Transcription factor Nrf2/MafK regulates rat placental glutathione S-transferase gene during hepatocarcinogenesis.
ABSTRACT: The rat GST-P (placental glutathione S-transferase), a phase II detoxifying enzyme, is not expressed in normal liver cells, but is highly and specifically induced during early hepatocarcinogenesis as well as in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Results of previous studies indicated that GST-P gene activation was mainly controlled by an enhancer element, GPE1 (GST-P enhancer 1), but the specific activation mechanism of the GST-P gene was not fully understood [Morimura, Suzuki, Hochi, Yuki, Nomura, Kitagawa, Nagatsu, Imagawa and Muramatsu (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 2065-2068; Suzuki, Imagawa, Hirabayashi, Yuki, Hisatake, Nomura, Kitagawa and Muramatsu (1995) Cancer Res. 55, 2651-2655]. In the present study, we investigate the transcription factor Nrf2/MafK heterodimer (where Nrf2 stands for NF-E2 p45-related factor 2) as an activator of the GST-P gene through the action of GPE1 during hepatocarcinogenesis. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assay and footprinting analysis with wild-type GPE1 and GPE1 point mutants showed that the Nrf2/MafK heterodimer specifically bound GPE1. Reporter transfection assays indicated that Nrf2 strongly stimulated GST-P gene expression in mouse F9 embryonal carcinoma cells and H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. Northern-blot analysis indicated that GST-P and Nrf2 mRNA increased in parallel with development of precancerous lesions and hepatocellular carcinoma. Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1), an inhibitory factor of Nrf2, decreased the activation of GPE1 by Nrf2 and this suppression was restored after treatment with electrophilic compounds. GST-P mRNA expression in H4IIE cells was induced by electrophilic compounds, as was the expression of mRNAs of other phase II detoxifying enzymes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses showed that antibodies both against Nrf2 and against MafK precipitated GPE1 from the chromatin of the pre-neoplastic hepatocytes and rat hepatoma cells (H4IIE and dRLh84), but not from normal hepatocytes. These results indicate that the Nrf2/MafK heterodimer regulates GST-P gene expression during early hepatocarcinogenesis and in hepatoma cells.
Project description:HATs (histone acetyltransferases) contribute to the regulation of gene expression, and loss or dysregulation of these activities may link to tumorigenesis. Here, we demonstrate that expression levels of HATs, p300 and CBP [CREB (cAMP-response-element-binding protein)-binding protein] were decreased during chemical hepatocarcinogenesis, whereas expression of MOZ (monocytic leukaemia zinc-finger protein; MYST3)--a member of the MYST [MOZ, Ybf2/Sas3, Sas2 and TIP60 (Tat-interacting protein, 60 kDa)] acetyltransferase family--was induced. Although the MOZ gene frequently is rearranged in leukaemia, we were unable to detect MOZ rearrangement in livers with hyperplastic nodules. We examined the effect of MOZ on hepatocarcinogenic-specific gene expression. GSTP (glutathione S-transferase placental form) is a Phase II detoxification enzyme and a well-known tumour marker that is specifically elevated during hepatocarcinogenesis. GSTP gene activation is regulated mainly by the GPE1 (GSTP enhancer 1) enhancer element, which is recognized by the Nrf2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 subunit-related factor 2)-MafK heterodimer. We found that MOZ enhances GSTP promoter activity through GPE1 and acts as a co-activator of the Nrf2-MafK heterodimer. Further, exogenous MOZ induced GSTP expression in rat hepatoma H4IIE cells. These results suggest that during early hepatocarcinogenesis, aberrantly expressed MOZ may induce GSTP expression through the Nrf2-mediated pathway.
