Autolytic activation and localization in Schneider cells (S2) of calpain B from Drosophila.
ABSTRACT: Calpain B is one of the two calpain homologues in Drosophila melanogaster that are proteolytically active. We studied its activation by Ca2+ both in vitro and in vivo, in Schneider (S2) cells. Activation involves the autolytic cleavage, at two major sites, of the N-terminal segment, the length of which was earlier underestimated. Site-directed mutagenesis at the autolytic sites did not prevent autolysis, but only shifted its sites. Calpain B mRNA was detectable in all developmental stages of the fly. In situ hybridization and immunostaining showed expression in ovaries, embryo and larvae, with high abundance in larval salivary glands. In S2 cells, calpain B was mainly in the cytoplasm and upon a rise in Ca2+ the enzyme adhered to intracellular membranes.
Project description:When chicken calpain II autolysed in the presence of Ca2+, it underwent limited proteolysis to give peptides of Mr 54,000 and 37,000, and several of Mr approx. 30,000 and 18,000. The autolytic peptides were purified and their N-terminal amino acid sequences determined. By comparison of these sequences with the known sequence of the complete calpain molecule, the autolytic cleavage sites were identified. The structural integrity of the molecule during autolysis was investigated by gel-permeation chromatography. Experiments were also done to test the reversibility of adding EDTA to calpain during autolysis, measured as recoverable enzyme activity assayed in the presence of Ca2+. The results are presented in terms of a model for the structural changes occurring in calpain during autolysis. It was concluded that the loss of enzymic activity, which is a consequence of autolysis, was due to dissociation of the autolytic peptides after cleavage of the calpain large subunit within the third domain.
Project description:The subject of the current study is the finding of possible molecular partners of drosophila EcR receptor. The whole-genome experiments revealed that the sites of EcR receptor are partially overlapped with ERR binding sites. As ERR receptor specifically binds regulatory regions of glycolytic genes and genes of glycogen metabolism, the presence of EcR on ERR targets signifies involvement of the ecdysone signaling in regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. Overall design: ChIP-Seqs by anti-3xFLAG antibodies were performed in S2 Scheider cells (control) and S2 Schneider cells stably expressing 3xFLAG-EcR and 3xFLAG-ERR receptors
Project description:The centromere-specific Histone H3-variant CENH3 (also known as CENP-A) is considered to be an epigenetic mark for establishment and propagation of centromere identity. Pulse-induction of CENH3 (Drosophila CID) in Schneider S2 cells incorporates into noncentromeric regions and generates CID islands that resist clearing from chromosome arms for multiple cell generations. We demonstrate that CID islands represent functional ectopic kinetochores, which are non-randomly distributed on the chromosome and display a preferential localization near telomeres and pericentric heterochromatin in transcriptionally silent, intergenic chromatin domains. Although overexpression of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) or increasing Histone acetylation interferes with CID islands formation on a global scale, induction of a locally defined region of synthetic heterochromatin by targeting HP1-LacI fusions to stably integrated Lac Operator arrays produces a proximal hotspot for CID islands formation. These data suggest that the characteristics of regions bordering heterochromatin promote de novo kinetochore assembly and thereby contribute to centromere identity.
Project description:The diagnosis of calpainopathy is obtained by identifying calpain-3 protein deficiency or CAPN3 gene mutations. However, in many patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A), the calpain-3 protein quantity is normal because loss-of-function mutations cause its enzymatic inactivation. The identification of such patients is difficult unless a functional test suggests pursuing a search for mutations.A functional in vitro assay, which was able to test calpain-3 autolytic function, was used to screen a large series of muscle biopsy specimens from patients with unclassified LGMD/hyperCKaemia who have previously shown normal calpain-3 protein quantity.Of 148 muscle biopsy specimens tested,17 samples (11%) had lost normal autolytic function. CAPN3 gene mutations were identified in 15 of 17 patients (88%), who account for about 20% of the total patients with LGMD2A diagnosed in our series.The loss of calpain-3 autolytic activity is highly predictive of primary calpainopathy, and the use of this test as part of calpainopathy diagnosis would improve the rate of disease detection markedly. This study provides the first evidence of the pathogenetic effect of specific CAPN3 gene mutations on the corresponding protein function in LGMD2A muscle and offers new insights into the structural-functional relationship of the gene and protein regions that are crucial for the autolytic activity of calpain-3.
