Familial chordoma, a tumor of notochordal remnants, is linked to chromosome 7q33.
ABSTRACT: Chordoma is a rare tumor originating from notochordal remnants that is usually diagnosed during midlife. We performed a genomewide analysis for linkage in a family with 10 individuals affected by chordoma. The maximum two-point LOD score based on only the affected individuals was 2.21, at recombination fraction 0, at marker D7S2195 on chromosome 7q. Combined analysis of additional members of this family (11 affected individuals) and of two unrelated families (one with 2 affected individuals and the other with 3 affected individuals), with 20 markers on 7q, showed a maximum two-point LOD score of 4.05 at marker D7S500. Multipoint analysis based on only the affected individuals gave a maximum LOD score of 4.78, with an approximate 2-LOD support interval from marker D7S512 to marker D7S684. Haplotype analysis of the three families showed a minimal disease-gene region from D7S512 to D7S684, a distance of 11.1 cM and approximately 7.1 Mb. No loss of heterozygosity was found at markers D7S1804, D7S1824, and D7S2195 in four tumor samples from affected family members. These results map a locus for familial chordoma to 7q33. Further analysis of this region, to identify this gene, is ongoing.
Project description:To identify genetic loci for autism-spectrum disorders, we have performed a two-stage genomewide scan in 38 Finnish families. The detailed clinical examination of all family members revealed infantile autism, but also Asperger syndrome (AS) and developmental dysphasia, in the same set of families. The most significant evidence for linkage was found on chromosome 3q25-27, with a maximum two-point LOD score of 4.31 (Z(max )(dom)) for D3S3037, using infantile autism and AS as an affection status. Six markers flanking over a 5-cM region on 3q gave Z(max dom) >3, and a maximum parametric multipoint LOD score (MLS) of 4.81 was obtained in the vicinity of D3S3715 and D3S3037. Association, linkage disequilibrium, and haplotype analyses provided some evidence for shared ancestor alleles on this chromosomal region among affected individuals, especially in the regional subisolate. Additional potential susceptibility loci with two-point LOD scores >2 were observed on chromosomes 1q21-22 and 7q. The region on 1q21-22 overlaps with the previously reported candidate region for infantile autism and schizophrenia, whereas the region on chromosome 7q provided evidence for linkage 58 cM distally from the previously described autism susceptibility locus (AUTS1).
Project description:We have completed a genome scan of a 12-generation, 3,400-member pedigree with schizophrenia. Samples from 210 individuals were collected from the pedigree. We performed an "affecteds-only" genome-scan analysis using 43 members of the pedigree. The affected individuals included 29 patients with schizophrenia, 10 with schizoaffective disorders, and 4 with psychosis not otherwise specified. Two sets of white-European allele frequencies were used-one from a Swedish control population (46 unrelated individuals) and one from the pedigree (210 individuals). All analyses pointed to the same region: D6S264, located at 6q25.2, showed a maximum LOD score of 3.45 when allele frequencies in the Swedish control population were used, compared with a maximum LOD score of 2.59 when the pedigree's allele frequencies were used. We analyzed additional markers in the 6q25 region and found a maximum LOD score of 6.6 with marker D6S253, as well as a 6-cM haplotype (markers D6S253-D6S264) that segregated, after 12 generations, with the majority of the affected individuals. Multipoint analysis was performed with the markers in the 6q25 region, and a maximum LOD score of 7.7 was obtained. To evaluate the significance of the genome scan, we simulated the complete analysis under the assumption of no linkage. The results showed that a LOD score >2.2 should be considered as suggestive of linkage, whereas a LOD score >3.7 should be considered as significant. These results suggest that a common ancestral region was inherited by the affected individuals in this large pedigree.
Project description:Chordoma is a rare mesenchymal tumour of complex biology for which only histologic and immunohistochemical criteria have been defined, but no biomarkers predicting the clinical outcome and response to treatment have yet been recognised. We herein review the interdisciplinary information achieved by epidemiologists, neurosurgeons and basic scientists on chordoma, usually a sporadic tumour, which also includes a small fraction of familial cases. Main focus is on the current knowledge of the genetic alterations which might pinpoint candidate genes and molecular mechanisms shared by sporadic and familiar chordomas. Due to the scarcity of the investigated tumour specimens and the multiple chromosome abnormalities found in tumours with aberrant karyotypes, conventional cytogenetics and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization failed to detect recurrent chordoma-specific chromosomal rearrangements. Genome-wide approaches such as Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) are yet at an initial stage of application and should be implemented using BAC arrays either genome-wide or targeting selected genomic regions, disclosed by Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH) studies. An LOH region was shown by a systematic study on a consistent number of chordomas to encompass 1p36, a genomic interval where a candidate gene was suggested to reside. Despite the rarity of multiplex families with chordoma impaired linkage studies, a chordoma locus could be mapped to chromosome 7q33 by positive lod score in three independent families. The role in chordomagenesis of the Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) genes has been proved, but the extent of involvement of TSC1 and TSC2 oncosuppressors in chordoma remains to be assessed. In spite of the scarce knowledge on the genetics and molecular biology of chordoma, recent initiation of clinical trials using molecular-targeted therapy, should validate new molecular targets and predict the efficacy of a given therapy. Comparative genetic and biomolecular studies should enhance the molecular taxonomy of chordoma which might have a prognostic significance and better orient the therapeutic options.
