SKP1-SnRK protein kinase interactions mediate proteasomal binding of a plant SCF ubiquitin ligase.
ABSTRACT: Arabidopsis Snf1-related protein kinases (SnRKs) are implicated in pleiotropic regulation of metabolic, hormonal and stress responses through their interaction with the kinase inhibitor PRL1 WD-protein. Here we show that SKP1/ASK1, a conserved SCF (Skp1-cullin-F-box) ubiquitin ligase subunit, which suppresses the skp1-4 mitotic defect in yeast, interacts with the PRL1-binding C-terminal domains of SnRKs. The same SnRK domains recruit an SKP1/ASK1-binding proteasomal protein, alpha4/PAD1, which enhances the formation of a trimeric SnRK complex with SKP1/ASK1 in vitro. By contrast, PRL1 reduces the interaction of SKP1/ASK1 with SnRKs. SKP1/ASK1 is co-immunoprecipitated with a cullin SCF subunit (AtCUL1) and an SnRK kinase, but not with PRL1 from Arabidopsis cell extracts. SKP1/ASK1, cullin and proteasomal alpha-subunits show nuclear co-localization in differentiated Arabidopsis cells, and are observed in association with mitotic spindles and phragmoplasts during cell division. Detection of SnRK in purified 26S proteasomes and co-purification of epitope- tagged SKP1/ASK1 with SnRK, cullin and proteasomal alpha-subunits indicate that the observed protein interactions between SnRK, SKP1/ASK1 and alpha4/PAD1 are involved in proteasomal binding of an SCF ubiquitin ligase in Arabidopsis.
Project description:The ARABIDOPSIS SKP1-LIKE1 (ASK1) protein functions as a subunit of SKP1-CUL1-F-box (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligases. Previous genetic studies showed that ASK1 plays important roles in Arabidopsis flower development and male meiosis. However, the molecular impact of ASK1-containing SCF E3 ubiquitin ligases (ASK1-E3s) on the floral proteome and transcriptome is unknown.Here we identified proteins that are potentially regulated by ASK1-E3s by comparing floral bud proteomes of wild-type and the ask1 mutant plants. More than 200 proteins were detected in the ask1 mutant but not in wild-type and >300 were detected at higher levels in the ask1 mutant than in wild-type, but their RNA levels were not significantly different between wild-type and ask1 floral buds as shown by transcriptomics analysis, suggesting that they are likely regulated at the protein level by ASK1-E3s. Integrated analyses of floral proteomics and transcriptomics of ask1 and wild-type uncovered several potential aspects of ASK1-E3 functions, including regulation of transcription regulators, kinases, peptidases, and ribosomal proteins, with implications on possible mechanisms of ASK1-E3 functions in floral development.Our results suggested that ASK1-E3s play important roles in Arabidopsis protein degradation during flower development. This study opens up new possibilities for further functional studies of these candidate E3 substrates.
Project description:O(2) sensing in diverse protozoa depends on the prolyl 4 hydroxylation of Skp1 and modification of the resulting hydroxyproline with a series of five sugars. In yeast, plants, and animals, Skp1 is associated with F-box proteins. The Skp1-F-box protein heterodimer can, for many F-box proteins, dock onto cullin-1 en route to assembly of the Skp1-cullin-1-F-box protein-Rbx1 subcomplex of E3(SCF)Ub ligases. E3(SCF)Ub ligases conjugate Lys48-polyubiquitin chains onto targets bound to the substrate receptor domains of F-box proteins, preparing them for recognition by the 26S proteasome. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium, we found that O(2) availability was rate-limiting for the hydroxylation of newly synthesized Skp1. To investigate the effect of reduced hydroxylation, we analyzed knockout mutants of the Skp1 prolyl hydroxylase and each of the Skp1 glycosyltransferases. Proteomic analysis of co-immunoprecipitates showed that wild-type cells able to fully glycosylate Skp1 had a greater abundance of an SCF complex containing the cullin-1 homolog CulE and FbxD, a newly described WD40-type F-box protein, than the complexes that predominate in cells defective in Skp1 hydroxylation or glycosylation. Similarly, the previously described FbxA-Skp1CulA complex was also more abundant in glycosylation-competent cells. The CulE interactome also included higher levels of proteasomal regulatory particles when Skp1 was glycosylated, suggesting increased activity consistent with greater association with F-box proteins. Finally, the interactome of FLAG-FbxD was modified when it harbored an F-box mutation that compromised Skp1 binding, consistent with an effect on the abundance of potential substrate proteins. We propose that O(2)-dependent posttranslational glycosylation of Skp1 promotes association with F-box proteins and their engagement in functional E3(SCF)Ub ligases that regulate O(2)-dependent developmental progression.
