Functional correction of established central nervous system deficits in an animal model of lysosomal storage disease with feline immunodeficiency virus-based vectors.
ABSTRACT: Gene transfer vectors based on lentiviruses can transduce terminally differentiated cells in the brain; however, their ability to reverse established behavioral deficits in animal models of neurodegeneration has not previously been tested. When recombinant feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-based vectors expressing beta-glucuronidase were unilaterally injected into the striatum of adult beta-glucuronidase deficient [mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII)] mice, an animal model of lysosomal storage disease, there was bihemispheric correction of the characteristic cellular pathology. Moreover, after the injection of FIV-based vectors expressing beta-glucuronidase into brains of beta-glucuronidase-deficient mice with established impairments in spatial learning and memory, there was dramatic recovery of behavioral function. Cognitive improvement resulting from expression of beta-glucuronidase was associated with alteration in expression of genes associated with neuronal plasticity. These data suggest that enzyme replacement to the MPS VII central nervous system goes beyond restoration of beta-glucuronidase activity in the lysosome, and imparts improvements in plasticity and spatial learning.
Project description:Canine adenovirus type 2 vectors (CAV-2) are promising tools to treat global central nervous system (CNS) disorders because of their preferential transduction of neurons and efficient retrograde axonal transport. Here we tested the potential of a helper-dependent CAV-2 vector expressing β-glucuronidase (HD-RIGIE) in a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII), a lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency in β-glucuronidase activity. MPS VII leads to glycosaminoglycan accumulation into enlarged vesicles in peripheral tissues and the CNS, resulting in peripheral and neuronal dysfunction. After intracranial administration of HD-RIGIE, we show long-term expression of β-glucuronidase that led to correction of neuropathology around the injection site and in distal areas. This phenotypic correction correlated with a decrease in secondary-elevated lysosomal enzyme activity and glycosaminoglycan levels, consistent with global biochemical correction. Moreover, HD-RIGIE-treated mice show significant cognitive improvement. Thus, injections of HD-CAV-2 vectors in the brain allow a global and sustained expression and may have implications for brain therapy in patients with lysosomal storage disease.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) is due to mutations within the gene encoding the lysosomal enzyme beta-glucuronidase, and results in the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans. MPS VII causes aortic dilatation and elastin fragmentation. In this study we performed microarray analysis of ascending aortas from normal and MPS VII mice, trying to find out possible genes responsible for the phenotype observed. In addition, during our breeding strategy, we noticed that some MPS VII mice had less dilated aortas, and we proposed that an yet-unidentified gene could be responsible for the difference observed. We therefore included in the analysis two MPS VII mice with aortas that were not dilated. Total RNA extracted from ascending aortas from 3 Normal mice, 3 MPS VII mice with dilated aortas and 2 MPS VII mice with aortas that were not dilated.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I) and MPS VII are due to loss-of-function mutations within the genes that encode the lysosomal enzymes alpha-l-iduronidase and beta-glucuronidase, respectively, and result in accumulation of glycosaminoglycans and multisystemic disease. Both disorders are associated with elastin fragmentation and dilatation of the aorta. Here, the pathogenesis and effect of gene therapy on aortic disease in canine models of MPS was evaluated. We found that cathepsin S is upregulated at the mRNA and enzyme activity level, while matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP-12) is upregulated at the mRNA level, in aortas from untreated MPS I and MPS VII dogs. Both of these proteases can degrade elastin. In addition, mRNA levels for the interleukin 6-like cytokine oncostatin M were increased in MPS I and MPS VII dog aortas, while mRNA for tumor necrosis factor alpha and toll-like receptor 4 were increased in MPS VII dog aortas. These cytokines could contribute to upregulation of the elastases. Neonatal intravenous injection of a retroviral vector expressing beta-glucuronidase to MPS VII dogs reduced RNA levels of cathepsin S and MMP-12 and aortic dilatation was delayed, albeit dilatation developed at late times after gene therapy. A post-mortem aorta from a patient with MPS VII also exhibited elastin fragmentation. We conclude that aortic dilatation in MPS I and MPS VII dogs is likely due to degradation of elastin by cathepsin S and/or MMP-12. Inhibitors of these enzymes or these cytokine-induced signal transduction pathways might reduce aortic disease in patients with MPS.
