Saccharomyces cerevisiae URH1 (encoding uridine-cytidine N-ribohydrolase): functional complementation by a nucleoside hydrolase from a protozoan parasite and by a mammalian uridine phosphorylase.
ABSTRACT: Nucleoside hydrolases catalyze the cleavage of N-glycosidic bonds in nucleosides, yielding ribose and the respective bases. While nucleoside hydrolase activity has not been detected in mammalian cells, many protozoan parasites rely on nucleoside hydrolase activity for salvage of purines and/or pyrimidines from their hosts. In contrast, uridine phosphorylase is the key enzyme of pyrimidine salvage in mammalian hosts and many other organisms. We show here that the open reading frame (ORF) YDR400w of Saccharomyces cerevisiae carries the gene encoding uridine hydrolase (URH1). Disruption of this gene in a conditionally pyrimidine-auxotrophic S. cerevisiae strain, which is also deficient in uridine kinase (urk1), leads to the inability of the mutant to utilize uridine as the sole source of pyrimidines. Protein extracts of strains overexpressing YDR400w show increased hydrolase activity only with uridine and cytidine, but no activity with inosine, adenosine, guanosine, and thymidine as substrates, demonstrating that ORF YDR400w encodes a uridine-cytidine N-ribohydrolase. Expression of a homologous cDNA from a protozoan parasite (Crithidia fasciculata) in a ura3 urk1 urh1 mutant is sufficient to restore growth on uridine. Growth can also be restored by expression of a human uridine phosphorylase cDNA. Yeast strains expressing protozoan N-ribohydrolases or host phosphorylases could therefore become useful tools in drug screens for specific inhibitors.
Project description:NAD+ is a co-enzyme for hydride transfer enzymes and an essential substrate of ADP-ribose transfer enzymes and sirtuins, the type III protein lysine deacetylases related to yeast Sir2. Supplementation of yeast cells with nicotinamide riboside extends replicative lifespan and increases Sir2-dependent gene silencing by virtue of increasing net NAD+ synthesis. Nicotinamide riboside elevates NAD+ levels via the nicotinamide riboside kinase pathway and by a pathway initiated by splitting the nucleoside into a nicotinamide base followed by nicotinamide salvage. Genetic evidence has established that uridine hydrolase, purine nucleoside phosphorylase, and methylthioadenosine phosphorylase are required for Nrk-independent utilization of nicotinamide riboside in yeast. Here we show that mammalian purine nucleoside phosphorylase but not methylthioadenosine phosphorylase is responsible for mammalian nicotinamide riboside kinase-independent nicotinamide riboside utilization. We demonstrate that so-called uridine hydrolase is 100-fold more active as a nicotinamide riboside hydrolase than as a uridine hydrolase and that uridine hydrolase and mammalian purine nucleoside phosphorylase cleave nicotinic acid riboside, whereas the yeast phosphorylase has little activity on nicotinic acid riboside. Finally, we show that yeast nicotinic acid riboside utilization largely depends on uridine hydrolase and nicotinamide riboside kinase and that nicotinic acid riboside bioavailability is increased by ester modification.
Project description:Nucleotide degradation is a universal metabolic capability. Here we combine metabolomics, genetics and biochemistry to characterize the yeast pathway. Nutrient starvation, via PKA, AMPK/SNF1, and TOR, triggers autophagic breakdown of ribosomes into nucleotides. A protein not previously associated with nucleotide degradation, Phm8, converts nucleotide monophosphates into nucleosides. Downstream steps, which involve the purine nucleoside phosphorylase, Pnp1, and pyrimidine nucleoside hydrolase, Urh1, funnel ribose into the nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathway. During carbon starvation, the ribose-derived carbon accumulates as sedoheptulose-7-phosphate, whose consumption by transaldolase is impaired due to depletion of transaldolase's other substrate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. Oxidative stress increases glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, resulting in rapid consumption of sedoheptulose-7-phosphate to make NADPH for antioxidant defense. Ablation of Phm8 or double deletion of Pnp1 and Urh1 prevent effective nucleotide salvage, resulting in metabolite depletion and impaired survival of starving yeast. Thus, ribose salvage provides means of surviving nutrient starvation and oxidative stress.
