ABSTRACT: In the adult brain, neural stem cells (NSC) must migrate to express their neuroplastic potential. The addition of recombinant reelin to human NSC (HNSC) cultures facilitates neuronal retraction in the neurospheroid. Because we detected reelin, alpha3-integrin receptor subunits, and disabled-1 immunoreactivity in HNSC cultures, it is possible that integrin-mediated reelin signal transduction is operative in these cultures. To investigate whether reelin is important in the regulation of NSC migration, we injected HNSCs into the lateral ventricle of null reeler and wild-type mice. Four weeks after transplantation, we detected symmetrical migration and extensive neuronal and glial differentiation of transplanted HNSCs in wild-type, but not in reeler mice. In reeler mice, most of the injected HNSCs failed to migrate or to display the typical differentiation pattern. However, a subpopulation of transplanted HNSCs expressing reelin did show a pattern of chain migration in the reeler mouse cortex. We also analyzed the endogenous NSC population in the reeler mouse using bromodeoxyuridine injections. In reeler mice, the endogenous NSC population in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb was significantly reduced compared with wild-type mice; in contrast, endogenous NSCs expressed in the subventricular zonewere preserved. Hence, it seems likely that the lack of endogenous reelin may have disrupted the migration of the NSCs that had proliferated in the SVZ. We suggest that a possible inhibition of NSC migration in psychiatric patients with a reelin deficit may be a potential problem in successful NSC transplantation in these patients.
Project description:Cell culture of human-derived neural stem cells (NSCs) is a useful tool that contributes to our understanding of human brain development and allows for the development of therapies for intractable human brain disorders. Human NSC (hNSC) cultures, however, are not commonly used, mainly because of difficulty with consistently maintaining the cells in a healthy state. In this study, we show that hNSC cultures, unlike NSCs of rodent origins, are extremely sensitive to insulin, an indispensable culture supplement, and that the previously reported difficulty in culturing hNSCs is likely because of a lack of understanding of this relationship. Like other neural cell cultures, insulin is required for hNSC growth, as withdrawal of insulin supplementation results in massive cell death and delayed cell growth. However, severe apoptotic cell death was also detected in insulin concentrations optimized to rodent NSC cultures. Thus, healthy hNSC cultures were only produced in a narrow range of relatively low insulin concentrations. Insulin-mediated cell death manifested not only in all human NSCs tested, regardless of origin, but also in differentiated human neurons. The underlying cell death mechanism at high insulin concentrations was similar to insulin resistance, where cells became less responsive to insulin, resulting in a reduction in the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway critical to cell survival signaling.
Project description:Small direct current (DC) electric fields (EFs) guide neurite growth and migration of rodent neural stem cells (NSCs). However, this could be species dependent. Therefore, it is critical to investigate how human NSCs (hNSCs) respond to EF before any possible clinical attempt. Aiming to characterize the EF-stimulated and guided migration of hNSCs, we derived hNSCs from a well-established human embryonic stem cell line H9. Small applied DC EFs, as low as 16 mV/mm, induced significant directional migration toward the cathode. Reversal of the field polarity reversed migration of hNSCs. The galvanotactic/electrotactic response was both time and voltage dependent. The migration directedness and distance to the cathode increased with the increase of field strength. (Rho-kinase) inhibitor Y27632 is used to enhance viability of stem cells and has previously been reported to inhibit EF-guided directional migration in induced pluripotent stem cells and neurons. However, its presence did not significantly affect the directionality of hNSC migration in an EF. Cytokine receptor [C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)] is important for chemotaxis of NSCs in the brain. The blockage of CXCR4 did not affect the electrotaxis of hNSCs. We conclude that hNSCs respond to a small EF by directional migration. Applied EFs could potentially be further exploited to guide hNSCs to injured sites in the central nervous system to improve the outcome of various diseases.
