H5 avian and H9 swine influenza virus haemagglutinin structures: possible origin of influenza subtypes.
ABSTRACT: There are 15 subtypes of influenza A virus (H1-H15), all of which are found in avian species. Three caused pandemics in the last century: H1 in 1918 (and 1977), H2 in 1957 and H3 in 1968. In 1997, an H5 avian virus and in 1999 an H9 virus caused outbreaks of respiratory disease in Hong Kong. We have determined the three-dimensional structures of the haemagglutinins (HAs) from H5 avian and H9 swine viruses closely related to the viruses isolated from humans in Hong Kong. We have compared them with known structures of the H3 HA from the virus that caused the 1968 H3 pandemic and of the HA--esterase--fusion (HEF) glycoprotein from an influenza C virus. Structure and sequence comparisons suggest that HA subtypes may have originated by diversification of properties that affected the metastability of HAs required for their membrane fusion activities in viral infection.
Project description:The three-dimensional structures of avian H5 and swine H9 influenza hemagglutinins (HAs) from viruses closely related to those that caused outbreaks of human disease in Hong Kong in 1997 and 1999 were determined bound to avian and human cell receptor analogs. Emerging influenza pandemics have been accompanied by the evolution of receptor-binding specificity from the preference of avian viruses for sialic acid receptors in alpha2,3 linkage to the preference of human viruses for alpha2,6 linkages. The four new structures show that HA binding sites specific for human receptors appear to be wider than those preferring avian receptors and how avian and human receptors are distinguished by atomic contacts at the glycosidic linkage. alpha2,3-Linked sialosides bind the avian HA in a trans conformation to form an alpha2,3 linkage-specific motif, made by the glycosidic oxygen and 4-OH of the penultimate galactose, that is complementary to the hydrogen-bonding capacity of Gln-226, an avian-specific residue. alpha2,6-Linked sialosides bind in a cis conformation, exposing the glycosidic oxygen to solution and nonpolar atoms of the receptor to Leu-226, a human-specific residue. The new structures are compared with previously reported crystal structures of HA/sialoside complexes of the H3 subtype that caused the 1968 Hong Kong Influenza virus pandemic and analyzed in relation to HA sequences of all 15 subtypes and to receptor affinity data to make clearer how receptor-binding sites of HAs from avian viruses evolve as the virus adapts to humans.
Project description:In influenza, the envelope protein hemagglutinin (HA) plays a critical role in viral entry by first binding to sialic acid receptors on the cell surface and subsequently mediating fusion of the viral and target membranes. In this work, the receptor binding properties of influenza A HA from different subtypes (H1 A/California/04/09, H5 A/Vietnam/1205/04, H5 A/bar-headed goose/Qinghai/1A/05, and H9 A/Hong Kong/1073/99) have been characterized by NMR spectroscopy. Using saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR, we find that all HAs bind to the receptor analogs 2,3-sialyllactose and 2,6-sialyllactose, with subtle differences in the binding mode. Using competition STD NMR, we determine the receptor preferences for the HA subtypes. We find that H5-Qinghai and H9-Hong Kong HA bind to both receptor analogs with similar affinity. On the other hand, H1 exhibits a clear preference for 2,6-sialyllactose while H5-Vietnam exhibits a clear preference for 2,3-sialyllactose. Together, these results are interpreted within the context of differences in both the amino acid sequence and structures of HA from the different subtypes in determining receptor preference.
Project description:Avian influenza subtypes such as H5, H7 and H9 are yet to adapt to the human host so as to establish airborne transmission between humans. However, lab-generated reassorted viruses possessing hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from an avian H9 isolate and other genes from a human-adapted (H3 or H1) subtype acquired two amino acid changes in HA and a single amino acid change in NA that confer respiratory droplet transmission in ferrets. We previously demonstrated for human-adapted H1, H2 and H3 subtypes that quantitative binding affinity of their HA to ?2?6 sialylated glycan receptors correlates with respiratory droplet transmissibility of the virus in ferrets. Such a relationship remains to be established for H9 HA. In this study, we performed a quantitative biochemical characterization of glycan receptor binding properties of wild-type and mutant forms of representative H9 HAs that were previously used in context of reassorted viruses in ferret transmission studies. We demonstrate here that distinct molecular interactions in the glycan receptor-binding site of different H9 HAs affect the glycan-binding specificity and affinity. Further we show that ?2?6 glycan receptor-binding affinity of a mutant H9 HA carrying Thr-189?Ala amino acid change correlates with the respiratory droplet transmission in ferrets conferred by this change. Our findings contribute to a framework for monitoring the evolution of H9 HA by understanding effects of molecular changes in HA on glycan receptor-binding properties.
