Palmitoylation is not required for trafficking of human anion exchanger 1 to the cell surface.
ABSTRACT: AE1 (anion exchanger 1) is a glycoprotein found in the plasma membrane of erythrocytes, where it mediates the electroneutral exchange of chloride and bicarbonate, a process important in CO2 removal from tissues. It had been previously shown that human AE1 purified from erythrocytes is covalently modified at Cys-843 in the membrane domain with palmitic acid. In this study, the role of Cys-843 in human AE1 trafficking was investigated by expressing various AE1 and Cys-843Ala (C843A) mutant constructs in transiently transfected HEK-293 cells. The AE1 C843A mutant was expressed to a similar level to AE1. The rate of N-glycan conversion from high-mannose into complex form in a glycosylation mutant (N555) of AE1 C843A, and thus the rate of trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi, were comparable with that of AE1 (N555). Like AE1, AE1 C843A could be biotinylated at the cell surface, indicating that a cysteine residue at position 843 is not required for cell-surface expression of the protein. The turnover rate of AE1 C843A was not significantly different from AE1. While other proteins could be palmitoylated, labelling of transiently transfected HEK-293 cells or COS7 cells with [3H]palmitic acid failed to produce any detectable AE1 palmitoylation. These results suggest that AE1 is not palmitoylated in HEK-293 or COS7 cells and can traffic to the plasma membrane.
Project description:Phospholemman (PLM), the principal sarcolemmal substrate for protein kinases A and C in the heart, regulates the cardiac sodium pump. We investigated post-translational modifications of PLM additional to phosphorylation in adult rat ventricular myocytes (ARVM). LC-MS/MS of tryptically digested PLM immunoprecipitated from ARVM identified cysteine 40 as palmitoylated in some peptides, but no information was obtained regarding the palmitoylation status of cysteine 42. PLM palmitoylation was confirmed by immunoprecipitating PLM from ARVM loaded with [(3)H]palmitic acid and immunoblotting following streptavidin affinity purification from ARVM lysates subjected to fatty acyl biotin exchange. Mutagenesis identified both Cys-40 and Cys-42 of PLM as palmitoylated. Phosphorylation of PLM at serine 68 by PKA in ARVM or transiently transfected HEK cells increased its palmitoylation, but PKA activation did not increase the palmitoylation of S68A PLM-YFP in HEK cells. Wild type and unpalmitoylatable PLM-YFP were all correctly targeted to the cell surface membrane, but the half-life of unpalmitoylatable PLM was reduced compared with wild type. In cells stably expressing inducible PLM, PLM expression inhibited the sodium pump, but PLM did not inhibit the sodium pump when palmitoylation was inhibited. Hence, palmitoylation of PLM controls its turnover, and palmitoylated PLM inhibits the sodium pump. Surprisingly, phosphorylation of PLM enhances its palmitoylation, probably through the enhanced mobility of the phosphorylated intracellular domain increasing the accessibility of cysteines for the palmitoylating enzyme, with interesting theoretical implications. All FXYD proteins have conserved intracellular cysteines, so FXYD protein palmitoylation may be a universal means to regulate the sodium pump.
Project description:Human AE1 (anion exchanger 1) is a membrane glycoprotein found in erythrocytes and as a truncated form (kAE1) in the BLM (basolateral membrane) of a-intercalated cells of the distal nephron, where they carry out electroneutral chloride/bicarbonate exchange. SAO (Southeast Asian ovalocytosis) is a dominant inherited haematological condition arising from deletion of Ala400-Ala408 in AE1, resulting in a misfolded and transport-inactive protein present in the ovalocyte membrane. Heterozygotes with SAO are able to acidify their urine, without symptoms of dRTA (distal renal tubular acidosis) that can be associated with mutations in kAE1. We examined the effect of the SAO deletion on stability and trafficking of AE1 and kAE1 in transfected HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney) cells and kAE1 in MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) epithelial cells. In HEK-293 cells, expression levels and stabilities of SAO proteins were significantly reduced, and no mutant protein was detected at the cell surface. The intracellular retention of AE1 SAO in transfected HEK-293 cells suggests that erythroid-specific factors lacking in HEK-293 cells may be required for cell-surface expression. Although misfolded, SAO proteins could form heterodimers with the normal proteins, as well as homodimers. In MDCK cells, kAE1 was localized to the cell surface or the BLM after polarization, while kAE1 SAO was retained intracellularly. When kAE1 SAO was co-expressed with kAE1 in MDCK cells, kAE1 SAO was largely retained intracellularly; however, it also co-localized with kAE1 at the cell surface. We propose that, in the kidney of heterozygous SAO patients, dimers of kAE1 and heterodimers of kAE1 SAO and kAE1 traffic to the BLM of a-intercalated cells, while homodimers of kAE1 SAO are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and are rapidly degraded. This results in sufficient cell-surface expression of kAE1 to maintain adequate bicarbonate reabsorption and proton secretion without dRTA.
