Rab11a and myosin Vb are required for bile canalicular formation in WIF-B9 cells.
ABSTRACT: Hepatocytes polarize by forming functionally distinct sinusoidal (basolateral) and canalicular (apical) plasma membrane domains. Two distinct routes are used for delivery of membrane proteins to the canaliculus. Proteins having glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors or single transmembrane domains are targeted to the sinusoidal plasma membrane from where they transcytose to the canalicular domain. In contrast, apical ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) transporters, which are required for energy-dependent biliary secretion of bile acids (ABCB11), phospholipids (ABCB4), and nonbile acid organic anions (ABCC2), lack initial residence in the basolateral plasma membrane and traffic directly from Golgi membranes to the canalicular membrane. While investigating mechanisms of apical targeting in WIF-B9 cells, a polarized hepatic epithelial cell line, we observed that rab11a is required for canalicular formation. Knockdown of rab11a or overexpression of the rab11a-GDP locked form prevented canalicular formation as did overexpression of the myosin Vb motorless tail domain. In WIF-B9 cells, which lack bile canaliculi, apical ABC transporters colocalized with transcytotic membrane proteins in rab11a-containing endosomes and, unlike the transcytotic markers, did not distribute to the plasma membrane. We propose that polarization of hepatocytes (i.e., canalicular biogenesis) requires recruitment of rab11a and myosin Vb to intracellular membranes that contain apical ABC transporters and transcytotic markers, permitting their targeting to the plasma membrane. In this model, polarization is initiated upon delivery of rab11a-myosin Vb-containing membranes to the surface, which causes plasma membrane at the site of delivery to differentiate into apical domain (bile canaliculus).
Project description:The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) mediates transcytosis of dimeric immunoglobulin A (dIgA) and its release into mucosal secretions. The present study reveals the complexity of the trafficking of pIgR to the apical plasma membrane in epithelial cells with exocrine secretory functions; in rabbit lacrimal gland acinar cells (LGACs), trafficking of pIgR involves both the transcytotic pathway and one arm of the regulated secretory pathway. By specifically tracking pIgR endocytosed from the basolateral membrane, we show here that the Rab11a-regulated transcytotic pathway mediates the basal-to-apical transport of pIgR, and that pIgR sorted into the transcytotic pathway does not access the regulated secretory pathway. However, previous work in LGACs expanded in the present study has shown that some pIgR is localized to Rab3D-enriched mature secretory vesicles (SVs). Myosin Vb and myosin Vc motors modulate release of proteins from the Rab11a-regulated transcytotic pathway and the Rab3D-enriched secretory pathway in LGACs, respectively. Confocal fluorescence microscopy and biochemical assays showed that inhibition of myosin Vb and myosin Vc activity by overexpression of their dominant-negative mutants each significantly but differentially impaired aspects of apically targeted pIgR trafficking and secretory component release, suggesting that these motors function to regulate pIgR trafficking in both the transcytotic and exocytotic pathways. Intriguingly, a second mature SV population enriched in Rab27b was devoid of pIgR cargo, suggesting the specialization of Rab3D-enriched mature SVs to carry a particular subset of cargo proteins from the trans-Golgi network to the apical plasma membrane.
Project description:Despite observations that the lacrimal gland has been identified as the principal source of dimeric immunoglobulin A (dIgA) in tears, the mechanism used by lacrimal gland acinar cells (LGACs) to transcytose dIgA produced by interstitial plasma cells is not well-characterized. This study identifies a transcytotic pathway in LGACs regulated by Rab11a for polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) and dIgA. EGFP-tagged Rab11a expressed in primary LGACs labeled a unique membrane compartment of comparable localization to endogenous Rab11a beneath the apical plasma membrane. This compartment was enriched in pIgR and clearly distinct from the regulated secretory pathway. Comparison of dIgA uptake in LGACs expressing wild type and dominant negative EGFP-Rab11a showed that the rapid exocytosis of dIgA was inhibited in acini expressing the dominant-negative protein, which additionally redistributed subapical pIgR. The trafficking of EGFP-Rab11a-enriched vesicles was regulated by microtubule-based and myosin Vb motors at distinct steps. Our data suggest that Rab11a is a crucial regulator of dIgA trafficking in primary acinar secretory epithelial cells and further support a role for microtubules, cytoplasmic dynein, actin filaments and myosin Vb in the maintenance of the Rab11a compartment in this primary secretory epithelial cell.