Project description:Purine nucleoside phosphorylases (PNPs) and uridine phosphorylases (UPs) are closely related enzymes involved in purine and pyrimidine salvage, respectively, which catalyze the removal of the ribosyl moiety from nucleosides so that the nucleotide base may be recycled. Parasitic protozoa generally are incapable of de novo purine biosynthesis; hence, the purine salvage pathway is of potential therapeutic interest. Information about pyrimidine biosynthesis in these organisms is much more limited. Though all seem to carry at least a subset of enzymes from each pathway, the dependency on de novo pyrimidine synthesis versus salvage varies from organism to organism and even from one growth stage to another. We have structurally and biochemically characterized a putative nucleoside phosphorylase (NP) from the pathogenic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei and find that it is a homodimeric UP. This is the first characterization of a UP from a trypanosomal source despite this activity being observed decades ago. Although this gene was broadly annotated as a putative NP, it was widely inferred to be a purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Our characterization of this trypanosomal enzyme shows that it is possible to distinguish between PNP and UP activity at the sequence level based on the absence or presence of a characteristic UP-specificity insert. We suggest that this recognizable feature may aid in proper annotation of the substrate specificity of enzymes in the NP family.
Project description:Uridine phosphorylase is a key enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway. This enzyme catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of uridine to uracil and ribose 1-phosphate (or 2'-deoxyuridine to 2'-deoxyribose 1-phosphate). Here we report the structure of hexameric Escherichia coli uridine phosphorylase treated with 5-fluorouridine and sulfate and dimeric bovine uridine phosphorylase treated with 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine or uridine, plus sulfate. In each case the electron density shows three separate species corresponding to the pyrimidine base, sulfate, and a ribosyl species, which can be modeled as a glycal. In the structures of the glycal complexes, the fluorouracil O2 atom is appropriately positioned to act as the base required for glycal formation via deprotonation at C2'. Crystals of bovine uridine phosphorylase treated with 2'-deoxyuridine and sulfate show intact nucleoside. NMR time course studies demonstrate that uridine phosphorylase can catalyze the hydrolysis of the fluorinated nucleosides in the absence of phosphate or sulfate, without the release of intermediates or enzyme inactivation. These results add a previously unencountered mechanistic motif to the body of information on glycal formation by enzymes catalyzing the cleavage of glycosyl bonds.
Project description:Uridine phosphorylase (UP) is a key enzyme of pyrimidine salvage pathways that enables the recycling of endogenous or exogenous-supplied pyrimidines and plays an important intracellular metabolic role. Here, we biochemically and structurally characterized two evolutionarily divergent uridine phosphorylases, PcUP1 and PcUP2 from the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici. Our analysis of other oomycete genomes revealed that both uridine phosphorylases are present in Phytophthora and Pythium genomes, but only UP2 is seen in Saprolegnia spp. which are basal members of the oomycetes. Moreover, uridine phosphorylases are not found in obligate oomycete pathogens such as Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis and Albugo spp. PcUP1 and PcUP2 are upregulated 300 and 500 fold respectively, within 90?min after infection of pepper leaves. The crystal structures of PcUP1 in ligand-free and in complex with uracil/ribose-1-phosphate, 2'-deoxyuridine/phosphate and thymidine/phosphate were analyzed. Crystal structure of this uridine phosphorylase showed strict conservation of key residues in the binding pocket. Structure analysis of PcUP1 with bound ligands, and site-directed mutagenesis of key residues provide additional support for the "push-pull" model of catalysis. Our study highlights the importance of pyrimidine salvage during the earliest stages of infection.
Project description:Uridine phosphorylase catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of uridine and 2'-deoxyuridine to generate uracil and (2-deoxy)ribose 1-phosphate, an important step in the pyrimidine salvage pathway. The coding sequence annotated as a putative nucleoside phosphorylase in the Trypanosoma cruzi genome was overexpressed in Escherichia coli , purified to homogeneity, and shown to be a homodimeric uridine phosphorylase, with similar specificity for uridine and 2'-deoxyuridine and undetectable activity toward thymidine and purine nucleosides. Competitive kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) were measured and corrected for a forward commitment factor using arsenate as the nucleophile. The intrinsic KIEs are: 1'-(14)C = 1.103, 1,3-(15)N(2) = 1.034, 3-(15)N = 1.004, 1-(15)N = 1.030, 1'-(3)H = 1.132, 2'-(2)H = 1.086, and 5'-(3)H(2) = 1.041 for this reaction. Density functional theory was employed to quantitatively interpret the KIEs in terms of transition-state structure and geometry. Matching of experimental KIEs to proposed transition-state structures suggests an almost synchronous, S(N)2-like transition-state model, in which the ribosyl moiety possesses significant bond order to both nucleophile and leaving groups. Natural bond orbital analysis allowed a comparison of the charge distribution pattern between the ground-state and the transition-state models.
