Role of Pseudomonas putida indoleacetic acid in development of the host plant root system.
ABSTRACT: Many plant-associated bacteria synthesize the phytohormone indoleacetic acid (IAA). While IAA produced by phytopathogenic bacteria, mainly by the indoleacetamide pathway, has been implicated in the induction of plant tumors, it is not clear whether IAA synthesized by beneficial bacteria, usually via the indolepyruvic acid pathway, is involved in plant growth promotion. To determine whether bacterial IAA enhances root development in host plants, the ipdc gene that encodes indolepyruvate decarboxylase, a key enzyme in the indolepyruvic acid pathway, was isolated from the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas putida GR12-2 and an IAA-deficient mutant constructed by insertional mutagenesis. The canola seedling primary roots from seeds treated with wild-type P. putida GR12-2 were on average 35 to 50% longer than the roots from seeds treated with the IAA-deficient mutant and the roots from uninoculated seeds. In addition, exposing mung bean cuttings to high levels of IAA by soaking them in a suspension of the wild-type strain stimulated the formation of many, very small, adventitious roots. Formation of fewer roots was stimulated by treatment with the IAA-deficient mutant. These results suggest that bacterial IAA plays a major role in the development of the host plant root system.
Project description:We have isolated from plant surfaces several bacteria with the ability to catabolize indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). One of them, isolate 1290, was able to utilize IAA as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. The strain was identified by its 16S rRNA sequence as Pseudomonas putida. Activity of the enzyme catechol 1,2-dioxygenase was induced during growth on IAA, suggesting that catechol is an intermediate of the IAA catabolic pathway. This was in agreement with the observation that the oxygen uptake by IAA-grown P. putida 1290 cells was elevated in response to the addition of catechol. The inability of a catR mutant of P. putida 1290 to grow at the expense of IAA also suggests a central role for catechol as an intermediate in IAA metabolism. Besides being able to destroy IAA, strain 1290 was also capable of producing IAA in media supplemented with tryptophan. In root elongation assays, P. putida strain 1290 completely abolished the inhibitory effect of exogenous IAA on the elongation of radish roots. In fact, coinoculation of roots with P. putida 1290 and 1 mM concentration of IAA had a positive effect on root development. In coinoculation experiments on radish roots, strain 1290 was only partially able to alleviate the inhibitory effect of bacteria that in culture overproduce IAA. Our findings imply a biological role for strain 1290 as a sink or recycler of IAA in its association with plants and plant-associated bacteria.
Project description:Nostoc is widely known for its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen and the establishment of symbiotic relationship with a wide range of plants from various taxonomic groups. Several strains of Nostoc produce phytohormones that promote growth of its plant partners. Nostoc OS-1 was therefore selected for study because of the presence of putative ipdC gene that encodes a key enzyme to produce Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The results indicated that both cellular and released IAA was found high with increasing incubation time and reached to a peak value (i.e., 21 pmol mg(-1)ch-a) on the third week as determined by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Also the Nostoc OS-1 strain efficiently colonized the roots and promoted the growth of rice as well as wheat under axenic conditions and induced ipdC gene that suggested the possible involvement of IAA in these phenotypes. To confirm the impact of IAA on root colonization efficiency and plant promoting phenotypes of Nostoc OS-1, an ipdC knockout mutant was generated by homologous recombinant method. The amount of releasing IAA, in vitro growth, root colonization, and plant promoting efficiency of the ipdC knockout mutant was observed significantly lower than wild type strain under axenic conditions. Importantly, these phenotypes were restored to wild-type levels when the ipdC knockout mutant was complemented with wild type ipdC gene. These results together suggested that ipdC and/or synthesized IAA of Nostoc OS-1 is required for its efficient root colonization and plant promoting activity.
