Human alpha-synuclein-harboring familial Parkinson's disease-linked Ala-53 --> Thr mutation causes neurodegenerative disease with alpha-synuclein aggregation in transgenic mice.
ABSTRACT: Mutations in alpha-synuclein (alpha-Syn) cause Parkinson's disease (PD) in a small number of pedigrees with familial PD. Moreover, alpha-Syn accumulates as a major component of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, intraneuronal inclusions that are neuropathological hallmarks of PD. To better understand the pathogenic relationship between alterations in the biology of alpha-Syn and PD-associated neurodegeneration, we generated multiple lines of transgenic mice expressing high levels of either wild-type or familial PD-linked Ala-30 --> Pro (A30P) or Ala-53 --> Thr (A53T) human alpha-Syns. The mice expressing the A53T human alpha-Syn, but not wild-type or the A30P variants, develop adult-onset neurodegenerative disease with a progressive motoric dysfunction leading to death. Pathologically, affected mice exhibit neuronal abnormalities (in perikarya and neurites) including pathological accumulations of alpha-Syn and ubiquitin. Consistent with abnormal neuronal accumulation of alpha-Syn, brain regions with pathology exhibit increases in detergent-insoluble alpha-Syn and alpha-Syn aggregates. Our results demonstrate that the A53T mutant alpha-Syn causes significantly greater in vivo neurotoxicity as compared with other alpha-Syn variants. Further, alpha-Syn-dependent neurodegeneration is associated with abnormal accumulation of detergent-insoluble alpha-Syn.
Project description:Parkinson's disease (PD) is a pathological condition characterized by the aggregation and the resultant presence of intraneuronal inclusions termed Lewy bodies (LBs) and Lewy neurites which are mainly composed of fibrillar α-synuclein (α-syn) protein. Pathogenic aggregation of α-syn is identified as the major cause of LBs deposition. Several mutations in α-syn showing varied aggregation kinetics in comparison to the wild type (WT) α-syn are reported in PD (A30P, E46K, H 50Q, G51D, A53E, and A53T). Also, the cell-to-cell spread of pathological α-syn plays a significant role in PD development. Interestingly, it has also been suggested that the pathology of PD may begin in the gastrointestinal tract and spread via the vagus nerve (VN) to brain proposing the gut-brain axis of α-syn pathology in PD. Despite multiple efforts, the behavior and functions of this protein in normal and pathological states (specifically in PD) is far from understood. Furthermore, the etiological factors responsible for triggering aggregation of this protein remain elusive. This review is an attempt to collate and present latest information on α-syn in relation to its structure, biochemistry and biophysics of aggregation in PD. Current advances in therapeutic efforts toward clearing the pathogenic α-syn via autophagy/lysosomal flux are also reviewed and reported.
Project description:Many neuropathological and experimental studies suggest that the degeneration of dopaminergic terminals and axons precedes the demise of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, which finally results in the clinical symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD). The mechanisms underlying this early axonal degeneration are, however, still poorly understood. Here, we examined the effects of overexpression of human wildtype alpha-synuclein (?Syn-WT), a protein associated with PD, and its mutant variants ?Syn-A30P and -A53T on neurite morphology and functional parameters in rat primary midbrain neurons (PMN). Moreover, axonal degeneration after overexpression of ?Syn-WT and -A30P was analyzed by live imaging in the rat optic nerve in vivo. We found that overexpression of ?Syn-WT and of its mutants A30P and A53T impaired neurite outgrowth of PMN and affected neurite branching assessed by Sholl analysis in a variant-dependent manner. Surprisingly, the number of primary neurites per neuron was increased in neurons transfected with ?Syn. Axonal vesicle transport was examined by live imaging of PMN co-transfected with EGFP-labeled synaptophysin. Overexpression of all ?Syn variants significantly decreased the number of motile vesicles and decelerated vesicle transport compared with control. Macroautophagic flux in PMN was enhanced by ?Syn-WT and -A53T but not by ?Syn-A30P. Correspondingly, colocalization of ?Syn and the autophagy marker LC3 was reduced for ?Syn-A30P compared with the other ?Syn variants. The number of mitochondria colocalizing with LC3 as a marker for mitophagy did not differ among the groups. In the rat optic nerve, both ?Syn-WT and -A30P accelerated kinetics of acute axonal degeneration following crush lesion as analyzed by in vivo live imaging. We conclude that ?Syn overexpression impairs neurite outgrowth and augments axonal degeneration, whereas axonal vesicle transport and autophagy are severely altered.
