Development of a multiplex PCR and SHV melting-curve mutation detection system for detection of some SHV and CTX-M beta-lactamases of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae in Taiwan.
ABSTRACT: Infection by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae has been increasing in Taiwan. Accurate identification of the ESBL genes is necessary for surveillance and for epidemiological studies of the mode of transmission in the hospital setting. We describe herein the development of a novel system, which consists of a multiplex PCR to identify bla(SHV), bla(CTX-M-3)-like, and bla(CTX-M-14)-like genes and a modified SHV melting-curve mutation detection method to rapidly distinguish six prevalent bla(SHV) genes (bla(SHV-1), bla(SHV-2), bla(SHV-2a), bla(SHV-5), bla(SHV-11), and bla(SHV-12)) in Taiwan. Sixty-five clinical isolates, which had been characterized by nucleotide sequencing of the bla(SHV) and bla(CTX-M) genes, were identified by the system. The system was then used to genotype the ESBLs from 199 clinical isolates, including 40 Enterobacter cloacae, 68 Escherichia coli, and 91 Klebsiella pneumoniae, collected between August 2002 and March 2003. SHV-12 (80 isolates) was the most prevalent type of ESBL identified, followed in order of frequency by CTX-M-3 (65 isolates) and CTX-M-14 (36 isolates). Seventeen (9%) of the 199 clinical isolates harbored both SHV- and CTX-M-type ESBLs. In contrast to Enterobacter cloacae, the majority of which produced SHV-type ESBLs, E. coli and K. pneumoniae were more likely to possess CTX-M-type ESBLs. Three rare CTX-M types were identified through sequencing of the bla(CTX-M-3)-like (CTX-M-15) and bla(CTX-M-14)-like (CTX-M-9 and CTX-M-13) genes. The system appears to provide an efficient differentiation of ESBLs among E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae in Taiwan. Moreover, the design of the system can be easily adapted for similar purposes in areas where different ESBLs are prevalent.
Project description:Of 15 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae collected from the First Municipal People's Hospital of Guangzhou, in the southern part of the People's Republic of China, 9 were found to produce CTX-M ESBLs, 3 produced SHV-12, and 3 produced both CTX-M and SHV-12. Eleven isolates produced either TEM-1B or SHV-11, in addition to an ESBL. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 12 isolates carrying bla(CTX-M) genes revealed that they harbored three different bla(CTX-M) genes, bla(CTX-M-9) (5 isolates), bla(CTX-M-13) (1 isolate), and bla(CTX-M-14) (6 isolates). These genes have 98% nucleotide homology with bla(Toho-2). The bla(CTX-M) genes were carried on plasmids that ranged in size from 35 to 150 kb. Plasmid fingerprints and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed the dissemination of the bla(CTX-M) genes through transfer of different antibiotic resistance plasmids to different bacteria, suggesting that these resistance determinants are highly mobile. Insertion sequence ISEcp1, found on the upstream region of these genes, may be involved in the translocation of the bla(CTX-M) genes. This is the first report of the occurrence of SHV-12 and CTX-M ESBLs in China. The presence of strains with these ESBLs shows both the evolution of bla(CTX-M) genes and their dissemination among at least three species of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae, isolated within a single hospital. The predominance of CTX-M type enzymes seen in this area of China appears to be similar to that seen in South America but is different from those seen in Europe and North America, suggesting different evolutionary routes and selective pressures. A more comprehensive survey of the ESBL types from China is urgently needed.
Project description:Over a 4-month period from November 2002 to February 2003, 27 ceftazidime-resistant or cefotaxime-resistant nonrepetitive Enterobacter cloacae isolates were collected from 27 patients hospitalized at HuaShan Hospital, Shanghai, People's Republic of China. The Etest did not detect extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in those 27 isolates; however, screening by the NCCLS ESBL disk test and confirmatory tests detected ESBLs in 4 of 27 isolates and PCR detected ESBLs in 23 of 27 isolates. The majority of ESBL producers exhibited the same repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR pattern but harbored different ESBL genes. CTX-M-3 was the most prevalent ESBL in our study. Interestingly, 12 clonally related E. cloacae isolates possessed a novel bla(VEB)-type beta-lactamase, bla(VEB-3). Bla(VEB-3) was encoded by the chromosome and was located in an integron. Nine of the 12 isolates harbored both the bla(VEB-3) and the bla(CTX-M-3)-like ESBLs. This is the first report of a VEB-1-like ESBL in China and the first report of the simultaneous presence of VEB-1 and CTX-M-3-like ESBLs in an isolate.