Project description:Human AE1 (anion exchanger 1), or Band 3, is an abundant membrane glycoprotein found in the plasma membrane of erythrocytes. The physiological role of the protein is to carry out chloride/bicarbonate exchange across the plasma membrane, a process that increases the carbon-dioxide-carrying capacity of blood. To study the topology of TMs (transmembrane segments) 1-4, a series of scanning N-glycosylation mutants were created spanning the region from EC (extracellular loop) 1 to EC2 in full-length AE1. These constructs were expressed in HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney) cells, and their N-glycosylation efficiencies were determined. Unexpectedly, positions within putative TMs 2 and 3 could be efficiently glycosylated. In contrast, the same positions were very poorly glycosylated when present in mutant AE1 with the SAO (Southeast Asian ovalocytosis) deletion (DeltaA400-A408) in TM1. These results suggest that the TM2-3 region of AE1 may become transiently exposed to the endoplasmic reticulum lumen during biosynthesis, and that there is a competition between proper folding of the region into the membrane and N-glycosylation at introduced sites. The SAO deletion disrupts the proper integration of TMs 1-2, probably leaving the region exposed to the cytosol. As a result, engineered N-glycosylation acceptor sites in TM2-3 could not be utilized by the oligosaccharyltransferase in this mutant form of AE1. The properties of TM2-3 suggest that these segments form a re-entrant loop in human AE1.
Project description:Autosomal dominant distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) has been associated with several mutations in the anion exchanger AE1 gene. The effect of an 11-amino-acid C-terminal dRTA truncation mutation (901 stop) on the expression of kidney AE1 (kAE1) and erythroid AE1 was examined in transiently transfected HEK-293 cells. Unlike the wild-type proteins, kAE1 901 stop and AE1 901 stop mutants exhibited impaired trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane as determined by immunolocalization, cell-surface biotinylation, oligosaccharide processing and pulse-chase experiments. The 901 stop mutants were able to bind to an inhibitor affinity resin, suggesting that these mutant membrane proteins were not grossly misfolded. Co-expression of wild-type and mutant kAE1 or AE1 resulted in intracellular retention of the wild-type proteins in a pre-medial Golgi compartment. This dominant negative effect was due to hetero-oligomer formation of the mutant and wild-type proteins. Intracellular retention of kAE1 in the alpha-intercalated cells of the kidney would account for the impaired acid secretion into the urine characteristic of dRTA.
Project description:The CB(1) cannabinoid receptor is regulated by its association with membrane microdomains such as lipid rafts. Here, we investigated the role of palmitoylation of the CB(1) receptor by analysing the functional consequences of site-specific mutation of Cys(415) , the likely site of palmitoylation at the end of helix 8, in terms of membrane association, raft targeting and signalling.The palmitoylation state of CB(1) receptors in rat forebrain was assessed by depalmitoylation/repalmitoylation experiments. Cys(415) was replaced with alanine by site-directed mutagenesis. Green fluorescence protein chimeras of both wild-type and mutant receptors were transiently expressed and functionally characterized in SH-SY5Y cells and HEK-293 cells by means of confocal microscopy, cytofluorimetry and competitive binding assays. Confocal fluorescence recovery after photobleaching was used to assess receptor membrane dynamics, whereas signalling activity was assessed by [(35) S]GTPγS, cAMP and co-immunoprecipitation assays.Endogenous CB(1) receptors in rat brain were palmitoylated. Mutation of Cys(415) prevented the palmitoylation of the receptor in transfected cells and reduced its recruitment to plasma membrane and lipid rafts; it also increased protein diffusional mobility. The same mutation markedly reduced the functional coupling of CB(1) receptors with G-proteins and adenylyl cyclase, whereas depalmitoylation abolished receptor association with a specific subset of G-proteins.CB(1) receptors were post-translationally modified by palmitoylation. Mutation of Cys(415) provides a receptor that is functionally impaired in terms of membrane targeting and signalling.This article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.165.issue-8. To view Part I of Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.163.issue-7.