Project description:In Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, alpha-synuclein (?-syn) pathology advances in form of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites throughout the brain. Clinically, PD is defined by motor symptoms that are predominantly attributed to the dopaminergic cell loss in the substantia nigra. However, motor deficits are frequently preceded by smell deficiency or neuropsychological symptoms, including increased anxiety and cognitive dysfunction. Accumulating evidence indicates that aggregation of ?-syn impairs synaptic function and neurogenic capacity that may be associated with deficits in memory, learning and mood. Whether and how ?-syn accumulation contributes to neuropathological events defining these earliest signs of PD is presently poorly understood. We used a tetracycline-suppressive (tet-off) transgenic mouse model that restricts overexpression of human A30P ?-syn to neurons owing to usage of the neuron-specific CaMKII? promoter. Abnormal accumulation of A30P correlated with a decreased survival of newly generated neurons in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. Furthermore, when A30P ?-syn expression was suppressed, we observed reduction of the human protein in neuronal soma. However, residual dox resistant A30P ?-syn was detected in glial cells within the hippocampal neurogenic niche, concomitant with the failure to fully restore hippocampal neurogenesis. This finding is indicative to a potential spread of pathology from neuron to glia. In addition, mice expressing A30P ?-syn show increased anxiety-related behavior that was reversed after dox treatment. This implies that glial A30P ?-synucleinopathy within the dentate gyrus is part of a process leading to impaired hippocampal neuroplasticity, which is, however, not a sole critical event for circuits implicated in anxiety-related behavior.
Project description:α-Synuclein (α-Syn) protein is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Point mutations and multiplications of the α-Syn, which encodes the <i>SNCA</i> gene, are correlated with early-onset PD, therefore the reduction in a-Syn synthesis could be a potential therapy for PD if delivered to the key affected neurons. Several experimental strategies for PD have been developed in recent years using oligonucleotide therapeutics. However, some of them have failed or even caused neuronal toxicity. One limiting step in the success of oligonucleotide-based therapeutics is their delivery to the brain compartment, and once there, to selected neuronal populations. Previously, we developed an indatraline-conjugated antisense oligonucleotide (IND-1233-ASO), that selectively reduces α-Syn synthesis in midbrain monoamine neurons of mice, and nonhuman primates. Here, we extended these observations using a transgenic male mouse strain carrying both A30P and A53T mutant human α-Syn (A30P*A53T*α-Syn). We found that A30P*A53T*α-Syn mice at 4-5 months of age showed 3.5-fold increases in human α-Syn expression in dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and locus coeruleus (LC), respectively, compared with mouse α-Syn levels. In parallel, transgenic mice exhibited altered nigrostriatal DA neurotransmission, motor alterations, and an anxiety-like phenotype. Intracerebroventricular IND-1233-ASO administration (100 µg/day, 28 days) prevented the α-Syn synthesis and accumulation in the SNc and LC, and recovered DA neurotransmission, although it did not reverse the behavioral phenotype. Therefore, the present therapeutic strategy based on a conjugated ASO could be used for the selective inhibition of α-Syn expression in PD-vulnerable monoamine neurons, showing the benefit of the optimization of ASO molecules as a disease modifying therapy for PD and related α-synucleinopathies.