Project description:Despite it being a quintessential Phase II detoxification gene, the transcriptional regulation of the rat gamma-glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) is controversial. Computer-based sequence analysis identified three putative antioxidant response elements (AREs) at positions -889 to -865 (ARE1), -3170 to -3146 (ARE2) and -3901 to -3877 (ARE3) in the 5'-flanking region of the transcriptional start site. Transfections of individual ARE-luciferase reporter gene constructs into H4IIE cells, a rat hepatoma cell line, identified ARE3 as the functional promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays using primary rat hepatocytes showed that the transcription factor Nrf2, which is known to regulate ARE-mediated genes, is associated with ARE3. Co-transfection of H4IIE cells with luciferase reporter plasmids containing Gclc ARE3 and an Nrf2 expression plasmid resulted in a 3-fold activation of ARE3-mediated transcription relative to controls. "Loss-of-function" analysis for Nrf2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) revealed that ARE3-mediated expression was significantly impaired while site-directed mutagenesis of the ARE3-luciferase reporter abolished Nrf2-mediated induction. Treatment with two known Nrf2 inducers, R-(alpha)-lipoic acid and anetholedithiolethione, showed that the inducible expression of the GCLC gene was also regulated by the ARE3 element. Taken together, these results show that Nrf2 regulates the constitutive expression of rat Gclc through a distal ARE present in its 5'-flanking region. This is the first report showing that rat Gclc is under the transcriptional control of the Nrf2-ARE pathway on a constitutive basis.
Project description:Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are associated with diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular complications, inflammation and neurodegeneration. Cellular defense systems must work constantly to control ROS levels and to prevent their accumulation. We report here that the Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2) has a critical role as a cofactor for transcription factors nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and small Maf protein family K (MafK) in the regulation of the antioxidant-responsive element (ARE) and production of ROS. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR (qPCR), electrophoresis mobility shift and ARE-driven reporter assays were carried out to examine the role of JDP2 in ROS production. JDP2 bound directly to the ARE core sequence, associated with Nrf2 and MafK (Nrf2-MafK) via basic leucine zipper domains, and increased DNA-binding activity of the Nrf2-MafK complex to the ARE and the transcription of ARE-dependent genes. In mouse embryonic fibroblasts from Jdp2-knockout (Jdp2 KO) mice, the coordinate transcriptional activation of several ARE-containing genes and the ability of Nrf2 to activate expression of target genes were impaired. Moreover, intracellular accumulation of ROS and increased thickness of the epidermis were detected in Jdp2 KO mice in response to oxidative stress-inducing reagents. These data suggest that JDP2 is required to protect against intracellular oxidation, ROS activation and DNA oxidation. qPCR demonstrated that several Nrf2 target genes such as heme oxygenase-1, glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic and modifier subunits, the notch receptor ligand jagged 1 and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 are also dependent on JDP2 for full expression. Taken together, these results suggest that JDP2 is an integral component of the Nrf2-MafK complex and that it modulates antioxidant and detoxification programs by acting via the ARE.
Project description:We have analyzed the cis-acting regulatory DNA elements of the placental rat glutathione S-alkyltransferase (GST-P) gene. Various regions of the 5' flanking sequence were fused with a bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene. The transcriptional activity of each construct was determined by the transient expression assay after introduction into a hepatoma cell line. Multiple regulatory elements were identified. Two enhancing elements were located 2.5 and 2.2 kilobases upstream from the transcription start site and designated GST-P enhancers I and II (GPEI and GPEII, respectively). A consensus sequence of the phorbol 12-O-tetradecanoate 13-acetate responsive elements was present in the GPEI and at position -61. GPEII contained two of the simian virus 40 and one of the polyoma enhancer core-like sequences. A silencing element was also found 400 base pairs upstream from the cap site. In accordance with the above observation, endogenous GST-P gene was found to be stimulated when the rat fibroblast line 3Y1 was treated with phorbol 12-O-tetradecanoate 13-acetate. Phorbol 12-O-tetradecanoate 13-acetate enhanced the expression of the transfected GST-P gene to a much higher degree in HeLa cells than in the hepatoma cells, which constitutively expressed the endogenous GST-P. The results are discussed in terms of the specific derepression of GST-P gene during hepatocarcinogenesis in the rat.
