Effect of chloramphenicol on ribonucleic acid synthesis in liver cells in suspension.
ABSTRACT: 1. Chloramphenicol has a stimulatory effect on the incorporation of radioactive phosphate into the RNA of perfused rat-liver slices, whole liver homogenates or the liver-cell suspensions, and no effect on the incorporation of [(14)C]adenine and [(14)C]uracil into the RNA of the tissue slices. 2. Chloramphenicol completely inhibits the incorporation of labelled adenine and uracil into the RNA of the cell suspensions, or into the RNA of homogenates derived from the whole liver tissues. 3. Chloramphenicol has at most a slight inhibitory effect on the transport of labelled adenine or uracil in the hepatic cells in suspension; in the slices, the transport of these bases is not inhibited at all. 4. The above observations indicate that: (a) unlike the tissue slices, hepatic cells in suspension are permeable to chloramphenicol; (b) in the presence of chloramphenicol, for reasons that are not clear, the conversion of the base into the appropriate nucleotide does not proceed.
Project description:1. Liver cells in suspension are shown to incorporate several RNA precursors into their RNA. 2. The incorporation of [(32)P]phosphate and [(14)C]adenine into the RNA of the cell suspension is usually of the same order as that in the perfused (or unperfused) liver slices. However, the initial lag in the incorporation of adenine into the RNA of the cell suspensions is much longer than that obtained for the tissue slices, and the optimum incorporation of adenine in the former, unlike that in the latter, needs exogenous glucose and probably a high concentration of phosphate. 3. The cell suspensions also differ from the tissue slices in being unable to incorporate [(14)C]orotic acid into their RNA, and resemble tumour tissues in incorporating uracil into their RNA at a rate significantly higher than that obtained with the tissue slices. 4. The above differences in the metabolic behaviour of liver-cell suspensions and tissue slices are considered to be due to the different levels of organization of the liver cells in the two tissue preparations.
Project description:1. Rat liver parenchymal cells in suspension are shown to require a higher concentration of actinomycin D than liver slices for equivalent inhibition of the incorporation of [(14)C]adenine, [(14)C]uracil and [(32)P]phosphate into RNA, and of (14)C-labelled amino acids into protein; protein synthesis is much less susceptible to actinomycin D inhibition than RNA synthesis in both the tissue preparations. Possible causes for these differences are discussed. 2. The uptake of [(3)H]actinomycin D in the first few minutes was much greater in the cell suspensions than in the tissue slices; that in the next 1-4hr. was about the same in both the cases. The uptake by both the tissue preparations was at all times proportional to the concentration of the drug within the range 0.5-2.0mug./ml. 3. In the slices actinomycin D taken up initially was concentrated almost exclusively in the nuclei; with time the concentration of the drug in the mitochondria and the supernatant increased more rapidly than in the nuclei though at no stage did it exceed that in the nuclei. In the cell suspension the largest concentration of the drug taken up initially was found in the supernatant; most of the drug taken up subsequently also stayed in the supernatant. 4. When the drug concentration in the incubation medium was 1mug./ml., its concentration within the parenchymal cells in suspension and the parenchymal cells in the slices reached 2.2 and 1.6mug./cm.(3) of cellular volume respectively. On average, 7% of the drug was removed from the medium by the cells in suspension and 23% by the cells in the slices; the average ratio of intracellular to extracellular concentration was 2.4 in the former and 2.1 in the latter case.
Project description:The validity of permeabilized cells as a model of DNA and RNA synthesis was studied with the use of mouse S-49 lymphoblastoma cells rendered permeable by exposure to L-alpha-lysophosphatidylcholine. The permeabilized cells readily incorporated exogenously supplied cytosine and uracil nucleotides into HClO4-insoluble macromolecular material. However, the incorporation of these tracers did not require the three other complementary nucleotides, and adenine, guanine or thymine nucleotide tracers were incorporated at much lower rates. These results, which were also obtained with permeabilized Abelsohn-leukaemia-virus-transformed mouse macrophages, mouse neuroblastoma cells and S-49 lymphoblastoma homogenates, are inconsistent with semi-conservative DNA replication or RNA transcription; rather, they suggest the involvement of terminal nucleotidyltransferase(s) that mediate the incorporation of uracil and cytosine nucleotides. DNA synthesis was restored when permeabilized cells or cellular homogenates were supplemented with denatured salmon testes DNA. These results suggest that endogenous cellular DNA is impaired in its function as a template for DNA replication and transcription in vitro. Metabolic channelling or compartmentation of nucleic-acid-precursor pathways could not be demonstrated in the permeabilized cells.