Project description:Influenza A virus (IAV) epidemics are the result of human-to-human or poultry-to-human transmission. Tracking seasonal outbreaks of IAV and other avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes that can infect humans, aquatic and migratory birds, poultry, and pigs is essential for epidemiological surveillance and outbreak alerts. In this study, we performed four real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays for identification of the IAV M and hemagglutinin (HA) genes from six known AIVs infecting pigs, birds, and humans. IAV M1 gene-positive samples tested by single-step rRT-PCR and a fluorogenic Sybr green I detection system were further processed for H5 subtype identification by using two-primer-set multiplex and Sybr green I rRT-PCR assays. H5 subtype-negative samples were then tested with either a TaqMan assay for subtypes H1 and H3 or a TaqMan assay for subtypes H2, H7, and H9 and a beacon multiplex rRT-PCR identification assay. The four-tube strategy was able to detect 10 RNA copies of the HA genes of subtypes H1, H2, H3, H5, and H7 and 100 RNA copies of the HA gene of subtype H9. At least six H5 clades of H5N1 viruses isolated in Southeast Asia and China were detected by that test. Using rRT-PCR assays for the M1 and HA genes in 202 nasopharyngeal swab specimens from children with acute respiratory infections, we identified a total of 39 samples positive for the IAV M1 gene and subtypes H1 and H3. When performed with a portable SmartCycler instrument, the assays offer an efficient, flexible, and reliable platform for investigations of IAV and AIV in remote hospitals and in the field.
Project description:H9N2 influenza viruses have become established and maintain long-term endemicity in poultry. The complete genomes of seven avian H9N2 influenza viruses were characterized. These seven influenza virus isolates were obtained from live poultry markets in Shanghai, China, in 2002 and from 2006 to 2008. Genetic analysis revealed that all seven isolates had an RSSR motif at the cleavage site of hemagglutinin (HA), indicating low pathogenicity in chickens. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the seven avian H9N2 viruses belonged to the lineage represented by Duck/Hong Kong/Y280/97 (H9N2), a virus belonging to the Chicken/Beijing/1/94-like (H9N2) lineage, and that they are all quadruple reassortants consisting of genes from different lineages. The six internal genes of the isolates possessed H5N1-like sequences, indicating that they were reassortants of H9 and H5 viruses. All of the viruses had nonstructural (as well as HA and neuraminidase) genes derived from the Duck/Hong Kong/Y280/97-like virus lineage but also had other genes of mixed avian virus origin, including genes similar to those of H5N1 viruses (Gs/GD-like). The infected chickens showed no signs of disease. These results show the genetic and biological diversity of H9N2 viruses in Shanghai and support their potential role as pandemic influenza agents.
Project description:We used a panel of monoclonal antibodies to H9 hemagglutinin to select 18 escape mutants of mouse-adapted influenza A/Swine/Hong Kong/9/98 (H9N2) virus. Cross-reactions of the mutants with the antibodies and the sequencing of hemagglutinin genes revealed two minimally overlapping epitopes. We mapped the amino acid changes to two areas of the recently reported three-dimensional structure of A/Swine/Hong Kong/9/98 hemagglutinin. The grouping of the antigenically relevant amino acid positions in H9 hemagglutinin differs from the pattern observed in H3 and H5 hemagglutinins. Several positions in site B of H3 hemagglutinin are distributed in two sites of H9 hemagglutinin. Unlike any subtype analyzed so far, H9 hemagglutinin does not contain an antigenic site corresponding to site A in H3 hemagglutinin. Positions 145 and 193 (H3 numbering), which in H3 hemagglutinin belong to sites A and B, respectively, are within one site in H9 hemagglutinin. This finding is consistent with the peculiarity of the three-dimensional structure of the H9 molecule, that is, the absence from H9 hemagglutinin of the lateral loop that forms site A in H3 and the equivalent site in H5 hemagglutinins. The escape mutants analyzed displayed phenotypic variations, including decreased virulence for mice and changes in affinity for sialyl substrates. Our results demonstrate a correlation between intersubtype differences in three-dimensional structure and variations among subtypes in the distribution of antigenic areas. Our findings also suggest that covariation and pleiotropic effects of antibody-selected mutations may be important in the evolution of H9 influenza virus, a possible causative agent of a future pandemic.
Project description:Hemagglutinin (HA) of H3N2/1968 pandemic influenza viruses differs from the putative avian precursor by seven amino acid substitutions. Substitutions Q226L and G228S are known to be essential for adaptation of avian HA to mammals. We found that introduction of avian-virus-like amino acids at five other HA positions (positions 62, 81, 92, 144, and 193) of A/Hong Kong/1/1968 virus decreased viral replication in human cells and transmission in pigs. Thus, substitutions at some of these positions facilitated emergence of the pandemic virus.