Project description:Uridine phosphorylase (UP), a key enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway, catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of uridine or 2'-deoxyuridine to uracil and ribose 1-phosphate or 2'-deoxyribose 1-phosphate. This enzyme belongs to the nucleoside phosphorylase I superfamily whose members show diverse specificity for nucleoside substrates. Phylogenetic analysis shows Streptococcus pyogenes uridine phosphorylase (SpUP) is found in a distinct branch of the pyrimidine subfamily of nucleoside phosphorylases. To further characterize SpUP, we determined the crystal structure in complex with the products, ribose 1-phosphate and uracil, at 1.8 Å resolution. Like Escherichia coli UP (EcUP), the biological unit of SpUP is a hexamer with an ?/? monomeric fold. A novel feature of the active site is the presence of His169, which structurally aligns with Arg168 of the EcUP structure. A second active site residue, Lys162, is not present in previously determined UP structures and interacts with O2 of uracil. Biochemical studies of wild-type SpUP showed that its substrate specificity is similar to that of EcUP, while EcUP is ?7-fold more efficient than SpUP. Biochemical studies of SpUP mutants showed that mutations of His169 reduced activity, while mutation of Lys162 abolished all activity, suggesting that the negative charge in the transition state resides mostly on uracil O2. This is in contrast to EcUP for which transition state stabilization occurs mostly at O4.
Project description:Clinically relevant inhibitors of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), a rate-limiting enzyme in mammalian de novo pyrimidine synthesis, have strong antiviral and anticancer activity in vitro. However, they are ineffective in vivo due to efficient uridine salvage by infected or rapidly dividing cells. The pyrimidine salvage enzyme uridine-cytidine kinase 2 (UCK2), a ?29?kDa protein that forms a tetramer in its active state, is necessary for uridine salvage. Notwithstanding the pharmacological potential of this target, no medicinally tractable inhibitors of the human enzyme have been reported to date. We therefore established and miniaturized an in vitro assay for UCK2 activity and undertook a high-throughput screen against a ?40,000-compound library to generate drug-like leads. The structures, activities, and modes of inhibition of the most promising hits are described. Notably, our screen yielded non-competitive UCK2 inhibitors which were able to suppress nucleoside salvage in cells both in the presence and absence of DHODH inhibitors.
Project description:African trypanosomes are capable of both pyrimidine biosynthesis and salvage of preformed pyrimidines from the host, but it is unknown whether either process is essential to the parasite.Pyrimidine requirements for growth were investigated using strictly pyrimidine-free media, with or without single added pyrimidine sources. Growth rates of wild-type bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei brucei were unchanged in pyrimidine-free medium. The essentiality of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway was studied by knocking out the PYR6-5 locus that produces a fusion product of orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT) and Orotidine Monophosphate Decarboxylase (OMPDCase). The pyrimidine auxotroph was dependent on a suitable extracellular pyrimidine source. Pyrimidine starvation was rapidly lethal and non-reversible, causing incomplete DNA content in new cells. The phenotype could be rescued by addition of uracil; supplementation with uridine, 2'deoxyuridine, and cytidine allowed a diminished growth rate and density. PYR6-5(-/-) trypanosomes were more sensitive to pyrimidine antimetabolites and displayed increased uracil transport rates and uridine phosphorylase activity. Pyrimidine auxotrophs were able to infect mice although the infection developed much more slowly than infection with the parental, prototrophic trypanosome line.Pyrimidine salvage was not an essential function for bloodstream T. b. brucei. However, trypanosomes lacking de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis are completely dependent on an extracellular pyrimidine source, strongly preferring uracil, and display reduced infectivity. As T. brucei are able to salvage sufficient pyrimidines from the host environment, the pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway is not a viable drug target, although any interruption of pyrimidine supply was lethal.
Project description:Trichomonas vaginalis infects approximately 300 million people worldwide annually. Infected individuals have a higher susceptibility to more serious conditions such as cervical and prostate cancer. The parasite has developed increasing resistance to current drug therapies, with an estimated 5% of clinical cases resulting from resistant strains, creating the need for new therapeutic strategies with novel mechanisms of action. Nucleoside salvage pathway enzymes represent novel drug targets as these pathways are essential for the parasite's survival. The guanosine/adenosine/cytidine nucleoside hydrolase (GACNH) may be particularly important as its expression is upregulated under glucose-limiting conditions mimicking those that occur during infection establishment. GACNH was screened against the NIH Clinical Collection to explore its druggability. Seven compounds were identified with IC50 values <20 ?M. Extensive overlap was found between inhibitors of GACNH and the adenosine/guanosine nucleoside hydrolase (AGNH), but no overlap was found with inhibitors of the uridine nucleoside hydrolase. The guanosine analog ribavirin was the only compound found to be specific for GACNH. Compounds that inhibit both AGNH and GACNH purine salvage pathway enzymes may prove critical given the role that GACNH appears to play in the early stages of infection.