Project description:The activities of ceftazidime-avibactam, ceftolozane-tazobactam, and comparators were evaluated for 733 isolates displaying resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins and carrying extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) genes detected by whole-genome sequencing analysis. Isolates were collected during 2017 in U.S. hospitals. The ESBL producers were 486 Escherichia coli, 190 Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 42 Enterobacter cloacae isolates and isolates from 3 other species. The most common groups of ESBL-encoding genes were bla CTX-M-15-like (n?=?491 isolates) and bla CTX-M-15 alone (n?=?168) or plus bla OXA-1 (n?=?260), followed by bla CTX-M-14-like (n?=?162), which included bla CTX-M-27 and bla CTX-M-14 (104 and 51 isolates, respectively), and bla SHV-12 and bla SHV-7 (48 and 22 isolates, respectively). ESBL producers carried other ?-lactamases, including 1 E. cloacae harboring bla KPC-3 All ESBL-producing isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime-avibactam, and 90.2/83.9% (CLSI/EUCAST breakpoints) were susceptible to ceftolozane-tazobactam. Tigecycline (98.1/95.8% susceptible) and colistin (99.2%) were comparators that displayed the greatest activity against these isolates. Ceftolozane-tazobactam inhibited 91.4/83.9% of isolates carrying bla CTX-M-15-like and 97.5/95.1% of isolates carrying bla CTX-M-14-like, and its activity was more limited against the 91 isolates carrying bla SHV (66.7/61.1% susceptible). Ceftolozane-tazobactam inhibited 95.5% of the E. coli isolates but only 83.0%, 64.3%, and 80.0% of K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae, and other species harboring ESBL-encoding genes (CLSI breakpoints), respectively. Outer membrane protein sequences for ceftolozane-tazobactam-nonsusceptible isolates did not exhibit significant differences compared to those in genetically related ceftolozane-tazobactam-susceptible isolates. Ceftazidime-avibactam was more active than other agents tested, including ceftolozane-tazobactam, and the activity of this combination was stable regardless of species or ESBL gene carried.
Project description:A huge variety of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have been detected during the last 20 years. The majority of these have been of the TEM or SHV lineage. We have assessed ESBLs occurring among a collection of 455 bloodstream isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, collected from 12 hospitals in seven countries. Multiple beta-lactamases were produced by isolates with phenotypic evidence of ESBL production (mean of 2.7 beta-lactamases per isolate; range, 1 to 5). SHV-type ESBLs were the most common ESBL, occurring in 67.1% (49 of 73) of isolates with phenotypic evidence of ESBL production. In contrast, TEM-type ESBLs (TEM-10 type, -12 type, -26 type, and -63 type) were found in just 16.4% (12 of 73) of isolates. The finding of TEM-10 type and TEM-12 type represents the first detection of a TEM-type ESBL in South America. PER (for Pseudomonas extended resistance)-type beta-lactamases were detected in five of the nine isolates from Turkey and were found with SHV-2-type and SHV-5-type ESBLs in two of the isolates. CTX-M-type ESBLs (bla(CTX-M-2) type and bla(CTX-M-3) type) were found in 23.3% (17 of 73) of isolates and were found in all study countries except for the United States. We also detected CTX-M-type ESBLs in four countries where they have previously not been described-Australia, Belgium, Turkey, and South Africa. The widespread emergence and proliferation of CTX-M-type ESBLs is particularly noteworthy and may have important implications for clinical microbiology laboratories and for physicians treating patients with serious K. pneumoniae infections.
