP and rGRPP-LP did not affect glucose output from the liver, but both elicited potent inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from the rat pancreas. This action is unlikely to be mediated by glucagon or GLP-1 receptors, as rGRPP and rGRPP-LP did not stimulate cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production from the glucagon or GLP-1 receptors, nor did they antagonize glucagon- or GLP-1-stimulated cAMP-production at either receptor. GRPP and GRPP-LP may be novel regulators of insulin secretion, acting through an as-yet undefined receptor.
Project description:Activating signal cointegrator 2 (ASC-2) is a transcriptional coactivator of many nuclear receptors (NRs) and other transcription factors and contains two NR-interacting LXXLL motifs (NR boxes). In the pancreas, ASC-2 is expressed only in the endocrine cells of the islets of Langerhans, but not in the exocrine cells. Thus, we examined the potential role of ASC-2 in insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells. Overexpressed ASC-2 increased glucose-elicited insulin secretion, whereas insulin secretion was decreased in islets from ASC-2+/- mice. DN1 and DN2 are two dominant-negative fragments of ASC-2 that contain NR boxes 1 and 2, respectively, and block the interactions of cognate NRs with the endogenous ASC-2. Primary rat islets ectopically expressing DN1 or DN2 exhibited decreased insulin secretion. Furthermore, relative to the wild type, ASC-2+/- mice showed reduced islet mass and number, which correlated with increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation of ASC-2+/- islets. These results suggest that ASC-2 regulates insulin secretion and beta-cell survival and that the regulatory role of ASC-2 in insulin secretion appears to involve, at least in part, its interaction with NRs via its two NR boxes.
Project description:PPAR?/? protects against obesity by reducing dyslipidemia and insulin resistance via effects in muscle, adipose tissue, and liver. However, its function in pancreas remains ill defined. To gain insight into its hypothesized role in ? cell function, we specifically deleted Pparb/d in the epithelial compartment of the mouse pancreas. Mutant animals presented increased numbers of islets and, more importantly, enhanced insulin secretion, causing hyperinsulinemia. Gene expression profiling of pancreatic ? cells indicated a broad repressive function of PPAR?/? affecting the vesicular and granular compartment as well as the actin cytoskeleton. Analyses of insulin release from isolated PPAR?/?-deficient islets revealed an accelerated second phase of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. These effects in PPAR?/?-deficient islets correlated with increased filamentous actin (F-actin) disassembly and an elevation in protein kinase D activity that altered Golgi organization. Taken together, these results provide evidence for a repressive role for PPAR?/? in ? cell mass and insulin exocytosis, and shed a new light on PPAR?/? metabolic action.
Project description:Dysregulation of lipid homeostasis is intimately associated with defects in insulin secretion, a key feature of type 2 diabetes. Here, we explore the role of the putative lipid transporter ABCA12 in regulating insulin secretion from ?-cells. Mice with ?-cell-specific deletion of Abca12 display impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and eventual islet inflammation and ?-cell death. ABCA12's action in the pancreas is independent of changes in the abundance of two other cholesterol transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1, or of changes in cellular cholesterol or ceramide content. Instead, loss of ABCA12 results in defects in the genesis and fusion of insulin secretory granules and increases in the abundance of lipid rafts at the cell membrane. These changes are associated with dysregulation of the small GTPase CDC42 and with decreased actin polymerisation. Our findings establish a new, pleiotropic role for ABCA12 in regulating pancreatic lipid homeostasis and insulin secretion.
Project description:Sir2 and insulin/IGF-1 are the major pathways that impinge upon aging in lower organisms. In Caenorhabditis elegans a possible genetic link between Sir2 and the insulin/IGF-1 pathway has been reported. Here we investigate such a link in mammals. We show that Sirt1 positively regulates insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells. Sirt1 represses the uncoupling protein (UCP) gene UCP2 by binding directly to the UCP2 promoter. In beta cell lines in which Sirt1 is reduced by SiRNA, UCP2 levels are elevated and insulin secretion is blunted. The up-regulation of UCP2 is associated with a failure of cells to increase ATP levels after glucose stimulation. Knockdown of UCP2 restores the ability to secrete insulin in cells with reduced Sirt1, showing that UCP2 causes the defect in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Food deprivation induces UCP2 in mouse pancreas, which may occur via a reduction in NAD (a derivative of niacin) levels in the pancreas and down-regulation of Sirt1. Sirt1 knockout mice display constitutively high UCP2 expression. Our findings show that Sirt1 regulates UCP2 in beta cells to affect insulin secretion.
Project description:1. A method was devised for the isolation of islets of Langerhans from rabbit pancreas by collagenase digestion in order to study the influx and efflux of K(+) in islets during insulin secretion. 2. Glucose-induced insulin release was accompanied by an increased rate of uptake of (42)K(+) by the islets of Langerhans, though this was not the case for secretion in response to tolbutamide. Ouabain significantly inhibited the uptake of (42)K(+) by islet tissue. 3. No significant increase in the rate of efflux of (42)K(+) was demonstrated during active insulin secretion. 4. Slices of rabbit pancreas were incubated in media of different K(+) content, and rates of insulin release were determined. Alteration of the K(+) concentration of the medium between 3 and 8mm had no effect on the rate of insulin release by pancreas slices. However, decrease of the K(+) concentration to 1mm resulted in inhibition of secretion in response to both glucose and to tolbutamide. Conversely, an increase in K(+) concentration increased rates of insulin release in response to both these stimuli. 5. It is concluded that, though unphysiological concentrations of K(+) may influence the secretion of insulin, fluxes of K(+) in the islets do not appear to be important in the initiation of insulin secretion.
Project description:1. An immunological method for the purification of small quantities of insulin has been devised. 2. This method has been used to isolate labelled insulin secreted from pancreas slices incubated in vitro. The insulin had previously been labelled by incubation of the slices with [(3)H]leucine in vitro. 3. There is some release of labelled insulin when such slices are further incubated in media of low glucose content. When the glucose content of the medium is raised, little additional radioactive insulin is released in the first hour after labelling. However, there is a marked increase in specific radioactivity of insulin released from slices in response to a high concentration of glucose in the second and third hours. Release of labelled insulin is again diminished in the final phase, 4hr. from the start of the experiment. 4. These results are discussed in relation to possible mechanisms of insulin release from the beta-cell.
Project description:SOX17 is a key transcriptional regulator that can act by regulating other transcription factors including HNF1? and FOXA2, which are known to regulate postnatal ? cell function. Given this, we investigated the role of SOX17 in the developing and postnatal pancreas and found a novel role for SOX17 in regulating insulin secretion. Deletion of the Sox17 gene in the pancreas (Sox17-paLOF) had no observable impact on pancreas development. However, Sox17-paLOF mice had higher islet proinsulin protein content, abnormal trafficking of proinsulin, and dilated secretory organelles suggesting that Sox17-paLOF adult mice are prediabetic. Consistant with this, Sox17-paLOF mice were more susceptible to aged-related and high fat diet-induced hyperglycemia and diabetes. Overexpression of Sox17 in mature ? cells using Ins2-rtTA driver mice resulted in precocious secretion of proinsulin. Transcriptionally, SOX17 appears to broadly regulate secretory networks since a 24-hour pulse of SOX17 expression resulted in global transcriptional changes in factors that regulate hormone transport and secretion. Lastly, transient SOX17 overexpression was able to reverse the insulin secretory defects observed in MODY4 animals and restored euglycemia. Together, these data demonstrate a critical new role for SOX17 in regulating insulin trafficking and secretion and that modulation of Sox17-regulated pathways might be used therapeutically to improve cell function in the context of diabetes.