Project description:Therapeutic impact of neural stem cells (NSCs) for acute spinal cord injury (SCI) has been limited by the rapid loss of donor cells. Neuroinflammation is likely the cause. As there are close temporal-spatial correlations between the inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase expression and the donor NSC death after neurotrauma, we reasoned that NO-associated radical species might be the inflammatory effectors which eliminate NSC grafts and kill host neurons. To test this hypothesis, human NSCs (hNSCs: 5 x 10(4) to 2 x 10(6) per milliliter) were treated in vitro with "plain" medium, 20 microM glutamate, or donors of NO and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-); 100 and 400 microM of spermine or DETA NONOate, and SIN-1, respectively). hNSC apoptosis primarily resulted from SIN-1 treatment, showing ONOO(-)-triggered protein nitration and the activation of p38 MAPK, cytochrome c release, and caspases. Therefore, cell death following post-SCI (p.i.) NO surge may be mediated through conversion of NO into ONOO(-). We subsequently examined such causal relationship in a rat model of dual penetrating SCI using a retrievable design of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffold seeded with hNSCs that was shielded by drug-releasing polymer. Besides confirming the ONOO(-)-induced cell death signaling, we demonstrated that cotransplantation of PLGA film embedded with ONOO(-) scavenger, manganese (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin, or uric acid (1 micromol per film), markedly protected hNSCs 24 hours p.i. (total: n = 10). Our findings may provide a bioengineering approach for investigating mechanisms underlying the host microenvironment and donor NSC interaction and help formulate strategies for enhancing graft and host cell survival after SCI.
Project description:The cell adhesion molecule L1 and the extracellular matrix protein Reelin play crucial roles in the developing nervous system. Reelin is known to activate signalling cascades regulating neuronal migration by binding to lipoprotein receptors. However, the interaction of Reelin with adhesion molecules, such as L1, has remained poorly explored. Here, we report that full-length Reelin and its N-terminal fragments N-R2 and N-R6 bind to L1 and that full-length Reelin and its N-terminal fragment N-R6 proteolytically cleave L1 to generate an L1 fragment with a molecular mass of 80?kDa (L1-80). Expression of N-R6 and generation of L1-80 coincide in time at early developmental stages of the cerebral cortex. Reelin-mediated generation of L1-80 is involved in neurite outgrowth and in stimulation of migration of cultured cortical and cerebellar neurons. Morphological abnormalities in layer formation of the cerebral cortex of L1-deficient mice partially overlap with those of Reelin-deficient reeler mice. In utero electroporation of L1-80 into reeler embryos normalised the migration of cortical neurons in reeler embryos. The combined results indicate that the direct interaction between L1 and Reelin as well as the Reelin-mediated generation of L1-80 contribute to brain development at early developmental stages.
Project description:In this study, we have developed highly expandable neural stem cells (NSCs) from HESCs and iPSCs that artificially express the oligodendrocyte (OL) specific transcription factor gene Zfp488. This is enough to restrict them to an exclusive oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) fate during differentiation in vitro and in vivo. During CNS development, Zfp488 is induced during the early stages of OL generation, and then again during terminal differentiation of OLs. Interestingly, the human ortholog Znf488, crucial for OL development in human, has been recently identified to function as a dorsoventral pattering regulator in the ventral spinal cord for the generation of P1, P2/pMN, and P2 neural progenitor domains. Forced expression of Zfp488 gene in human NSCs led to the robust generation of OLs and suppression of neuronal and astrocyte fate in vitro and in vivo. Zfp488 expressing NSC derived oligodendrocytes are functional and can myelinate rat dorsal root ganglion neurons in vitro, and form myelin in Shiverer mice brain in vivo. After transplantation near a site of demyelination, Zfp488 expressing hNSCs migrated to the lesion and differentiated into premyelinating OLs. A certain fraction also homed in the subventricular zone (SVZ). Zfp488-ZsGreen1-hNSC derived OLs formed compact myelin in Shiverer mice brain seen under the electron microscope. Transplanted human neural stem cells (NSC) that have the potential to differentiate into functional oligodendrocytes in response to remyelinating signals can be a powerful therapeutic intervention for disorders where oligodendrocyte (OL) replacement is beneficial.
Project description:Disabled 1 (Dab1), a cytoplasmic adaptor protein expressed predominantly in the CNS, transduces a Reelin-initiated signaling that controls neuronal migration and positioning during brain development. To determine the role of Dab1 in neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation, we established a culture of neurospheres derived from the embryonic forebrain of the Dab1(-/-) mice, yotari. Differentiating Dab1(-/-) neurospheres exhibited a higher expression of GFAP, an astrocytic marker, at the expense of neuronal markers. Under Dab1-deficient condition, the expression of NeuroD, a transcription factor for neuronal differentiation, was decreased and the JAK-STAT pathway was evidently increased during differentiation of NSC, suggesting the possible involvement of Dab1 in astrocyte differentiation via JAK-STAT pathway. Notably, expression of neural and glial markers and the level of JAK-STAT signaling molecules were not changed in differentiating NSC by Reelin treatment, indicating that differentiation of NSC is Reelin-independent. Immunohistochemical analyses showed a decrease in the number of neurons and an increase in the number of GFAP-positive cells in developing yotari brains. Our results suggest that Dab1 participates in the differentiation of NSCs into a specific cell lineage, thereby maintaining a balance between neurogenesis and gliogenesis.