Project description:The ubiquitin proteasome 26S system (UPS), involving monomeric and multimeric E3 ligases is one of the most important signaling pathways in many organisms, including plants. The SCF (SKP1/Cullin/F-box) multimeric complex is particularly involved in response to development and stress signaling. The SKP1 protein (S-phase kinase-associated protein 1) is the core subunit of this complex. In this work, we firstly identified 92 and 87 non-redundant Triticum aestivum SKP1-like (TaSKP) genes that were retrieved from the latest release of the wheat genome database (International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) RefSeq v1.0) and the genome annotation of the TGAC v1 respectively. We then investigated the structure, phylogeny, duplication events and expression patterns of the SKP1-like gene family in various tissues and environmental conditions using a wheat expression platform containing public data. TaSKP1-like genes were expressed differentially in response to stress conditions, displaying large genomic variations or short insertions/deletions which suggests functional specialization within TaSKP1-like genes. Finally, interactions between selected wheat FBX (F-box) proteins and putative ancestral TaSKP1-like proteins were tested using the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system to examine the molecular interactions. These observations suggested that six Ta-SKP1 genes are likely to be ancestral genes, having similar functions as ASK1 and ASK2 in Arabidopsis, OSK1 and OSK20 in rice and PpSKP1 and PpSKP2 in Physcomitrella patens.
Project description:The F-box proteins (FBPs) TIR1/AFBs are the substrate recognition subunits of SKP1-cullin-F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complexes and together with Aux/IAAs form the auxin co-receptor. Although tremendous knowledge on auxin perception and signaling has been gained in the last years, SCFTIR1/AFBs complex assembly and stabilization are emerging as new layers of regulation. Here, we investigated how nitric oxide (NO), through S-nitrosylation of ASK1 is involved in SCFTIR1/AFBs assembly. We demonstrate that ASK1 is S-nitrosylated and S-glutathionylated in cysteine (Cys) 37 and Cys118 residues in vitro. Both, in vitro and in vivo protein-protein interaction assays show that NO enhances ASK1 binding to CUL1 and TIR1/AFB2, required for SCFTIR1/AFB2 assembly. In addition, we demonstrate that Cys37 and Cys118 are essential residues for proper activation of auxin signaling pathway in planta. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Cys37 residue is only conserved in SKP proteins in Angiosperms, suggesting that S-nitrosylation on Cys37 could represent an evolutionary adaption for SKP1 function in flowering plants. Collectively, these findings indicate that multiple events of redox modifications might be part of a fine-tuning regulation of SCFTIR1/AFBs for proper auxin signal transduction.
Project description:Ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of proteins are crucial for eukaryotic physiology and development. The largest class of E3 ubiquitin ligases is made up of the cullin-RING ligases (CRLs), which themselves are positively regulated through conjugation of the ubiquitin-like peptide RUB/NEDD8 to cullins. RUB modification is antagonized by the COP9 signalosome (CSN), an evolutionarily conserved eight-subunit complex that is essential in most eukaryotes and cleaves RUB from cullins. The CSN behaves genetically as an activator of CRLs, although it abolishes CRL activity in vitro. This apparent paradox was recently reconciled in different organisms, as the CSN was shown to prevent autocatalytic degradation of several CRL substrate adaptors. We tested for such a mechanism in the model plant Arabidopsis by measuring the impact of a newly identified viable csn2 mutant on the activity and stability of SCF(TIR1), a receptor to the phytohormone auxin and probably the best characterized plant CRL. Our analysis reveals that not only the F-box protein TIR1 but also relevant cullins are destabilized in csn2 and other Arabidopsis csn mutants. These results provide an explanation for the auxin resistance of csn mutants. We further observed in vivo a post-translational modification of TIR1 dependent on the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 and provide evidence for proteasome-mediated degradation of TIR1, CUL1, and ASK1 (Arabidopsis SKP1 homolog). These results are consistent with CSN-dependent protection of Arabidopsis CRLs from autocatalytic degradation, as observed in other eukaryotes, and provide evidence for antagonist roles of the CSN and 26S proteasome in modulating accumulation of the plant CRL SCF(TIR1).
Project description:Neuronal development requires proper migration, polarization and establishment of axons and dendrites. Growing evidence identifies the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) with its numerous components as an important regulator of various aspects of neuronal development. F-box proteins are interchangeable subunits of the Cullin-1 based E3 ubiquitin ligase, but only a few family members have been studied. Here, we report that the centrosomal E3 ligase FBXO31-SCF (Skp1/Cullin-1/F-box protein) regulates neuronal morphogenesis and axonal identity. In addition, we identified the polarity protein Par6c as a novel interaction partner and substrate targeted for proteasomal degradation in the control of axon but not dendrite growth. Finally, we ascribe a role for FBXO31 in dendrite growth and neuronal migration in the developing cerebellar cortex. Taken together, we uncovered the centrosomal E3 ligase FBXO31-SCF as a novel regulator of neuronal development.