Project description:Azospirillum is a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) with ability to produce several phytohormones such as auxins, mainly indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The positive interaction of Azospirillum with plants has been simplified and explained through the bacterial capacity to produce IAA. Typical changes on root architecture by promoting the number of lateral roots and hair formation, and reducing the primary root length were established in inoculated plants. These changes increase the root surface improving the water and nutrients acquisition, and thus the growth of the whole plant. The mechanisms by which Azospirillum induces such changes fails to be explained only by the bacterial capacity to produce IAA. In this work, we have evaluated the root architecture and gene expression changes occurred in Arabidopsis thaliana inoculated with A. brasilense Az39 and the IAA-deficient mutant (Az39 ipdC-), or treated with exogenous IAA solution to confirm both, the IAA-dependent and IAA-independent Azospirillum´s pathways to promote the root growth. Our results demonstrate the ability of Az39 to modify the primary root development through IAA biosynthesis, while other IAA-independent mechanisms were related to an increase in the lateral roots development and the root hairs number. Jasmonates, ethylene and salicylic acid were increased in the IAA-deficient bacterial treatments, as the ipdC mutant significantly up-regulated transcription of genes enriched of these phytohormones signaling after 7 days. Further, the physical presence of the inactive bacteria (Az39φ) seems to mediate the development of root hairs, a mechanism common to other non-PGPR as E. coli DH5α. Our results suggest that Az39 inoculation induces morphological changes in root architecture through both IAA-dependent and independent mechanism. The IAA biosynthesis by Az39 reduces the primary root length; while the cells contact with the roots increases the root hairs production. Both the synthesis of active IAA and the presence of metabolically active Az39 cells increase the growth and development of lateral roots. Overall design: 2 strains of Azospirillum rhizobacteria (Az39 and -ipdc mutant) and an NaCl control were applied to the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings for transcriptomic analysis at 24 hours and 7 days post treatment; 2 replicates each, of at least 50 root systems per rep
Project description:The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Enterobacter cloacae UW5 synthesizes the plant growth hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) via the indole-3-pyruvate pathway utilizing the enzyme indole-3-pyruvate decarboxylase that is encoded by ipdC. In this bacterium, ipdC expression and IAA production occur in stationary phase and are induced by an exogenous source of tryptophan, conditions that are present in the rhizosphere. The aim of this study was to identify the regulatory protein that controls the expression of ipdC. We identified a sequence in the promoter region of ipdC that is highly similar to the recognition sequence for the Escherichia coli regulatory protein TyrR that regulates genes involved in aromatic amino acid transport and metabolism. Using a tyrR insertional mutant, we demonstrate that TyrR is required for IAA production and for induction of ipdC transcription. TyrR directly induces ipdC expression, as was determined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, by ipdC promoter-driven reporter gene activity, and by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Expression increases in response to tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine. This suggests that, in addition to its function in plant growth promotion, indolepyruvate decarboxylase may be important for aromatic amino acid uptake and/or metabolism.
Project description:Aims:Dianthus caryophyllus is a commercially important ornamental flower. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are increasingly applied as bio-fertilisers and bio-fortifiers. We studied the effect of a rhizospheric isolate Klebsiella SGM 81 strain to promote D. caryophyllus growth under sterile and non-sterile conditions, to colonise its root system endophytically and its impact on the cultivatable microbial community. We identified the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production of Klebsiella SGM 81 as major bacterial trait most likely to enhance growth of D. caryophyllus. Methods:ipdC dependent IAA production of SGM 81 was quantified using LC-MS/MS and localised proximal to D. caryophyllus roots and correlated to root growth promotion and characteristic morphological changes. SGM 81 cells were localised on and within the plant root using 3D rendering confocal microscopy of gfp expressing SGM 81. Using Salkowski reagent IAA production was quantified and localised proximal to roots in situ. The effect of different bacterial titres on rhizosphere bacterial population was CFU enumerated on nutrient agar. The genome sequence of Klebsiella SGM 81 (accession number PRJEB21197) was determined to validate PGP traits and phylogenic relationships. Results:Inoculation of D. caryophyllus roots with Klebsiella SGM 81 drastically promoted plant growth when grown in agar and soil, concomitant with a burst in root hair formation, suggesting an increase in root auxin activity. We sequenced the Klebsiella SGM 81 genome, identified the presence of a canonical ipdC gene in Klebsiella SGM 81, confirmed bacterial production and secretion of IAA in batch culture using LC-MS/MS and localised plant dependent IAA production by SGM 81 proximal to roots. We found Klebsiella SGM 81 to be a rhizoplane and endophytic coloniser of D. caryophyllus roots in a dose dependent manner. We found no adverse effects of SGM 81 on the overall rhizospheric microbial population unless supplied to soil in very high titres. Conclusion:Klebsiella SGM 81 effectively improves root traits of D. caryophyllus in a dose dependent manner, likely through tryptophan dependent IAA production in the rhizoplane and potentially within the intercellular spaces of root tissue. Under optimal plant growth promoting conditions in non-sterile soil, the high total microbial titre in the rhizosphere supports a mutualistic relationship between Klebsiella SGM 81 and carnation that potentially extends to the wider rhizosphere microbiota.
Project description:The lack of oxygen and post-anoxic reactions cause significant alterations of plant growth and metabolism. Plant hormones are active participants in these alterations. This study focuses on auxin-a phytohormone with a wide spectrum of effects on plant growth and stress tolerance. The indoleacetic acid (IAA) content in plants was measured by ELISA. The obtained data revealed anoxia-induced accumulation of IAA in wheat and rice seedlings related to their tolerance of oxygen deprivation. The highest IAA accumulation was detected in rice roots. Subsequent reoxygenation was accompanied with a fast auxin reduction to the control level. A major difference was reported for shoots: wheat seedlings contained less than one-third of normoxic level of auxin during post-anoxia, while IAA level in rice seedlings rapidly recovered to normoxic level. It is likely that the mechanisms of auxin dynamics resulted from oxygen-induced shift in auxin degradation and transport. Exogenous IAA treatment enhanced plant survival under anoxia by decreased electrolyte leakage, production of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation. The positive effect of external IAA application coincided with improvement of tolerance to oxygen deprivation in the 35S:iaaM × 35S:iaaH lines of transgene tobacco due to its IAA overproduction.