Project description:The bile salt export pump (BSEP, ABCB11) couples ATP hydrolysis with transport of bile acids into the bile canaliculus of hepatocytes. Its localization in the apical canalicular membrane is physiologically regulated by the demand to secrete biliary components. To gain insight into how such localization is regulated, we studied the intracellular trafficking of BSEP tagged with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in polarized WIF-B9 cells. Confocal imaging revealed that BSEP-YFP was localized at the canalicular membrane and in tubulo-vesicular structures either adjacent to the microtubule-organizing center or widely distributed in the cytoplasm. In the latter two locations, BSEP-YFP colocalized with rab11, an endosomal marker. Selective photobleaching experiments revealed that single BSEP-YFP molecules resided in canalicular membranes only transiently before exchanging with intracellular BSEP-YFP pools. Such exchange was inhibited by microtubule and actin inhibitors and was unaffected by brefeldin A, dibutyryl cyclic AMP, taurocholate, or PI 3-kinase inhibitors. Intracellular carriers enriched in BSEP-YFP elongated and dissociated as tubular elements from a globular structure adjacent to the microtubule-organizing center. They displayed oscillatory movement toward either canalicular or basolateral membranes, but only fused with the canalicular membrane. The pathway between canalicular and intracellular membranes that BSEP constitutively cycles within could serve to regulate apical pools of BSEP as well as other apical membrane transporters.
Project description:The small GTPase Rab11 plays an important role in the recycling of proteins to the plasma membrane as well as in polarised transport in epithelial cells and neurons. We generated conditional knockout mice deficient in Rab11a. Rab11a-deficient mice are embryonic lethal, and brain-specific Rab11a knockout mice show no overt abnormalities in brain architecture. In contrast, intestine-specific Rab11a knockout mice begin dying approximately 1 week after birth. Apical proteins in the intestines of knockout mice accumulate in the cytoplasm and mislocalise to the basolateral plasma membrane, whereas the localisation of basolateral proteins is unaffected. Shorter microvilli and microvillus inclusion bodies are also observed in the knockout mice. Elevation of a serum starvation marker was also observed, likely caused by the mislocalisation of apical proteins and reduced nutrient uptake. In addition, Rab8a is mislocalised in Rab11a knockout mice. Conversely, Rab11a is mislocalised in Rab8a knockout mice and in a microvillus atrophy patient, which has a mutation in the myosin Vb gene. Our data show an essential role for Rab11a in the localisation of apical proteins in the intestine and demonstrate functional relationships between Rab11a, Rab8a and myosin Vb in vivo.
Project description:Polarized epithelial cells take up nutrients from the blood through receptors that are endocytosed and recycle back to the basolateral plasma membrane (PM) utilizing the epithelial-specific clathrin adaptor AP-1B. Some native epithelia lack AP-1B and therefore recycle cognate basolateral receptors to the apical PM, where they carry out important functions for the host organ. Here, we report a novel transcytotic pathway employed by AP-1B-deficient epithelia to relocate AP-1B cargo, such as transferrin receptor (TfR), to the apical PM. Lack of AP-1B inhibited basolateral recycling of TfR from common recycling endosomes (CRE), the site of function of AP-1B, and promoted its transfer to apical recycling endosomes (ARE) mediated by the plus-end kinesin KIF16B and non-centrosomal microtubules, and its delivery to the apical membrane mediated by the small GTPase rab11a. Hence, our experiments suggest that the apical recycling pathway of epithelial cells is functionally equivalent to the rab11a-dependent TfR recycling pathway of non-polarized cells. They define a transcytotic pathway important for the physiology of native AP-1B-deficient epithelia and report the first microtubule motor involved in transcytosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) 6 has been associated with missense but not biallelic nonsense or frameshift mutations in MYO5B, encoding the motor protein myosin Vb (myoVb). This genotype-phenotype correlation and the mechanism through which MYO5B mutations give rise to PFIC are not understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether the loss of myoVb or expression of patient-specific myoVb mutants can be causally related to defects in canalicular protein localization and, if so, through which mechanism. APPROACH AND RESULTS:We demonstrate that the cholestasis-associated substitution of the proline at amino acid position 600 in the myoVb protein to a leucine (P660L) caused the intracellular accumulation of bile canalicular proteins in vesicular compartments. Remarkably, the knockout of MYO5B in vitro and in vivo produced no canalicular localization defects. In contrast, the expression of myoVb mutants consisting of only the tail domain phenocopied the effects of the Myo5b-P660L mutation. Using additional myoVb and rab11a mutants, we demonstrate that motor domain-deficient myoVb inhibited the formation of specialized apical recycling endosomes and that its disrupting effect on the localization of canalicular proteins was dependent on its interaction with active rab11a and occurred at the trans-Golgi Network/recycling endosome interface. CONCLUSIONS:Our results reveal a mechanism through which MYO5B motor domain mutations can cause the mislocalization of canalicular proteins in hepatocytes which, unexpectedly, does not involve myoVb loss-of-function but, as we propose, a rab11a-mediated gain-of-toxic function. The results explain why biallelic MYO5B mutations that affect the motor domain but not those that eliminate myoVb expression are associated with PFIC6.