Project description:Excessive inflammation can lead to tissue damage and dysfunction of vital organs. Hence, regulating inflammatory response is a viable therapeutic approach. In Asian countries, various inflammatory diseases have often effectively been treated with herbal remedies including the root extract of Aralia continentalis Kitagawa (Araliaceae). Here, we investigated the effect of kaurenoic acid (ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid: KA), a diterpenoid that is extracted from Aralia continentalis Kitagawa root, on inflammation.Western blot and RT-PCR analyses show that KA induced the nuclear localization of Nrf2 as low as 1 nM in concentration and that KA treatment induced the expression of Nrf2 dependent genes such as GCLC and HO-1. On the other hand, KA did not affect the degradation of cytoplasmic I?B-?, the nuclear localization of RelA (p65), and NF-?B transcriptional activity in RAW264.7 cells treated with endotoxin. Consistent with these data, KA treatment failed to suppress gene expression of representative pro-inflammatory mediators including COX-2, nitric oxide, IL-1?, TNF-?, and IL-12, indicating that KA did not have an important impact on NF-?B activation.Together, these results show that KA was an effective activator of Nrf2, and suggest that the beneficial effects of Aralia continentalis Kitagawa root extract are, at least in part, mediated by activating Nrf2.
Project description:Valerian is widely used as a traditional medicine to improve the quality of sleep due to interaction of several active components with the ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor (GABA(A)R) system. Recently, activation of GABA signaling in stem cells has been reported to suppress cell cycle progression in vivo. Furthermore, possible inhibitory effects of GABA(A)R agonists on hepatocarcinogenesis have been reported. The present study was performed to investigate modulating effects of Valerian on hepatocarcinogenesis using a medium-term rat liver bioassay. Male F344 rats were treated with one of the most powerful Valerian species (Valeriana sitchensis) at doses of 0, 50, 500 and 5000 ppm in their drinking water after initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis with diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Formation of glutathione S-transferase placental form positive (GST-P(+)) foci was significantly inhibited by Valerian at all applied doses compared with DEN initiation control rats. Generation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in the rat liver was significantly suppressed by all doses of Valerian, likely due to suppression of Nrf2, CYP7A1 and induction of catalase expression. Cell proliferation was significantly inhibited, while apoptosis was induced in areas of GST-P(+) foci of Valerian groups associated with suppression of c-myc, Mafb, cyclin D1 and induction of p21(Waf1/Cip1), p53 and Bax mRNA expression. Interestingly, expression of the GABA(A)R alpha 1 subunit was observed in GST-P(+) foci of DEN control rats, with significant elevation associated with Valerian treatment. These results indicate that Valerian exhibits inhibitory effects on rat hepatocarcinogenesis by inhibiting oxidative DNA damage, suppressing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis in GST-P(+) foci by activating GABA(A)R-mediated signaling.
Project description:Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) has multiple functions in embryogenesis, adult homeostasis, tissue repair, and development of cancer. Here, we report that TGF-? suppresses the transcriptional activation of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene, which is implicated in protection against oxidative injury and lung carcinogenesis. HO-1 is a target of the oxidative stress-responsive transcription factor Nrf2. TGF-? did not affect the stabilization or nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 after stimulation with electrophiles. Instead, TGF-? induced expression of transcription factors MafK and Bach1. Enhanced expression of either MafK or Bach1 was enough to suppress the electrophile-inducible expression of HO-1 even in the presence of accumulated Nrf2 in the nucleus. Knockdown of MafK and Bach1 by siRNA abolished TGF-?-dependent suppression of HO-1. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that Nrf2 substitutes for Bach1 at the antioxidant response elements (E1 and E2), which are responsible for the induction of HO-1 in response to oxidative stress. On the other hand, pretreatment with TGF-? suppressed binding of Nrf2 to both E1 and E2 but marginally increased the binding of MafK to E2 together with Smads. As TGF-? is activated after tissue injury and in the process of cancer development, these findings suggest a novel mechanism by which damaged tissue becomes vulnerable to oxidative stress and xenobiotics.