Project description:The human erythrocyte anion exchanger (AE)1 (Band 3) contains a single complex N-linked oligosaccharide that is attached to Asn(642) in the fourth extracellular loop of this polytopic membrane protein, while other isoforms (AE2, AE3 and trout AE1) are N-glycosylated on the preceding extracellular loop. Human AE1 expressed in transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 or COS-7 cells contained a high-mannose oligosaccharide. The lack of oligosaccharide processing was not due to retention of AE1 in the endoplasmic reticulum since biotinylation assays showed that approx. 30% of the protein was expressed at the cell surface. Moving the N-glycosylation site to the preceding extracellular loop in an AE1 glycosylation mutant (N555) resulted in processing of the oligosaccharide and production of a complex form of AE1. A double N-glycosylation mutant (N555/N642) contained both a high-mannose and a complex oligosaccharide chain. The complex form of the N555 mutant could be biotinylated showing that this form of the glycoprotein was at the cell surface. Pulse-chase experiments showed that the N555 mutant was efficiently converted from a high-mannose to a complex oligosaccharide with a half-time of approx. 4 h, which reflected the time course of trafficking of AE1 from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane. The turnover of the complex form of the N555 mutant occurred with a half-life of approx. 15 h. The results show that the oligosaccharide attached to the endogenous site in extracellular loop 4 in human AE1 is not processed in HEK-293 or COS-7 cells, while the oligosaccharide attached to the preceding loop is converted into the complex form.
Project description:Large cytoplasmic domains (CD) are a common feature among integral membrane proteins. In virtually all cases, these CD have a function (e.g., binding cytoskeleton or regulatory factors) separate from that of the membrane domain (MD). Strong associations between CD and MD are rare. Here we studied SLC4A11, a membrane transport protein of corneal endothelial cells, the mutations of which cause genetic corneal blindness. SLC4A11 has a 41-kDa CD and a 57-kDa integral MD. One disease-causing mutation in the CD, R125H, manifests a catalytic defect, suggesting a role of the CD in transport function. Expressed in HEK-293 cells without the CD, MD-SLC4A11 is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, indicating a folding defect. Replacement of CD-SLC4A11 with green fluorescent protein did not rescue MD-SLC4A11, suggesting some specific role of CD-SLC4A11. Homology modeling revealed that the structure of CD-SLC4A11 is similar to that of the Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchange protein AE1 (SLC4A1) CD. Fusion to CD-AE1 partially rescued MD-SLC4A11 to the cell surface, suggesting that the structure of CD-AE1 is similar to that of CD-SLC4A11. The CD-AE1-MD-SLC4a11 chimera, however, had no functional activity. We conclude that CD-SLC4A11 has an indispensable role in the transport function of SLC4A11. CD-SLC4A11 forms insoluble precipitates when expressed in bacteria, suggesting that the domain cannot fold properly when expressed alone. Consistent with a strong association between CD-SLC4A11 and MD-SLC4A11, these domains specifically associate when coexpressed in HEK-293 cells. We conclude that SLC4A11 is a rare integral membrane protein in which the CD has strong associations with the integral MD, which contributes to membrane transport function.