Project description:Polarization of hepatocytes is manifested by bile canalicular network formation and activation of LKB1 and AMPK, which control cellular energy metabolism. The bile acid, taurocholate, also regulates development of the canalicular network through activation of AMPK. In the present study, we used collagen sandwich hepatocyte cultures from control and liver-specific LKB1 knockout mice to examine the role of LKB1 in trafficking of ABCB11, the canalicular bile acid transporter. In polarized hepatocytes, ABCB11 traffics from Golgi to the apical plasma membrane and endogenously cycles through the rab 11a-myosin Vb recycling endosomal system. LKB1 knockout mice were jaundiced, lost weight and manifested impaired bile canalicular formation and intracellular trafficking of ABCB11, and died within three weeks. Using live cell imaging, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), particle tracking, and biochemistry, we found that LKB1 activity is required for microtubule-dependent trafficking of ABCB11 to the canalicular membrane. In control hepatocytes, ABCB11 trafficking was accelerated by taurocholate and cAMP; however, in LKB1 knockout hepatocytes, ABCB11 trafficking to the apical membrane was greatly reduced and restored only by cAMP, but not taurocholate. cAMP acted through a PKA-mediated pathway which did not activate AMPK. Our studies establish a regulatory role for LKB1 in ABCB11 trafficking to the canalicular membrane, hepatocyte polarization, and canalicular network formation.
Project description:The Rab GTPases are the largest family of proteins regulating membrane traffic. Rab proteins form a nidus for the assembly of multiprotein complexes on distinct vesicle membranes to regulate particular membrane trafficking pathways. Recent investigations have demonstrated that Myosin Vb (Myo5B) is an effector for Rab8a, Rab10, and Rab11a, all of which are implicated in regulating different pathways for recycling of proteins to the plasma membrane. It remains unclear how specific interactions of Myo5B with individual Rab proteins can lead to specificity in the regulation of alternate trafficking pathways. We examined the relative contributions of Rab/Myo5B interactions with specific pathways using Myo5B mutants lacking binding to either Rab11a or Rab8a. Myo5B Q1300L and Y1307C mutations abolished Rab8a association, whereas Myo5B Y1714E and Q1748R mutations uncoupled association with Rab11a. Expression of Myo5B tails containing these mutants demonstrated that Rab11a, but not Rab8a, was required for recycling of transferrin in nonpolarized cells. In contrast, in polarized epithelial cyst cultures, Myo5B was required for apical membrane trafficking and de novo lumen formation, dependent on association with both Rab8a and Rab11a. These data demonstrate that different combinations of Rab GTPase association with Myo5B control distinct membrane trafficking pathways.
Project description:Cells use multiple pathways to internalize and recycle cell surface components. Although Rab11a and Myosin Vb are involved in the recycling of proteins internalized by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, Rab8a has been implicated in nonclathrin-dependent endocytosis and recycling. By yeast two-hybrid assays, we have now demonstrated that Myosin Vb can interact with Rab8a, but not Rab8b. We have confirmed the interaction of Myosin Vb with Rab11a and Rab8a in vivo by using fluorescent resonant energy transfer techniques. Rab8a and Myosin Vb colocalize to a tubular network containing EHD1 and EHD3, which does not contain Rab11a. Myosin Vb tail can cause the accumulation of both Rab11a and Rab8a in collapsed membrane cisternae, whereas dominant-negative Rab11-FIP2(129-512) selectively accumulates Rab11a but not Rab8a. Additionally, dynamic live cell imaging demonstrates distinct pathways for Rab11a and Rab8a vesicle trafficking. These findings indicate that Rab8a and Rab11a define different recycling pathways that both use Myosin Vb.
Project description:Some native epithelia, for example, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and kidney proximal tubule (KPT), constitutively lack the basolateral sorting adaptor AP-1B; this results in many basolateral plasma membrane proteins being repositioned to the apical domain, where they perform essential functions for their host organs. We recently reported the underlying apical polarity reversal mechanism: in the absence of AP-1B-mediated basolateral sorting, basolateral proteins are shuttled to the apical plasma membrane through a transcytotic pathway mediated by the plus-end kinesin KIF16B. Here, we demonstrate that this apical transcytotic pathway requires apical sorting of basolateral proteins, which is mediated by apical signals and galectin-4. Using RPE and KPT cell lines, and AP-1B-knockdown MDCK cells, we show that mutation of the N-glycan linked to N727 in the basolateral marker transferrin receptor (TfR) or knockdown of galectin-4 inhibits TfR transcytosis to apical recycling endosomes and the apical plasma membrane, and promotes TfR lysosomal targeting and subsequent degradation. Our results report a new role of galectins in basolateral to apical epithelial transcytosis.