Project description:The transcription factor Nrf2 protects against a number of experimental pathologies, and is a promising therapeutic target. The clinical investigation of a potent Nrf2-inducing agent, the triterpenoid (TP) bardoxolone methyl (BARD), was recently halted due to adverse cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease patients, although the underlying mechanisms are yet to be resolved. The majority of small molecule Nrf2 inducers are electrophilic and trigger Nrf2 accumulation via the chemical modification of its redox-sensitive repressor Keap1. Therefore, it is pertinent to question whether the therapeutic targeting of Nrf2 could be hindered in many cases by the inherent reactivity of a small molecule inducer toward unintended cellular targets, a key mechanism of drug toxicity. Using H4IIE-ARE8L hepatoma cells, we have examined the relationship between (a) Nrf2 induction potency, (b) toxicity and (c) in vitro therapeutic index (ratio of b:a) for BARD and a number of other small molecule activators of Nrf2. We show that BARD exhibits the highest potency toward Nrf2 and the largest in vitro therapeutic index among compounds that have been investigated clinically (namely BARD, sulforaphane and dimethylfumarate). Through further examination of structurally related TPs, we demonstrate that an increase in potency toward Nrf2 is associated with a relatively smaller increase in toxicity, indicating that medicinal chemistry can be used to enhance the specificity of a compound as an inducer of Nrf2 signaling whilst simultaneously increasing its therapeutic index. These findings will inform the continuing design and development of drugs targeting Nrf2.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species, produced by oxidative stress, initiate and promote many metabolic diseases through activation/suppression of redox-sensitive transcription factors. NF-?B and Nrf2 are important regulators of oxidation resistance and contribute to the pathogenesis of many diseases. We identified MafK, a novel transcriptional regulator that modulates NF-?B activity. MafK knockdown reduced NF-?B activation, whereas MafK overexpression enhanced NF-?B function. MafK mediated p65 acetylation by CBP upon LPS stimulation, thereby facilitating recruitment of p65 to NF-?B promoters such as IL-8 and TNF?. Consistent with these results, MafK-depleted mice showed prolonged survival with a reduced hepatic inflammatory response after LPS and D-GalN injection. Thus, our findings reveal a novel mechanism by which MafK controls NF-?B activity via CBP-mediated p65 acetylation.
Project description:The effects of aniso-osmotic exposure on taurine transport were studied in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. Hyperosmotic (405 mosmol/l) exposure of H4IIE cells stimulated Na+-dependent taurine uptake and led to an increase in taurine transporter (TAUT) mRNA levels, whereas hypo-osmotic (205 mosmol/l) exposure diminished both taurine uptake and TAUT mRNA levels when compared with normo-osmotic (305 mosmol/l) control incubations. Taurine uptake increased 30-40-fold upon raising the ambient osmolarity from 205 to 405 mosmol/l. When H4IIE cells and perfused livers were preloaded with taurine, hypo-osmotic cell swelling led to a rapid release of taurine from the cells. The taurine efflux, but not taurine uptake, was sensitive to 4,4'-di-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS), suggestive of an involvement of DIDS-sensitive channels in mediating volume-regulatory taurine efflux. Whereas in both H4IIE rat hepatoma cells and primary hepatocytes TAUT mRNA levels were strongly dependent upon ambient osmolarity, mRNAs for other osmolyte transporters, i.e. the betaine transporter BGT-1 and the Na+/myo-inositol transporter SMIT, were not detectable. In line with this, myo-inositol uptake by H4IIE hepatoma cells was low and was not stimulated by hyperosmolarity. However, despite the absence of BGT-1 mRNA, a slight osmosensitive uptake of betaine was observed, but the rate was less than 10% of that of taurine transport. This study identifies a constitutively expressed and osmosensitive TAUT in H4IIE cells and the use of taurine as a main osmolyte, whereas betaine and myo-inositol play little or no role in the osmolyte strategy in these cells. This is in contrast with rat liver macrophages, in which betaine has been shown to be a major osmolyte.