A novel partner for D-type cyclins: protein kinase A-anchoring protein AKAP95.
ABSTRACT: Using a yeast interaction screen to search for proteins that interact with cyclin D3 in thyroid gland, we identified the cAMP-dependent AKAP95 (protein kinase A-anchoring protein 95). AKAP95 is a scaffolding protein that primarily co-fractionates with the nuclear matrix, whereas a minor fraction associates with chromatin in interphase cells. In co-transfected Chinese-hamster ovary cells, AKAP95 strongly interacted with the three D-type cyclins, but not with CDK4 (cyclin-dependent kinase 4) or with p27kip1. CDK4 displaced the interaction between cyclin D3 and AKAP95, suggesting that AKAP95 could not be the elusive bridging adaptor between D-type cyclins and CDK4 or play a role in the regulation of cyclin D3-CDK4 activity. Interaction between endogenous AKAP95 and cyclin D3 or cyclin D1 was detected in canine thyrocytes, human fibroblasts and NIH-3T3 cells. As both AKAP95 and cyclins D were recently reported to associate with minichromosome maintenance proteins [Eide, Tasken, Carlson, Williams, Jahnsen, Tasken and Collas (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 26750-26756; Gladden and Diehl (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 9754-9760], we hypothesize that the interaction between AKAP95 and D-type cyclins might serve to facilitate the emerging regulatory role of cyclin D-CDK4 in the formation of the prereplication complex at the DNA replication origins.
Project description:Ubiquitously expressed D-type cyclins are required for hematopoiesis but are dispensable in other cell lineages. Furthermore, within different hematopoietic progenitor populations the D-type cyclins play nonredundant roles. The basis of this lineage and developmental specificity is unknown. In pro-B cells we demonstrate four distinct nuclear D-type cyclin compartments, including one cyclin D3 fraction associated with CDK4 and another phosphoinositide 3-kinase-regulated fraction not required for proliferation. A third fraction of cyclin D3 was associated with the nuclear matrix and repression of >200 genes including the variable (V) gene segments Igkv1-117, Iglv1, and Igh-VJ558. Consistent with different subnuclear compartments and functions, distinct domains of cyclin D3 mediated proliferation and Igk V gene segment repression. None of the cyclin D3 nuclear compartments overlapped with cyclin D2, which was distributed, unbound to CDK4, throughout the nucleus. Furthermore, compartmentalization of the cyclins appeared to be lineage restricted because in fibroblasts, cyclin D2 and cyclin D3 occupied a single nuclear compartment and neither bound CDK4 efficiently. These data suggest that subnuclear compartmentalization enables cyclin D3 to drive cell cycle progression and repress V gene accessibility, thereby ensuring coordination of proliferation with immunoglobulin recombination.
Project description:D-type cyclins form complexes with cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK4/6) and promote cell cycle progression. Although cyclin D functions appear largely tissue specific, we demonstrate that cyclin D3 has unique functions in lymphocyte development and cannot be replaced by cyclin D2, which is also expressed during blood differentiation. We show that only combined deletion of p27(Kip1) and retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (Rb) is sufficient to rescue the development of Ccnd3(-/-) thymocytes. Furthermore, we show that a small molecule targeting the kinase function of cyclin D3:CDK4/6 inhibits both cell cycle entry in human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and disease progression in animal models of T-ALL. These studies identify unique functions for cyclin D3:CDK4/6 complexes and suggest potential therapeutic protocols for this devastating blood tumor.
Project description:D-type cyclins regulate G1 cell cycle progression by enhancing the activities of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and their expression is frequently altered in malignant cells. We and others have previously shown that cyclin D1 is up-regulated in melanoma cells through adhesion-independent MEK-ERK1/2 signaling initiated by mutant B-RAF. Here, we describe the regulation and role of cyclin D3 in human melanoma cells. Cyclin D3 expression was enhanced in a cell panel of human melanoma cell lines compared with melanocytes and was regulated by fibronectin-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling but not MEK activity. RNA interference experiments demonstrated that cyclin D3 contributed to G1-S cell cycle progression and proliferation in melanoma cells. Overexpression of cyclin D1 did not recover the effects of cyclin D3 knockdown. Finally, immunoprecipitation studies showed that CDK6 is a major binding partner for cyclin D3, whereas CDK4 preferentially associated with cyclin D1. Together, these findings demonstrate that cyclin D3 is an important regulator of melanoma G1-S cell cycle progression and that D-type cyclins are differentially regulated in melanoma cells.