Project description:Recognition of cell-surface sialyldisaccharides by influenza A hemagglutinin (HA) triggers the infection process of influenza. The changes in glycosidic torsional linkage and the receptor conformations may alter the binding specificity of HAs to the sialylglycans. In this study, 10-ns molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to examine the structural and dynamic behavior of the HAs bound with sialyldisaccharides Neu5Ac?(2-3)Gal (N23G) and Neu5Ac?(2-6)Gal (N26G). The analysis of the glycosidic torsional angles and the pair interaction energy between the receptor and the interacting residues of the binding site reveal that N23G has two binding modes for H1 and H5 and a single binding mode for H3 and H9. For N26G, H1 and H3 has two binding modes, and H5 and H9 has a single binding mode. The direct and water-mediated hydrogen bonding interactions between the receptors and HAs play dominant roles in the structural stabilization of the complexes. It is concluded from pair interaction energy and Molecular Mechanic-Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area calculations that N26G is a better receptor for H1 when compared with N23G. N23G is a better receptor for H5 when compared with N26G. However, H3 and H9 can recognize N23G and N26G in equal binding specificity due to the marginal energy difference (?2.5 kcal/mol). The order of binding specificity of N23G is H3 > H5 > H9 > H1 and N26G is H1 > H3 > H5 > H9, respectively. The proposed conformational models will be helpful in designing inhibitors for influenza virus.
Project description:The viruses that caused the three influenza pandemics of the twentieth century in 1918, 1957, and 1968 had distinct hemagglutinin receptor binding glycoproteins that had evolved the capacity to recognize human cell receptors. We have determined the structure of the H2 hemagglutinin from the second pandemic, the "Asian Influenza" of 1957. We compare it with the 1918 "Spanish Influenza" hemagglutinin, H1, and the 1968 "Hong Kong Influenza" hemagglutinin, H3, and show that despite its close overall structural similarity to H1, and its more distant relationship to H3, the H2 receptor binding site is closely related to that of H3 hemagglutinin. By analyzing hemagglutinins of potential H2 avian precursors of the pandemic virus, we show that the human receptor can be bound by avian hemagglutinins that lack the human-specific mutations of H2 and H3 pandemic viruses, Gln-226Leu, and Gly-228Ser. We show how Gln-226 in the avian H2 receptor binding site, together with Asn-186, form hydrogen bond networks through bound water molecules to mediate binding to human receptor. We show that the human receptor adopts a very similar conformation in both human and avian hemagglutinin-receptor complexes. We also show that Leu-226 in the receptor binding site of human virus hemagglutinins creates a hydrophobic environment near the Sia-1-Gal-2 glycosidic linkage that favors binding of the human receptor and is unfavorable for avian receptor binding. We consider the significance for the development of pandemics, of the existence of avian viruses that can bind to both avian and human receptors.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Multiple subtypes of avian influenza viruses have crossed the species barrier to infect humans and have the potential to cause a pandemic. Therefore, new influenza vaccines to prevent the co-existence of multiple subtypes within a host and cross-species transmission of influenza are urgently needed. METHODS: Here we report a multi-epitope DNA vaccine targeted towards multiple subtypes of the influenza virus. The protective hemagglutinin (HA) antigens from H5/H7/H9 subtypes were screened for MHC II class-restricted epitopes overlapping with predicted B cell epitopes. We then constructed a DNA plasmid vaccine, pV-H3-EHA-H1, based on HA antigens from human influenza H3/H1 subtypes combined with the H5/H7/H9 subtype Th/B epitope box. RESULTS: Epitope-specific IFN-? ELISpot responses were significantly higher in the multi-epitope DNA group than in other vaccine and control groups (P < 0.05). The multi-epitope group significantly enhanced Th2 cell responses as determined by cytokine assays. The survival rate of mice given the multi-epitope vaccine was the highest among the vaccine groups, but it was not significantly different compared to those given single antigen expressing pV-H1HA1 vaccine and dual antigen expressing pV-H3-H1 vaccine (P > 0.05). No measurable virus titers were detected in the lungs of the multi-epitope immunized group. The unique multi-epitope DNA vaccine enhanced virus-specific antibody and cellular immunity as well as conferred complete protection against lethal challenge with A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1) influenza strain in mice. CONCLUSIONS: This approach may be a promising strategy for developing a universal influenza vaccine to prevent multiple subtypes of influenza virus and to induce long-term protective immune against cross-species transmission.