Project description:Background: Mutations in glucocerebrosidase (GBA), a lysosomal enzyme are the most common genetic risk factor for developing Parkinson's disease (PD). We studied how reduced GCase activity affects ?-synuclein (?-syn) and its mutants (A30P and A53T) aggregation, neurodegeneration, sleep and locomotor behavior in a fly model of PD. Methods: We developed drosophila with GBA gene knockdown (RNAi) (with reduced GCase activity) that simultaneously expresses either wildtype (WT) or mutants such as A30P or A53T ?-syn. Western blot and confocal microscopy were performed to study the ?-syn aggregation and neurodegeneration in these flies. We also studied the sleep and locomotor activity of those flies using Drosophila activity monitor (DAM) system. Results: Western blot analysis showed that GBA RNAi A53T ?-syn flies (30 days old) had an increased level of Triton insoluble synuclein (that corresponds to ?-syn aggregates) compared to corresponding A53T flies without GBA RNAi (control), while mRNA expression of ?-syn remained unchanged. Confocal imaging of whole brain staining of 30 days old drosophila showed a statistically significant decrease in neuron numbers in PPL1 cluster in flies expressing ?-syn WT, A30P and A53T in the presence GBA RNAi compared to corresponding control. Staining with conformation specific antibody for ?-syn aggregates showed an increased number of neurons staining for ?-syn aggregates in A53T fly brain with GBA RNAi compared to control A53T flies, thus confirming our protein analysis finding that under decreased GBA enzyme activity, mutant A53T aggregates more than the control A53T without GBA silencing. Sleep analysis revealed decreased total activity in GBA silenced flies expressing mutant A53T compared to both A53T control flies and GBA RNAi flies without synuclein expression. Conclusion: In A53T flies with reduced GCase activity, there is increased ?-syn aggregation and dopamine (DA) neuronal loss. This study demonstrates that reduced GCase activity both in the context of heterozygous GBA1 mutation associated with PD and in old age, contribute to increased aggregation of mutant ?-syn A53T and exacerbates the phenotype in a fly model of PD.
Project description:Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. A key pathological feature of PD is Lewy bodies, of which the major protein component is ?-synuclein (?-syn). Human genetic studies have shown that mutations (A53T, A30P, E46K) and multiplication of the ?-syn gene are linked to familial PD. Mice overexpressing the human A53T mutant ?-syn gene develop severe movement disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms of ?-syn toxicity are not well understood. Recently, mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked with multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease. Here we investigated whether mitochondrial motility, dynamics and respiratory function are affected in primary neurons from a mouse model expressing the human A53T mutation. We found that mitochondrial motility was selectively inhibited in A53T neurons while transport of other organelles was not affected. In addition, A53T expressing neurons showed impairment in mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial respiratory function. Furthermore, we found that rapamycin, an autophagy inducer, rescued the decreased mitochondrial mobility. Taken together, these data demonstrate that A53T ?-syn impairs mitochondrial function and dynamics and the deficit of mitochondrial transport is reversible, providing further understanding of the disease pathogenesis and a potential therapeutic strategy for PD.
Project description:Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with motor as well as non-motor signs in the gastrointestinal tract that include dysphagia, gastroparesis, prolonged gastrointestinal transit time, constipation and difficulty with defecation. The gastrointestinal dysfunction commonly precedes the motor symptoms by decades. Most PD is sporadic and of unknown etiology, but a fraction is familial. Among familial forms of PD, a small fraction is caused by missense (A53T, A30P and E46K) and copy number mutations in SNCA which encodes alpha-synuclein, a primary protein constituent of Lewy bodies, the pathognomonic protein aggregates found in neurons in PD. We set out to develop transgenic mice expressing mutant alpha-synuclein (either A53T or A30P) from insertions of an entire human SNCA gene as models for the familial disease. Both the A53T and A30P lines show robust abnormalities in enteric nervous system (ENS) function and synuclein-immunoreactive aggregates in ENS ganglia by 3 months of age. The A53T line also has abnormal motor behavior but neither demonstrates cardiac autonomic abnormalities, olfactory dysfunction, dopaminergic neurotransmitter deficits, Lewy body inclusions or neurodegeneration. These animals recapitulate the early gastrointestinal abnormalities seen in human PD. The animals also serve as an in vivo system in which to investigate therapies for reversing the neurological dysfunction that target alpha-synuclein toxicity at its earliest stages.