Project description:The severity of human mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII), or Sly syndrome, depends on the relative activity of the enzyme beta-glucuronidase. Loss of beta-glucuronidase activity can cause hydrops fetalis, with in utero or postnatal death of the patient. In this report, we show that beta-glucuronidase activity is not detectable by a standard fluorometric assay in C3H/HeOuJ (C3H) mice homozygous for a new mutation, gusmps2J. These gusmps2J/gusmps2J mice are born and survive much longer than the previously characterized beta-glucuronidase-null B6.C-H-2(bm1)/ByBir-gusmps (gusmps/gusmps) mice. Northern blot analysis of liver from gusmps2J/gusmps2J mice demonstrates a 750-bp reduction in size of beta-glucuronidase mRNA. A 5.4-kb insertion in the Gus-sh nucleotide sequence from these mice was localized by Southern blot analysis to intron 8. The ends of the inserted sequences were cloned by inverse PCR and revealed an intracisternal A-particle (IAP) element inserted near the 3' end of the intron. The sequence of the long terminal repeat (LTR) regions of the IAP most closely matches that of a composite LTR found in transposed IAPs previously identified in the C3H strain. The inserted IAP may contribute to diminished beta-glucuronidase activity either by interfering with transcription or by destabilizing the message. The resulting phenotype is much less severe than that previously described in the gusmps/gusmps mouse and provides an opportunity to study MPS VII on a genetic background that clearly modulates disease severity.
Project description:Severe deficiency in lysosomal ?-glucuronidase (?-glu) enzymatic activity results in mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VII, an orphan disease with symptoms often appearing in early childhood. Symptoms are variable, but many patients have multiple organ disorders including neurological defects. At the cellular level, deficiency in ?-glu activity leads to abnormal accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and secondary accumulation of GM2 and GM3 gangliosides, which have been linked to neuroinflammation. There have been encouraging gene transfer studies in the MPS VII mouse brain, but this is the first study attempting the correction of the >200-fold larger and challenging canine MPS VII brain. Here, the efficacy of a helper-dependent (HD) canine adenovirus (CAV-2) vector harboring a human GUSB expression cassette (HD-RIGIE) in the MPS VII dog brain was tested. Vector genomes, ?-glu activity, GAG content, lysosome morphology and neuropathology were analyzed and quantified. Our data demonstrated that CAV-2 vectors preferentially transduced neurons and axonal retrograde transport from the injection site to efferent regions was efficient. HD-RIGIE injections, associated with mild and transient immunosuppression, corrected neuropathology in injected and noninjected structures throughout the cerebrum. These data support the clinical evaluation of HD CAV-2 vectors to treat the neurological defects associated with MPS VII and possibly other neuropathic lysosomal storage diseases.
Project description:The lysosomal storage disease MPS VII (mucopolysaccharidosis type VII) is caused by a deficiency in beta-glucuronidase activity, and results in the accumulation of partially degraded glycosaminoglycans in many cell types. Although MPS VII is a simple monogenetic disorder, the clinical presentation is complex and incompletely understood. ERT (enzyme replacement therapy) is relatively effective at improving the clinical course of the disease; however, some pathologies persist. In order to clarify the molecular events contributing to the disease phenotype and how ERT might impact upon them, we analysed liver tissue from untreated and treated MPS VII mice at both 2 and 5 months of age using biochemical assays and microarray analysis. Overall, as the disease progresses, more genes have altered expression and, at either age, numerous transcriptional changes in multiple pathways appear to be refractory to therapy. With respect to the primary site of disease, both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms are involved in the regulation of lysosomal enzymes and other lysosome-associated proteins. Many of the changes observed in both lysosome-associated mRNAs and proteins are normalized by enzyme replacement. In addition, gene expression changes in seemingly unrelated pathways may account for the complex metabolic phenotype of the MPS VII mouse. In particular, beta-glucuronidase deficiency appears to induce physiological malnutrition in MPS VII mice. Malnutrition may account for the pronounced adipose storage deficiency observed in this animal. Studying the molecular response to lysosomal storage, especially those changes recalcitrant to therapy, has revealed additional targets that may improve the efficacy of existing therapies.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) is a lysosomal storage disease arising from mutations in ?