Project description:Selective recruitment of protein kinases to the Hsp90 system is mediated by the adaptor co-chaperone Cdc37. We show that assembly of CDK4 and CDK6 into protein complexes is differentially regulated by the Cdc37-Hsp90 system. Like other Hsp90 kinase clients, binding of CDK4/6 to Cdc37 is blocked by ATP-competitive inhibitors. Cdc37-Hsp90 relinquishes CDK6 to D3- and virus-type cyclins and to INK family CDK inhibitors, whereas CDK4 is relinquished to INKs but less readily to cyclins. p21CIP1 and p27KIP1 CDK inhibitors are less potent than the INKs at displacing CDK4 and CDK6 from Cdc37. However, they cooperate with the D-type cyclins to generate CDK4/6-containing ternary complexes that are resistant to cyclin D displacement by Cdc37, suggesting a molecular mechanism to explain the assembly factor activity ascribed to CIP/KIP family members. Overall, our data reveal multiple mechanisms whereby the Hsp90 system may control formation of CDK4- and CDK6-cyclin complexes under different cellular conditions.
Project description:AKAP95 in lung cancer tissues showed higher expression than in paracancerous tissues. AKAP95 can bind with cyclin D and cyclin E during G1/S cell cycle transition, but its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To identify the mechanism of AKAP95 in cell cycle progression, we performed AKAP95 transfection and silencing in A549 cells, examined AKAP95, cyclin E1 and cyclin E2 expression, and the interactions of AKAP95 with cyclins E1 and E2. Results showed that over-expression of AKAP95 promoted cell growth and AKAP95 bound cyclin E1 and E2, low molecular weight cyclin E1 (LWM-E1) and LWM-E2. Additionally AKAP95 bound cyclin E1 and LMW-E2 in the nucleus during G1/S transition, bound LMW-E1 during G1, S and G2/M, and bound cyclin E2 mainly on the nuclear membrane during interphase. Cyclin E2 and LMW-E2 were also detected. AKAP95 over-expression increased cyclin E1 and LMW-E2 expression but decreased cyclin E2 levels. Unlike cyclin E1 and LMW-E2 that were nuclear located during the G1, S and G1/S phases, cyclin E2 and LMW-E1 were expressed in all cell cycle phases, with cyclin E2 present in the cytoplasm and nuclear membrane, with traces in the nucleus. LMW-E1 was present in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. The 20 kDa form of LMW-E1 showed only cytoplasmic expression, while the 40 kDa form was nuclear expressed. The expression of AKAP95, cyclin E1, LMW-E1 and -E2, might be regulated by cAMP. We conclude that AKAP95 might promote cell cycle progression by interacting with cyclin E1 and LMW-E2. LMW-E2, but not cyclin E2, might be involved in G1/S transition. The binding of AKAP95 and LMW-E1 was found throughout cell cycle.
Project description:D-type cyclins (D1, D2 and D3) and their associated cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK4 and CDK6) are components of the core cell cycle machinery that drives cell proliferation. Inhibitors of CDK4 and CDK6 are currently being tested in clinical trials for patients with several cancer types, with promising results. Here, using human cancer cells and patient-derived xenografts in mice, we show that the cyclin D3-CDK6 kinase phosphorylates and inhibits the catalytic activity of two key enzymes in the glycolytic pathway, 6-phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase M2. This re-directs the glycolytic intermediates into the pentose phosphate (PPP) and serine pathways. Inhibition of cyclin D3-CDK6 in tumour cells reduces flow through the PPP and serine pathways, thereby depleting the antioxidants NADPH and glutathione. This, in turn, increases the levels of reactive oxygen species and causes apoptosis of tumour cells. The pro-survival function of cyclin D-associated kinase operates in tumours expressing high levels of cyclin D3-CDK6 complexes. We propose that measuring the levels of cyclin D3-CDK6 in human cancers might help to identify tumour subsets that undergo cell death and tumour regression upon inhibition of CDK4 and CDK6. Cyclin D3-CDK6, through its ability to link cell cycle and cell metabolism, represents a particularly powerful oncoprotein that affects cancer cells at several levels, and this property can be exploited for anti-cancer therapy.