Project description:?-Synuclein (?-syn) is a synaptic protein in which four mutations (A53T, A30P, E46K and gene triplication) have been found to cause an autosomal dominant form of Parkinson's disease (PD). It is also the major component of intraneuronal protein aggregates, designated as Lewy bodies (LBs), a prominent pathological hallmark of PD. How ?-syn contributes to LB formation and PD is still not well-understood. It has been proposed that aggregation of ?-syn contributes to the formation of LBs, which then leads to neurodegeneration in PD. However, studies have also suggested that aggregates formation is a protective mechanism against more toxic ?-syn oligomers. In this study, we have generated ?-syn mutants that have increased propensity to form aggregates by attaching a CL1 peptide to the C-terminal of ?-syn. Data from our cellular study suggest an inverse correlation between cell viability and the amount of ?-syn aggregates formed in the cells. In addition, our animal model of PD indicates that attachment of CL1 to ?-syn enhanced its toxicity to dopaminergic neurons in an age-dependent manner and induced the formation of Lewy body-like ?-syn aggregates in the substantia nigra. These results provide new insights into how ?-syn-induced toxicity is related to its aggregation.
Project description:α-Synuclein (α-syn) is a hallmark amyloidogenic protein component of Lewy bodies in dopaminergic neurons affected by Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite the multi-faceted gene regulation of α-syn in the nucleus, the mechanism underlying α-syn crosstalk in chromatin remodeling in PD pathogenesis remains elusive. Here, we identified transcriptional adapter 2-alpha (TADA2a) as a novel binding partner of α-syn using the BioID system. TADA2a is a component of the p300/CBP-associated factor and is related to histone H3/H4 acetylation. We found that α-syn A53T was more preferentially localized in the nucleus than the α-syn wild-type (WT), leading to a stronger disturbance of TADA2a. Indeed, α-syn A53T significantly reduced the level of histone H3 acetylation in SH-SY5Y cells; its reduction was also evident in the striatum (STR) and substantia nigra (SN) of mice that were stereotaxically injected with α-syn preformed fibrils (PFFs). Interestingly, α-syn PFF injection resulted in a decrease in TADA2a in the STR and SN of α-syn PFF-injected mice. Furthermore, the levels of TADA2a and acetylated histone H3 were significantly decreased in the SN of patients with PD. Therefore, histone modification through α-syn A53T-TADA2a interaction may be associated with α-syn-mediated neurotoxicity in PD pathology.
Project description:The etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) converges on a common pathogenic pathway of mitochondrial defects in which ?-Synuclein (?Syn) is thought to play a role. However, the mechanisms by which ?Syn and its disease-associated allelic variants cause mitochondrial dysfunction remain unknown. Here, we analyzed mitochondrial axonal transport and morphology in human-derived neurons overexpressing wild-type (WT) ?Syn or the mutated variants A30P or A53T, which are known to have differential lipid affinities. A53T ?Syn was enriched in mitochondrial fractions, inducing significant mitochondrial transport defects and fragmentation, while milder defects were elicited by WT and A30P. We found that ?Syn-mediated mitochondrial fragmentation was linked to expression levels in WT and A53T variants. Targeted delivery of WT and A53T ?Syn to the outer mitochondrial membrane further increased fragmentation, whereas A30P did not. Genomic editing to disrupt the N-terminal domain of ?Syn, which is important for membrane association, resulted in mitochondrial elongation without changes in fusion-fission protein levels, suggesting that ?Syn plays a direct physiological role in mitochondrial size maintenance. Thus, we demonstrate that the association of ?Syn with the mitochondria, which is modulated by protein mutation and dosage, influences mitochondrial transport and morphology, highlighting its relevance in a common pathway impaired in PD.