Project description:Erwinia herbicola 299R synthesizes indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) primarily by the indole-3-pyruvic acid pathway. A gene involved in the biosynthesis of IAA was cloned from strain 299R. This gene (ipdC) conferred the synthesis of indole-3-acetaldehyde and tryptophol upon Escherichia coli DH5 alpha in cultures supplemented with L-tryptophan. The deduced amino acid sequence of the gene product has high similarity to that of the indolepyruvate decarboxylase of Enterobacter cloacae. Regions within pyruvate decarboxylases of various fungal and plant species also exhibited considerable homology to portions of this gene. This gene therefore presumably encodes an indolepyruvate decarboxylase (IpdC) which catalyzes the conversion of indole-3-pyruvic acid to indole-3-acetaldehyde. Insertions of Tn3-spice within ipdC abolished the ability of strain 299R to synthesize indole-3-acetaldehyde and tryptophol and reduced its IAA production in tryptophan-supplemented minimal medium by approximately 10-fold, thus providing genetic evidence for the role of the indolepyruvate pathway in IAA synthesis in this strain. An ipdC probe hybridized strongly with the genomic DNA of all E. herbicola strains tested in Southern hybridization studies, suggesting that the indolepyruvate pathway is common in this species. Maximum parsimony analysis revealed that the ipdC gene is highly conserved within this group and that strains of diverse geographic origin were very similar with respect to ipdC.
Project description:We show that the expression of an indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-modified protein from bean seed, IAP1, is correlated to the developmental period of rapid growth during seed development. Moreover, this protein undergoes rapid degradation during germination. The gene for IAP1, the most abundant protein covalently modified by IAA (iap1, GenBank accession no. ) was isolated and cloned from bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds. The 957-bp sequence encodes a 35-kDa polypeptide. IAA-modified proteins represent a distinct class of conjugated phytohormones and appear in bean to be the major form of auxin in seeds. IAA proteins also are found at other stages of development in bean plants. Our immunological and analytical data suggest that auxin modification of a small class of proteins may be a feature common to many plants.
Project description:Fungi must recognize plant-specific signals to initiate subsequent morphogenetic events such as filamentation that lead to infection. Here we show that the plant hormone indoleacetic acid (IAA) induces adhesion and filamentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genome expression profiling of cells treated with IAA identified Yap1, a fungal specific transcription factor, as a key mediator of this response. Strains lacking YAP1 (yap1-1) are hypersensitive to growth on IAA because they accumulate more IAA than can wild type. Members of a family of transporters the amino acid/auxin:proton symport permeases with homology to AUX1, a putative IAA transporter from plants, are up-regulated in the yap1-1 mutant. Deletion of any one of these transporters makes yap1-1 mutants more resistant to IAA by decreasing its uptake. The permease mutants are defective in IAA perception and filamentation. The ability of a fungus to perceive a plant hormone that causes it to differentiate into an invasive form has important implications for plant-pathogen interactions.
Project description:Several bacteria use the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) as a sole carbon and energy source. A cluster of genes (named iac) encoding IAA degradation has been reported in Pseudomonas putida 1290, but the functions of these genes are not completely understood. The plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium Paraburkholderia phytofirmans PsJN harbors iac gene homologues in its genome, but with a different gene organization and context than those of P. putida 1290. The iac gene functions enable P. phytofirmans to use IAA as a sole carbon and energy source. Employing a heterologous expression system approach, P. phytofirmans iac genes with previously undescribed functions were associated with specific biochemical steps. In addition, two uncharacterized genes, previously unreported in P. putida and found to be related to major facilitator and tautomerase superfamilies, are involved in removal of an IAA metabolite called dioxindole-3-acetate. Similar to the case in strain 1290, IAA degradation proceeds through catechol as intermediate, which is subsequently degraded by ortho-ring cleavage. A putative two-component regulatory system and a LysR-type regulator, which apparently respond to IAA and dioxindole-3-acetate, respectively, are involved in iac gene regulation in P. phytofirmans These results provide new insights about unknown gene functions and complex regulatory mechanisms in IAA bacterial catabolism.This study describes indole-3-acetic acid (auxin phytohormone) degradation in the well-known betaproteobacterium P. phytofirmans PsJN and comprises a complete description of genes, some of them with previously unreported functions, and the general basis of their gene regulation. This work contributes to the understanding of how beneficial bacteria interact with plants, helping them to grow and/or to resist environmental stresses, through a complex set of molecular signals, in this case through degradation of a highly relevant plant hormone.