Project description:Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) of the TEM, SHV, or CTX-M type confer resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in gram-negative bacteria. The activity of these enzymes against beta-lactam antibiotics and their resistance against inhibitors can be influenced by genetic variation at the single-nucleotide level. Here, we describe the development and validation of an oligonucleotide microarray for the rapid identification of ESBLs in gram-negative bacteria by simultaneously genotyping bla(TEM), bla(SHV), and bla(CTX-M). The array consists of 618 probes that cover mutations responsible for 156 amino acid substitutions. As this comprises unprecedented genotyping coverage, the ESBL array has a high potential for epidemiological studies and infection control. With an assay time of 5 h, the ESBL microarray also could be an attractive option for the development of rapid antimicrobial resistance tests in the future. The validity of the DNA microarray was demonstrated with 60 blinded clinical isolates, which were collected during clinical routines. Fifty-eight of them were characterized phenotypically as ESBL producers. The chip was characterized with regard to its resolution, phenotype-genotype correlation, and ability to resolve mixed genotypes. ESBL phenotypes could be correctly ascribed to ESBL variants of bla(CTX-M) (76%), bla(SHV) (22%), or both (2%), whereas no ESBL variant of bla(TEM) was found. The most prevalent ESBLs identified were CTX-M-15 (57%) and SHV-12 (18%).
Project description:The emergence of antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacter spp., including resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), is of great concern in both human and veterinary medicine. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among 60 isolates of Enterobacter spp., including E. cloacae (n = 44), E. aerogenes (n = 10), and E. asburiae (n = 6), from clinical specimens of dogs and cats from 15 prefectures in Japan. Furthermore, we characterized the resistance mechanisms harbored by these isolates, including extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR); and assessed the genetic relatedness of ESC-resistant Enterobacter spp. strains by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing demonstrated the resistance rates to ampicillin (93.3%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (93.3%), cefmetazole (93.3%), chloramphenicol (46.7%), ciprofloxacin (43.3%), tetracycline (40.0%), ceftazidime (33.3%), cefotaxime (33.3%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (28.3%), gentamicin (23.3%), and meropenem (0%). Phenotypic testing detected ESBLs in 16 of 18 ESC-resistant E. cloacae isolates but not in the other species. The most frequent ESBL was CTX-M-15 (n = 8), followed by SHV-12 (n = 7), and CTX-M-3 (n = 1). As for AmpC ?-lactamases, CMY-2 (n = 2) and DHA-1 (n = 2) were identified in ESC-resistant E. cloacae strains with or without ESBLs. All of the ESC-resistant E. cloacae strains also harbored one or two PMQRs, including qnrB (n = 15), aac(6')-Ib-cr (n = 8), and qnrS (n = 2). Based on MLST and PFGE analysis, E. cloacae clones of ST591-SHV-12, ST171-CTX-M-15, and ST121-CTX-M-15 were detected in one or several hospitals. These results suggested intra- and inter-hospital dissemination of E. cloacae clones co-harboring ESBLs and PMQRs among companion animals. This is the first report on the large-scale monitoring of antimicrobial-resistant isolates of Enterobacter spp. from companion animals in Japan.
Project description:In Gabon, terrestrial mammals of protected areas have been identified as a possible source of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Some studies on antibiotic resistance in bats have already been carried out. The main goal of our study was to detect extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) that are produced by enterobacteria from bats in the Makokou region in Gabon. Sixty-eight fecal samples were obtained from 68 bats caught in the forests located 1 km from the little town of Makokou. After culture and isolation, 66 Gram-negative bacterial colonies were obtained. The double-disk diffusion test confirmed the presence of ESBLs in six (20.69%) Escherichia coli isolates, four (13.79%) Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, and one (3.45%) Enterobacter cloacae isolate. The analysis based on the nucleotide sequences of the ESBL resistance genes showed that all cefotaximase-Munichs (CTX-Ms) were CTX-M-15 and that all sulfhydryl variables (SHVs) were SHV-11: 41.67% CTX-M-15-producing E. coli, 16.67% CTX-M-15+SHV-11-producing E. coli, 8.33% CTX-M-15-producing K. pneumoniae, 25% CTX-M-15+SHV-11-producing K. pneumoniae, and 8.33% CTX-M-15-produced E. cloacae. This study shows for the first time the presence of multiresistant ESBL-producing enterobacteria in fruit bats in Makokou.