Project description:Alopecia with mental retardation syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized clinically by total or partial alopecia and mental retardation. In an effort to understand the molecular bases of this form of alopecia syndrome, large Pakistani consanguineous kindred with multiple affected individuals has been ascertained from a remote region in Pakistan. Genome wide scan mapped the disease locus on chromosome 3q26.33-q27.3. A maximum two-point LOD score of 3.05 (theta = 0.0) was obtained at marker D3S3583. Maximum multipoint LOD score exceeding 5.0, obtained with several markers, supported the linkage. Recombination events observed in affected individuals localized the disease locus between markers D3S1232 and D3S2436, spanning 11.49-cM region on chromosome 3q26.33-q27.3. Sequence analysis of a candidate gene ETS variant gene 5 from DNA samples of two affected individuals of the family revealed no mutation.
Project description:Autosomal dominant myopathy, Paget disease of bone, and dementia constitute a unique disorder (MIM 605382). Here we describe the clinical, biochemical, radiological, and pathological characteristics of 49 affected (23 male, 26 female) individuals from four unrelated United States families. Among these affected individuals 90% have myopathy, 43% have Paget disease of bone, and 37% have premature frontotemporal dementia. EMG shows myopathic changes and muscle biopsy reveals nonspecific myopathic changes or blue-rimmed vacuoles. After candidate loci were excluded, a genome-wide screen in the large Illinois family showed linkage to chromosome 9 (maximum LOD score 3.64 with marker D9S301). Linkage analysis with a high density of chromosome 9 markers generated a maximum two-point LOD score of 9.29 for D9S1791, with a maximum multipoint LOD score of 12.24 between D9S304 and D9S1788. Subsequent evaluation of three additional families demonstrating similar clinical characteristics confirmed this locus, refined the critical region, and further delineated clinical features of this unique disorder. Hence, autosomal dominant inclusion body myopathy (HIBM), Paget disease of bone (PDB), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) localizes to a 1.08-6.46 cM critical interval on 9p13.3-12 in the region of autosomal recessive IBM2.
Project description:<h4>Background & objectives</h4>Essential hypertension is a multifactorial disorder with a complex phenotype. Here we report a susceptibility locus for the hypertension mapped by a genome-wide microsatellite scanning in an affected Chinese family, in which 11 members had hypertension before the age of 40.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 22 individuals from a single family from Shanghai, PR China, were genotyped on more than 400 microsatellite markers with a spacing gap of less than 10 cm for nearly the entire scanned genome.<h4>Results</h4>Linkage analysis suggested that an affected disorder is linked to a locus in the chromosome interval 12q23.1 to 12q23.3; two-point parametric analysis showed a logarithm of odds (LOD) score of 2.97 for the marker D12S346 (12q23.1) and 1.40 for the marker D12S78 (12q23.3). Fine mapping and haplotype analysis subsequently confirmed that eight continuous markers (D12Sac023161, D12S1706, D12S346, D12S1588, D12S1607, D12Sac010202, D12S78, D12Sac084356) had positive LOD with a maximum two-point LOD score of 3.34 for the marker D12S1706 and a maximum multi-point LOD score was 2.4002 for D12Sac010202, their NPL scores were 10.9091 for D12S1706 and 10.9114 for D12Sac010202.<h4>Interpretation & conclusions</h4>A novel locus for essential hypertension was identified on chromosome 12q23.1 - q23.3. This finding implies that the region 12q23.1 to 12q23.3 might encompass a susceptible gene that caused hypertension in this Chinese family.