Project description:CAPN3/p94/calpain-3, a calpain protease family member predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle, possesses unusually rapid and exhaustive autolytic activity. Mutations in the human CAPN3 gene impairing its protease functions cause limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A); yet, the connection between CAPN3's autolytic activity and the enzyme's function in vivo remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that CAPN3 protease activity was reconstituted by intermolecular complementation (iMOC) between its two autolytic fragments. Furthermore, the activity of full-length CAPN3 active-site mutants was surprisingly rescued through iMOC with autolytic fragments containing WT amino acid sequences. These results provide evidence that WT CAPN3 can be formed by the iMOC of two different complementary CAPN3 mutants. The finding of iMOC-mediated restoration of calpain activity indicates a novel mechanism for the genotype-phenotype links in LGMD2A.
Project description:The Drosophila Schneider S2 (S2) Expression System enables expression of recombinant proteins constitutively, as well as inductively. This system can establish both transient and stable transformants with various selection markers. The generation of stable cell lines for increased expression or large scale expression of the desired protein is currently accomplished by cotransfection of both the expression and selection vectors. The selection vectors, pCoHYGRO and pCoBLAST, are commercially available using hygromycin-B and blasticidin S, respectively. Recently, we generated a plasmid, pCoPURO, for selection of transfected S2 cells using puromycin, which allows significant acceleration of the selection time. Although co-transfection of the selection marker with the plasmid for heterologous protein expression is functional in stable expression at short culture periods, the expression levels of stable transformants are continuously decreased during long culture times. To overcome this limitation, we generated pMT-PURO, a new plasmid that contains both the expression cassette and puromycin selection marker in a single plasmid. This system allows rapid selection and maintenance of the transformed S2 lines for extended culture periods.
Project description:Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) was carried out on wild-type Schneider (S2) cells using specific MLE antibodies to identify binding sites for MLE in the Drosophila genome
Project description:The kinetics of autolysis and activation of mu-calpain were measured with microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) as a very sensitive substrate. The initial rate of MAP2 hydrolysis was found to be a linear function of the autolysed 76 kDa form of mu-calpain large subunit at both 10 and 300 microM Ca2+, and both straight lines intersected the origin. This finding supports the view that native mu-calpain is an inactive proenzyme and that activation is accompanied by autolysis. The first-order rate constant of autolysis, K1(aut), was determined at different Ca2+ concentrations: the half-maximal value was at pCa2+ = 3.7 (197 microM Ca2+), whereas the maximal value was 1.52 s-1, at 30 degrees C. The Ca(2+)-induced activation process was then monitored by using our novel, continuous fluorimetric assay with labelled MAP2 as substrate. The first-order rate constant of activation, k1(act), was derived as the reciprocal of the lag phase ('transit time') at the initial part of the progress curve: half-maximum was at pCa2+ = 3.8 (158 microM Ca2+) and the maximum value was 2.15 s-1. The good agreement between the kinetic parameters of mu-calpain autolysis and activation is remarkable. We claim that this is the first kinetically correct determination of the rate constant of autolysis of mu-calpain. Pre-activated mu-calpain has a Ca2+ requirement that is almost three orders of magnitude smaller [half-maximal activation at pCa2+ = 6.22 (0.6 microM Ca2+)]. We cannot exclude the possibility that the activation process involves other mechanistic steps, e.g. the rapid dissociation of the mu-calpain heterodimer, but we state that in our conditions in vitro autolysis and activation run in close parallel.
Project description:A gene encoding an autolytic activity was identified in an autolysis-deficient mutant (Lyt-) of Staphylococcus aureus which produces only a single band in autolytic-activity gels (N. Mani, P. Tobin, and R. K. Jayaswal, J. Bacteriol. 175:1493-1499, 1993). An open reading frame, designated lytM, of 948 bp that could encode a polypeptide of 316 amino acid residues was identified. The calculated molecular mass of the lytM gene product (34.4 kDa) corresponded to that of the autolytic activity detected (approximately 36 kDa) in the Lyt- mutant. Results deduced from amino acid sequence analysis and N-terminal amino acid sequencing data suggest that LytM is a secreted protein. The C-terminal region of the putative protein encoded by lytM showed 51% identity with the N-terminal region of the mature lysostaphin from Staphylococcus simulans and 50% identity with the N-terminal region of ALE-1 from Staphylococcus capitis EPK1. Northern blot analysis showed that lytM expresses a transcript of approximately 955 bp, as predicted from the DNA sequence. Escherichia coli clones carrying the lytM gene exhibited autolytic-activity bands of approximately 36 kDa as well as of 19 and 22 kDa in activity gels. The lytM gene was mapped to the SmaI-D fragment on the S. aureus chromosome. Mapping data and results of hybridization experiments with primers generated from gene sequences of known autolytic genes of S. aureus clearly indicate that the lytM gene is distinct from other staphylococcal autolytic genes reported to date.