Project description:Third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GC-R) <i>Enterobacteriaceae</i> represent a major threat to human health. Here, we captured 288 3GC-R <i>Enterobacteriaceae</i> clinical isolates from 264 patients presenting at a regional Australian hospital over a 14-month period. In addition to routine mass spectrometry and antibiotic sensitivity testing, isolates were examined using rapid (∼40-min) real-time PCR assays targeting the most common extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs; <i>bla</i> <sub>CTX-M-1</sub> and <i>bla</i> <sub>CTX-M-9</sub> groups, plus <i>bla</i> <sub>TEM</sub>, <i>bla</i> <sub>SHV</sub>, and an internal 16S rRNA gene control). AmpC CMY β-lactamase (<i>bla</i> <sub>CMY</sub>) prevalence was also examined. <i>Escherichia coli</i> (80.2%) and <i>Klebsiella pneumoniae</i> (17.0%) were dominant, with <i>Klebsiella oxytoca</i>, <i>Klebsiella aerogenes</i>, and <i>Enterobacter cloacae</i> infrequently identified. Ceftriaxone and cefoxitin resistance were identified in 97.0% and 24.5% of <i>E. coli</i> and <i>K. pneumoniae</i> isolates, respectively. Consistent with global findings in <i>Enterobacteriaceae</i>, most (98.3%) isolates harbored at least one β-lactamase gene, with 144 (50%) harboring <i>bla</i> <sub>CTX-M-1</sub> group, 92 (31.9%) harboring <i>bla</i> <sub>CTX-M-9</sub> group, 48 (16.7%) harboring <i>bla</i> <sub>SHV</sub>, 133 (46.2%) harboring <i>bla</i> <sub>TEM</sub>, and 34 (11.8%) harboring <i>bla</i> <sub>CMY</sub> genes. A subset of isolates (<i>n </i>= 98) were subjected to whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to identify the presence of cryptic resistance determinants and to verify genotyping accuracy. WGS of β-lactamase-negative or carbapenem-resistant isolates identified uncommon ESBL and carbapenemase genes, including <i>bla</i> <sub>NDM</sub> and <i>bla</i> <sub>IMP</sub>, and confirmed all PCR-positive genotypes. We demonstrate that our PCR assays enable the rapid and cost-effective identification of ESBLs in the hospital setting, which has important infection control and therapeutic implications.
Project description:Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), e.g., ESBLs of the TEM or SHV type, compromise the efficacies of expanded-spectrum cephalosporins. An SHV non-ESBL that hydrolyzes only narrow-spectrum cephalosporins can be converted into an SHV ESBL through substitutions at three amino acid positions, 179, 238, or 238--240. In order to improve detection of SHV ESBLs, a novel method, based on real-time PCR monitored with fluorescently labeled hybridization probes and followed by melting curve analysis, was developed. It is able to (i) detect bla(SHV) genes with high degrees of sensitivity and specificity, (ii) discriminate between bla(SHV non-ESBL) and bla(SHV ESBL), and (iii) categorize the SHV ESBL producers into three phenotypically relevant subgroups. This method, termed the SHV melting curve mutation detection method, represents a powerful tool for epidemiological studies with SHV ESBLs. It even has the potential to be used in the diagnostic microbiology laboratory, because up to 32 clinical isolates can be processed in less than 1 h by starting with just a few bacterial colonies.
Project description:The rate of occurrence of the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing phenotype among Escherichia coli isolates in Tel Aviv is 12% (22). The aim of this study was to understand the molecular epidemiology of E. coli ESBL producers and to identify the ESBL genes carried by them. We studied 20 single-patient ESBL-producing E. coli clinical isolates. They comprised 11 distinct nonrelated pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotypes: six isolates belonged to the same PFGE clone, four other clones included two isolates each, and six unrelated clones included only one isolate. All isolates produced various beta-lactamases with pIs ranging from 5.2 to 8.2, varying within similar PFGE clones. The most prevalent ESBL gene was bla(CTX-M); 16 isolates carried bla(CTX-M-2) and three carried a new ESBL gene designated bla(CTX-M-39). Three strains carried bla(SHV) (two bla(SHV-12) and one bla(SHV-5)), and two strains carried inhibitor-resistant ESBL genes, bla(TEM-33) and bla(TEM-30); 18 strains carried bla(TEM-1) and eight strains carried bla(OXA-2). Plasmid mapping and Southern blot analysis with a CTX-M-2 probe demonstrated that bla(CTX-M-2) is plasmid borne. The wide dissemination of ESBLs among E. coli isolates in our institution is partly related to clonal spread, but more notably to various plasmid-associated ESBL genes, occurring in multiple clones, wherein the CTX-M gene family appears almost uniformly. We report here a new CTX-M gene, designated bla(CTX-M-39), which revealed 99% homology with bla(CTX-M-26), with a substitution of arginine for glutamine at position 225.