Project description:Recently, a new locus (PARK8) for autosomal dominant parkinsonism has been identified in one large Japanese family. Linkage has been shown to a 16-cM centromeric region of chromosome 12, between markers D12S1631 and D12S339. We tested 21 white families with Parkinson disease and an inheritance pattern compatible with autosomal dominant transmission for linkage in this region. Criteria for inclusion were at least three affected individuals in more than one generation. A total of 29 markers were used to saturate the candidate region. One hundred sixty-seven family members were tested (84 affected and 83 unaffected). Under the assumption of heterogeneity and through use of an affecteds-only model, a maximum multipoint LOD score of 2.01 was achieved in the total sample, with an estimated proportion of families with linkage of 0.32. This LOD score is significant for linkage in a replication study and corresponds to a P value of.0047. Two families (family A [German Canadian] and family D [from western Nebraska]) reached significant linkage on their own, with a combined maximum multipoint LOD score of 3.33, calculated with an affecteds-only model (family A: LOD score 1.67, P=.0028; family D: LOD score 1.67, P=.0028). When a penetrance-dependent model was calculated, the combined multipoint LOD score achieved was 3.92 (family A: LOD score 1.68, P=.0027; family D: LOD score 2.24, P=.0007). On the basis of the multipoint analysis for the combined families A and D, the 1-LOD support interval suggests that the most likely disease location is between a CA repeat polymorphism on genomic clone AC025253 (44.5 Mb) and marker D12S1701 (47.7 Mb). Our data provide evidence that the PARK8 locus is responsible for the disease in a subset of families of white ancestry with autosomal dominant parkinsonism, suggesting that it could be a more common locus.
Project description:PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to map the disease locus of autosomal dominant cataracts (ADC) in a Chinese family. METHODS: A four-generation family with multiple individuals affected by ADC was investigated. Genomic DNA was collected from 22 family members. A gene-scan at known candidate ADC loci was performed. To achieve fine-mapping we genotyped fourteen STR markers at the critical region of 19q. The two-point logarithm of odds (LOD) score was calculated using Linkage Software Package Version 5.1 for linkage analysis. The haplotype was constructed using Cyrillic software. RESULTS: Ten members of this Chinese family were affected by nuclear cataracts. Initially, linkage analysis revealed a significant LOD score of 3.82 at the STR marker D19S418. Subsequently, after refine-marker analysis, a maximum LOD score (Z(max)=4.25) was obtained at the D19S877 (?=0). Haplotype analysis also confirmed the locus and further narrowed it down to a critical interval from the marker D19S924 to the 19qter. CONCLUSIONS: We have successfully mapped an ADC locus to 19q13-qter. Previous studies have identified three cataract loci on 19q; however, we found no overlap between the locus of this study and any of the previously identified loci. We therefore suggest that the 19q13-qter locus in this family is a new locus for ADC.
Project description:Congenital cataract is a clinically and genetically highly heterogeneous eye disorder, with autosomal dominant inheritance being most common. We investigated a large seven-generation family with 74 individuals affected by autosomal dominant congenital cataract (ADCC). The phenotype in this family can be described as "central pouchlike" cataract with sutural opacities, and it differs from the other mapped cataracts. We performed linkage analysis with microsatellite markers in this family and excluded the known candidate genes. A genomewide search revealed linkage to markers on chromosome 15, with a maximum two-point LOD score of 5.98 at straight theta=0 with marker D15S117. Multipoint analysis also gave a maximum LOD score of 5.98 at D15S117. Multipoint and haplotype analysis narrowed the cataract locus to a 10-cM region between markers D15S209 and D15S1036, closely linked to marker D15S117 in q21-q22 region of chromosome 15. This is the first report of a gene for a clinically new type of ADCC at 15q21-22 locus.
Project description:Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is an autosomal dominant disease with variable expression and incomplete penetrance, characterized by mucocutaneous pigmentation and hamartomatous polyposis. Patients with PJS have increased frequency of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal malignancies (ovaries, testes, and breast). In order to map the locus (or loci) associated with PJS, we performed a genomewide linkage analysis, using DNA polymorphisms in six families (two from Spain, two from India, one from the United States, and one from Portugal) comprising a total of 93 individuals, including 39 affected and 48 unaffected individuals and 6 individuals with unknown status. During this study, localization of a PJS gene to 19p13.3 (around marker D19S886) had been reported elsewhere. For our families, marker D19S886 yielded a maximum LOD score of 4.74 at a recombination fraction (theta) of .045; multipoint linkage analysis resulted in a LOD score of 7.51 for the interval between D19S886 and 19 pter. However, markers on 19q13.4 also showed significant evidence for linkage. For example, D19S880 resulted in a maximum LOD score of 3.8 at theta = .13. Most of this positive linkage was contributed by a single family, PJS07. These results confirm the mapping of a common PJS locus on 19p13.3 but also suggest the existence, in a minority of families, of a potential second PJS locus, on 19q13.4. Positional cloning and characterization of the PJS mutations will clarify the genetics of the syndrome and the implication of the gene(s) in the predisposition to neoplasias.