Project description:Mammalian cells encode three D cyclins (D1, D2, and D3) that coordinately function as allosteric regulators of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and CDK6 to regulate cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase. Cyclin expression, accumulation, and degradation, as well as assembly and activation of CDK4/CDK6 are governed by growth factor stimulation. Cyclin D1 is more frequently dysregulated than cyclin D2 or D3 in human cancers, and as such, it has been more extensively characterized. Overexpression of cyclin D1 results in dysregulated CDK activity, rapid cell growth under conditions of restricted mitogenic signaling, bypass of key cellular checkpoints, and ultimately, neoplastic growth. This review discusses cyclin D1 transcriptional, translational, and post-translational regulations and its biological function with a particular focus on the mechanisms that result in its dysregulation in human cancers.
Project description:Cyclins play a central role in cell-cycle regulation; in mammals, the D family of cyclins consists of cyclin D1, D2, and D3. In Xenopus, only homologs of cyclins D1 and D2 have been reported, while a novel cyclin, cyclin Dx (ccndx), was found to be required for the maintenance of motor neuron progenitors during embryogenesis. It remains unknown whether zebrafish possess cyclin D3 or cyclin Dx. In this study, we identified a zebrafish ccndx gene encoding a protein which can form a complex with Cdk4. Through whole-mount in situ hybridization, we observed that zccndx mRNA is expressed in the motor neurons of hindbrain and spinal cord during development. Analysis of a 4-kb promoter sequence of the zccndx gene revealed the presence of HRE sites, which can be regulated by HIF2?. Morpholino knockdown of zebrafish Hif2? and cyclin Dx resulted in the abolishment of isl1 and oligo2 expression in the precursors of motor neurons, and also disrupted axon growth. Overexpression of cyclin Dx mRNA in Hif2? morphants partially rescued zccndx expression. Taken together, our data indicate that zebrafish cyclin Dx plays a role in maintaining the precursors of motor neurons.
Project description:Prostate cancer (PCa) is a reproductive system cancer in elderly men. We investigated the effects of betel nut arecoline on the growth of normal and cancerous prostate cells. Normal RWPE-1 prostate epithelial cells, androgen-independent PC-3 PCa cells, and androgen-dependent LNCaP PCa cells were used. Arecoline inhibited their growth in dose- and time-dependent manners. Arecoline caused RWPE-1 and PC-3 cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and LNCaP cell arrest in the G0/G1 phase. In RWPE-1 cells, arecoline increased the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-1, p21, and cyclins B1 and D3, decreased the expression of CDK2, and had no effects on CDK4 and cyclin D1 expression. In PC-3 cells, arecoline decreased CDK1, CDK2, CDK4, p21, p27, and cyclin D1 and D3 protein expression and increased cyclin B1 protein expression. In LNCaP cells, arecoline decreased CDK2, CDK4, and cyclin D1 expression; increased p21, p27, and cyclin D3 expression; had no effects on CDK1 and cyclin B1 expression. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine blocked the arecoline-induced increase in reactive oxygen species production, decreased cell viability, altered the cell cycle, and changed the cell cycle regulatory protein levels. Thus, arecoline oxidant exerts differential effects on the cell cycle through modulations of regulatory proteins.
Project description:D cyclins (D1, D2 and D3) and their catalytic subunits (cyclin-dependent kinases cdk4 and cdk6) have a facilitating, but nonessential, role in cell cycle entry. Tissue-specific functions for D-type cyclins and cdks have been reported; however, the biochemical properties of these kinases are indistinguishable. We report that an F box protein, Fbxo7, interacted with cellular and viral D cyclins and distinguished among the cdks that bind D-type cyclins, specifically binding cdk6, in vitro and in vivo. Fbxo7 specifically regulated D cyclin/cdk6 complexes: Fbxo7 knockdown decreased cdk6 association with cyclin and its overexpression increased D cyclin/cdk6 activity and E2F activity. Fbxo7 interacted with p27, but its enhancement of cyclin D/cdk6 activity was p21/p27 independent. Fbxo7 overexpression transformed murine fibroblasts, rendering them tumorigenic in athymic nude mice. Transformed phenotypes were dependent on cdk6, as knockdown of cdk6 reversed them. Fbxo7 was highly expressed in epithelial tumors, but not in normal tissues, suggesting that it may have a proto-oncogenic role in human cancers.