Project description:The SCF (for SKP1, Cullin/CDC53, F-box protein) ubiquitin ligase targets a number of cell cycle regulators, transcription factors, and other proteins for degradation in yeast and mammalian cells. Recent genetic studies demonstrate that plant F-box proteins are involved in auxin responses, jasmonate signaling, flower morphogenesis, photocontrol of circadian clocks, and leaf senescence, implying a large spectrum of functions for the SCF pathway in plant development. Here, we present a molecular and functional characterization of plant cullins. The Arabidopsis genome contains 11 cullin-related genes. Complementation assays revealed that AtCUL1 but not AtCUL4 can functionally complement the yeast cdc53 mutant. Arabidopsis mutants containing transfer DNA (T-DNA) insertions in the AtCUL1 gene were shown to display an arrest in early embryogenesis. Consistently, both the transcript and the protein of the AtCUL1 gene were found to accumulate in embryos. The AtCUL1 protein localized mainly in the nucleus but also weakly in the cytoplasm during interphase and colocalized with the mitotic spindle in metaphase. Our results demonstrate a critical role for the SCF ubiquitin ligase in Arabidopsis embryogenesis.
Project description:SKP1-Cullin1-F-box protein (SCF) ubiquitin-ligases regulate numerous aspects of eukaryotic growth and development. Cullin-Associated and Neddylation-Dissociated (CAND1) modulates SCF function through its interactions with the CUL1 subunit. Although biochemical studies with human CAND1 suggested that CAND1 plays a negative regulatory role by sequestering CUL1 and preventing SCF complex assembly, genetic studies in Arabidopsis have shown that cand1 mutants exhibit reduced SCF activity, demonstrating that CAND1 is required for optimal SCF function in vivo. Together, these genetic and biochemical studies have suggested a model of CAND1-mediated cycles of SCF complex assembly and disassembly. Here, using the SCF(TIR1) complex of the Arabidopsis auxin response pathway, we test the SCF cycling model with Arabidopsis mutant derivatives of CAND1 and CUL1 that have opposing effects on the CAND1-CUL1 interaction. We find that the disruption of the CAND1-CUL1 interaction results in an increased abundance of assembled SCF(TIR1) complex. In contrast, stabilization of the CAND1-CUL1 interaction diminishes SCF(TIR1) complex abundance. The fact that both decreased and increased CAND1-CUL1 interactions result in reduced SCF(TIR1) activity in vivo strongly supports the hypothesis that CAND1-mediated cycling is required for optimal SCF function.
Project description:SKP1 (S-phase kinase-associated protein1) proteins are key members of the SCF (SKP-cullin-F-box protein) E3 ligase complexes that ubiquitinate target proteins and play diverse roles in plant biology. However, in comparison with other members of the SCF complex, knowledge of SKP1-like proteins is very limited in plants. In the present work, we report that Arabidopsis SKP1-like protein13 (ASK13) is differentially regulated in different organs during seed development and germination and is up-regulated in response to abiotic stress. Yeast two-hybrid library screening and subsequent assessment of in vivo interactions through bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis revealed that ASK13 not only interacts with F-box proteins but also with other proteins that are not components of SCF complexes. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that ASK13 not only exists as a monomer but also as a homo-oligomer or heteromer with other ASK proteins. Functional analysis using ASK13 overexpression and knockdown lines showed that ASK13 positively influences seed germination and seedling growth, particularly under abiotic stress. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that apart from participation to form SCF complexes, ASK13 interacts with several other proteins and is implicated in different cellular processes distinct from protein degradation.
Project description:The degradation of proteins by the 26S proteasome is initiated by protein polyubiquitination mediated by a three-step cascade. The specific ubiquitination of different target proteins is mediated by different classes of E3 ubiquitin ligases, among which the best known are Skp1-Cullin-F-box complexes. Whereas protists, fungi and some vertebrates have a single SKP1 gene, many animal and plant species possess multiple SKP1 homologues. In this paper, we report on the structure, phylogeny and expression of the complete set of rice SKP1 genes (OSKs, Oryza sativa SKP1-like genes). Our analyses indicated that OSK1 and OSK20 belong to a class of SKP1 genes that contain one intron at a conserved position and are highly expressed. In addition, our yeast two-hybrid results revealed that OSK proteins display a differing ability to interact with F-box proteins. However, OSK1 and OSK20 seemed to interact with most of the nine F-box proteins tested. We suggest that rice OSK1 and OSK20 are likely to have functions similar to the Arabidopsis ASK1 and ASK2 genes.