-d-glucuronidase (GUSB), which results in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulation and a variety of clinical manifestations including neurological disease. Herein, MPS VII dogs were injected intravenously (i.v.) and/or intrathecally (i.t.) via the cisterna magna with AAV9 or AAVrh10 vectors carrying the canine GUSB cDNA. Although i.v. injection alone at 3 days of age resulted in normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) GUSB activity, brain tissue homogenates had only ~1 to 6% normal GUSB activity and continued to have elevated GAG storage. In contrast, i.t. injection at 3 weeks of age resulted in CSF GUSB activity 44-fold normal while brain tissue homogenates had >100% normal GUSB activity and reduced GAGs compared with untreated dogs. Markers for secondary storage and inflammation were eliminated in i.t.-treated dogs and reduced in i.v.-treated dogs compared with untreated dogs. Given that i.t.-treated dogs expressed higher levels of GUSB in the CNS tissues compared to those treated i.v., we conclude that i.t. injection of AAV9 or AAVrh10 vectors is more effective than i.v. injection alone in the large animal model of MPS VII.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I) and MPS VII are due to deficient activity of the glycosaminoglycan-degrading lysosomal enzymes alpha-L-iduronidase and beta-glucuronidase, respectively, and result in abnormal bones and joints. Here, the severity of skeletal disease in MPS I and MPS VII dogs and the effects of neonatal gene therapy were evaluated. For untreated MPS VII dogs, the lengths of the second cervical vertebrae (C2) and the femur were only 56% and 84% of normal, respectively, and bone dysplasia and articular erosions, and joint subluxation were severe. Previously, we reported that neonatal intravenous injection of a retroviral vector (RV) with the appropriate gene resulted in expression in liver and blood cells, and high serum enzyme activity. In this study, we demonstrate that C2 and femurs of RV-treated MPS VII dogs were longer at 82% and 101% of normal, respectively, and there were partial improvements of qualitative abnormalities. For untreated MPS I dogs, the lengths of C2 and femurs (91% and 96% of normal, respectively) were not significantly different from normal dogs. Qualitative changes in MPS I bones and joints were generally modest and were partially improved with RV treatment, although cervical spine disease was severe and was difficult to correct with gene therapy in both models. The greater severity of skeletal disease in MPS VII than in MPS I dogs may reflect accumulation of chondroitin sulfate in cartilage in MPS VII, or could relate to the specific mutations. Neonatal RV-mediated gene therapy ameliorates, but does not prevent, skeletal disease in MPS I and MPS VII dogs.
Project description:Human mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII, Sly syndrome) results from a deficiency of beta-glucuronidase (GUS) and has been associated with a wide range in severity of clinical manifestations. To study missense mutant models of murine MPS VII with phenotypes of varying severity, we used targeted mutagenesis to produce E536A and E536Q, corresponding to active-site nucleophile replacements E540A and E540Q in human GUS, and L175F, corresponding to the most common human mutation, L176F. The E536A mouse had no GUS activity in any tissue and displayed a severe phenotype like that of the originally described MPS VII mice carrying a deletion mutation (gus(mps/mps)). E536Q and L175F mice had low levels of residual activity and milder phenotypes. All three mutant MPS models showed progressive lysosomal storage in many tissues but had different rates of accumulation. The amount of urinary glycosaminoglycan excretion paralleled the clinical severity, with urinary glycosaminoglycans remarkably higher in E536A mice than in E536Q or L175F mice. Molecular analysis showed that the Gus mRNA levels were quantitatively similar in the three mutant mouse strains and normal mice. These mouse models, which mimic different clinical phenotypes of human MPS VII, should be useful in studying pathogenesis and also provide useful models for studying enzyme replacement therapy and targeted correction of missense mutations.
Project description:Objectives: Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII) or Sly syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of ?-glucuronidase enzyme, which is involved in degradation of glycosaminoglycans. The lack of ?-glucuronidase in this lysosomal storage disorder is characterized by various manifestations such as nonimmune hydrops fetalis, spinal deformity, organomegaly, dysostosis multiplex, intellectual disability, and eye involvement. It is caused by a mutation in GUSB gene located on chromosome 7 q11. The current study reported an Iranian female with MPS VII and a novel mutation (c.542G>T, p.Arg181Leu) in GUSB gene.