Project description:Cortical development is disrupted in presenilin-1 null mutant (Psen1-/-) mice. Prior studies have commented on similarities between Psen1-/- and reeler mice. Reelin induces phosphorylation of Dab1 and activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Psen1 is known to modulate PI3K/Akt signaling and both known reelin receptors (apoER2 and VLDLR) are substrates for Psen1 associated gamma-secretase activity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether reelin signaling is disrupted in Psen1-/- mice. We show that, while Dab1 is hypophosphorylated late in cortical development in Psen1-/- mice, it is normally phosphorylated at earlier ages and reelin signaling is intact in Psen1-/- primary neuronal cultures. gamma-secretase activity was also not required for reelin-induced phosphorylation of Dab1. Unlike reeler mice the preplate splits in Psen1-/- brain. Thus cortical development in Psen1-/- mice fails only after splitting of the preplate and is not due to an intrinsic failure of reelin signaling.
Project description:Transplantation of human fetal neural stem cells (hNSCs) previously demonstrated significant functional recovery after spinal cord contusion in rats. Other studies indicated that human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) can home to areas of damage and cross the blood-brain barrier. The purpose of this article is to determine if combined administration of mesenchymal stem cells and neuronal stem cells improves functional outcomes in rats. The study design was a randomized controlled animal trial. Female adult Long-Evans hooded rats underwent laminectomy at T10 level. Moderate spinal cord contusion at T10 level was induced by the MASCIS Impactor. Four groups were identified. The MSC + NSC group received hMSCs intravenously (IV) immediately after spinal cord injury (acute) and returned 1 week later (subacute) for injection of hNSC directly at site of injury. The MSC-only group received hMSC IV acutely and cell media subacutely. The NSC-only group received cell media IV acutely and hNSC subacutely. The control group received cell media IV acutely and subacutely. Subjects were assessed for 6 weeks using Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan Locomotor Rating Score. Twenty-four subjects were utilized, six subjects in each group. Statistically significant functional improvement was seen in the MSC + NSC group and the NSC-only group versus controls (p = 0.027, 0.042, respectively). The MSC-only group did not demonstrate a significant improvement over control (p = 0.145). Comparing the MSC + NSC group and the NSC-only group, there was no significant difference (p = 0.357). Subacute transplantation of hNSCs into contused spinal cord of rats led to significant functional recovery when injected either with or without acute IV administration of hMSCs. Neither hMSCs nor addition of hMSC to hNSC resulted in significant improvement.
Project description:Intestinal myofibroblasts secrete substances that control organogenesis and wound repair of the intestine. The myofibroblasts of the rat small intestine express reelin and the present work explores whether reelin regulates crypt-villus unit homeostasis using normal mice and mice with the reelin gene disrupted (reeler). The results reveal that mouse small intestine expresses reelin, its receptors apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) and very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VldlR) and the reelin effector protein Disabled-1 (Dab1) and that reelin expression is restricted to myofibroblasts. The absence of reelin significantly reduces epithelial cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis and the number of Paneth cells. These effects are observed during the suckling, weaning, and adult periods. The number of Goblet cells is increased in the 2-month-old reeler mice. The absence of reelin also expands the extracellular space of the adherens junctions and desmosomes without significantly affecting either the tight-junction structure or the epithelial paracellular permeability. In conclusion, this is the first in vivo work showing that the absence of reelin alters intestinal epithelium homeostasis.
Project description:The neurological mouse mutant strain reeler displays abnormal laminar organization of several brain structures as a consequence of a defect in cell migration during neurodevelopment. This phenotype is a result of the disruption of reelin, a gene encoding a protein that has several structural characteristics of extracellular matrix proteins. To understand the molecular basis of the action of Reelin on neuronal migration, we constructed a full-length reelin clone and used it to direct Reelin expression. Here, we demonstrate that Reelin is a secreted glycoprotein and that a highly charged C-terminal region is essential for secretion. In addition, we demonstrate that an amino acid sequence present in the N-terminal region of Reelin contains an epitope that is recognized by the CR-50 monoclonal antibody. CR-50 was raised against an antigen expressed in normal mouse brain that is absent in reeler mice. The interaction of CR-50 with its epitope leads to the disruption of neural cell aggregation in vitro. Here, we used CR-50 to precipitate Reelin from reticulocyte extracts programmed with reelin mRNA, from cells transfected with reelin clones, and from cerebellar explants. The reelin gene product seems to function as an instructive signal in the regulation of neuronal migration.