Project description:The human erythrocyte anion exchanger (AE1, Band 3) contains up to 14 transmembrane segments, with a single site of N-glycosylation at Asn642 in extracellular (EC) loop 4. Scanning and insertional N-glycosylation mutagenesis were used to determine the folding pattern of AE1 in the membrane. Full-length AE1, when expressed in transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 or COS-7 cells, retained a high-mannose oligosaccharide structure. Scanning N-glycosylation mutagenesis of EC loop 4 showed that N-glycosylation acceptor sites (Asn-Xaa-Ser/Thr) spaced 12 residues from the ends of adjacent transmembrane segments could be N-glycosylated. An acceptor site introduced at position 743 in intracellular (IC) loop 5 that could be N-glycosylated in a cell-free translation system was not N-glycosylated in transfected cells. Mutations designed to disrupt the folding of this loop enhanced the level of N-glycosylation at Asn743 in vitro. The results suggest that this loop might be transiently exposed to the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum during biosynthesis but normally folds rapidly, precluding N-glycosylation. EC loop 4 insertions into positions 428, 484, 754 and 854 in EC loops 1, 2, 6 and 7 respectively were efficiently N-glycosylated, showing that these regions were extracellular. EC loop 4 insertions into positions 731 or 785 were poorly N-glycosylated, which was inconsistent with an extracellular disposition for these regions of AE1. Insertion of EC loop 4 into positions 599 and 820 in IC loops 3 and 6 respectively were not N-glycosylated in cells, which was consistent with a cytosolic disposition for these loops. Inhibitor-affinity chromatography with 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonate (SITS)-Affi-Gel was used to assess whether the AE1 mutants were in a native state. Mutants with insertions at positions 428, 484, 599, 731 and 785 showed impaired inhibitor binding, whereas insertions at positions 754, 820 and 854 retained binding. The results indicate that the folding of the C-terminal region of AE1 is more complex than originally proposed and that this region of the transporter might have a dynamic aspect.
Project description:HEK 293 cells were transiently transfected with plasmids expressing Vector only(PCMV), Aire, or MBD-VP16 with the goal of comparing the global gene expression profiles in the Aire and MBD-VP16 groups We used microarrays to detail the global gene expression profile. HEK 293 cells were transiently transfected with plasmids expressing Vector only(PCMV), Aire, or MBD-VP16 and 72 hrs post transfection total RNA was collected for microarray analysis.
Project description:Palmitoylation of the recombinant human A(1) adenosine receptor (A(1)AR) expressed in HEK-293 cells is demonstrated by showing that hexahistidine (His(6))/Asp-Tyr-Lys-Asp-Asp-Asp-Asp-Lys (FLAG) (H/F) A(1)ARs, purified to homogeneity from cells metabolically labelled with [(3)H]palmitate, incorporate tritium into a 38-42 kDa receptor glycoprotein. The amount of palmitoylation is not affected by incubation of cells with the A(1)AR-selective agonist N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA). A(1)AR palmitoylation is abolished by treatment with neutral hydroxylamine or by mutation of Cys-309 to Ala (C(309)-->A). Based on Western blotting and pulse-chase experiments with [(35)S]methionine, at least 90% of wild-type receptors are palmitoylated and turn over with a t1/2 of 6.4 h. Of the C(309)-->A mutated receptors, 40% appear to turn over like wild-type receptors, with a t1/2 of 7.1 h, and 60% appear to be rapidly cleaved to form a 25 kDa receptor fragment that turns over with a t1/2 of 0.8 h. In HEK-293 cell lines expressing similar numbers of wild-type or C(309)-->A mutant A(1)Rs, there is little difference in the kinetics of CPA-induced receptor internalization (1 h), down-regulation (24 h), inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation, or activation of co-transfected G-protein-activated inward rectifier K(+)/cardiac inward rectifying K(+) (GIRK1/CIR K(+)) channels. Also unaffected by palmitoylation is guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]-triphosphate ([S]GTP)-sensitive binding to membranes by the agonist (125)I-labelled aminobenzyladenosine. The results suggest that palmitoylation has little effect on receptor-effector coupling, agonist-induced internalization or down-regulation. We speculate that palmitoylation may divert newly synthesized A(1)ARs from a pathway leading to rapid degradation.