Project description:1. Native or partially degraded RNA derived from intact rat liver, or from the parenchymal-cell or the non-parenchymatous fraction of liver, has been shown to be transported into rat parenchymal cells in suspension, without prior degradation to acid-soluble components, when the cell suspension is incubated with the RNA at 37 degrees . The amount of RNA of exogenous origin present in the parenchymal cells in an acid-precipitable form increased rapidly up to 30-60min., after which it gradually decreased, indicating intracellular degradation to acid-soluble components of the RNA taken up by the cells. 2. The RNA taken up by the parenchymal cells from the medium, and the acid-soluble products of its degradation within the cells, could be released back into the medium. 3. The RNA of exogenous origin present in acid-precipitable form in the parenchymal cells represented up to 5% of the RNA of the cells after 60min. of incubation. 4. When the concentration of RNA in the medium was less than 200mug./ml., over 10% of the RNA was transported in an acid-precipitable form in 60min. into the parenchymal cells incubated at a concentration of 2.3x10(6)/ml. 5. Ribonuclease inhibited the uptake of exogenous RNA by the parenchymal cells, whereas 2,4-dinitrophenol, sodium azide, protamine sulphate and polyvinyl sulphate had no significant effect. 6. The uptake of exogenous RNA by liver slices proceeded at a rate which was 4-20% of that obtained in the parenchymal-cell suspensions; the RNA taken up did not appear to become degraded, unlike that taken up by the cell suspensions. 7. It is concluded that dispersion of liver tissue to a suspension of single cells increases the permeability of the parenchymal cells to macromolecular RNA and creates conditions that lead to a rapid degradation of the RNA taken up.
Project description:1. Insulin is one of the hormones that are essential for successful tissue culture of explants of the mammary glands of pregnant mice. We report here effects of insulin on RNA and protein formation by mammary tissue from pregnant mice and rats incubated in tissue-culture medium 199. 2. The incorporation of [(14)C]adenine over 3hr. into the RNA of explants of the mammary glands of pregnant mice was increased by an average of 68% when the medium contained 5mug. of insulin/ml. Under similar conditions the incorporation into the RNA of slices of the glands of pregnant rats was increased by an average of 61%. Incorporation into the RNA of slices from lactating rats was stimulated to a smaller extent. 3. Adipose tissue was separated from the glands of pregnant mice and the effect of insulin on the incorporation of adenine into its RNA was studied. In whole explants the incorporation of adenine, both with and without insulin, is almost entirely into the RNA of the mammary parenchyma and not of the adipose tissue. 4. Insulin also stimulated by 38% the incorporation of [(14)C]leucine over 3hr. into the proteins of slices of the glands of pregnant rats. It had no significant effect on slices from lactating rats. 5. Actinomycin D (10mug./ml.) decreased the incorporation of [(14)C]adenine into the RNA of slices of the glands of pregnant rats by an average of 97%. Though it also decreased the incorporation of [(14)C]leucine into the proteins by an average of 25%, the percentage stimulation by insulin of this incorporation remained unchanged.
Project description:The rate of polymerization of ribosomal ribonucleic acid chains was estimated for steadily growing cultures of Escherichia coli M.R.E.600, from the kinetics of incorporation of exogenous [5-(3)H]uracil into completed 23S rRNA molecules. The analytical method of Avery & Midgley (1971) was used. Measurements were made at 37 degrees C, in the presence or the absence of chloramphenicol, in each of three media; enriched broth, glucose-salts or sodium lactate-salts. The rate of chain elongation of 23S rRNA was virtually constant in all media at 37 degrees C, as 24+/-4 nucleotides added/s. Accelerations in the rate of biosynthesis of rRNA by chloramphenicol in growth-limiting media are due primarily to an increase in the rate of initiation of new RNA chains, up to the rates existing in cultures growing rapidly in broth. Thus, in poorer media, only a small fraction of the available DNA-dependent RNA polymerase molecules are active at any given instant, since the chain-initiation rate is limiting in these conditions. In cultures growing rapidly in enriched broth, antibiotic inhibition caused a rise of some 12% in the rate of incorporation of exogenous uracil into total RNA. This small acceleration was due entirely to the partial stabilization of the mRNA fraction, which accumulated as 14% of the RNA formed after the addition of chloramphenicol. In cultures growing more slowly in glucose-salts or lactate-salts media, chloramphenicol caused an immediate acceleration of two- to three-fold in the overall rate of RNA synthesis. Studies by DNA-RNA hybridization showed that the synthesis of mRNA was accelerated in harmony with the other affected species. However, just over half the mRNA formed after the addition of chloramphenicol quickly decayed to acid-soluble products, whereas the remainder was more stable and accumulated in the cells. The mRNA fraction constituted about 6% of the total cellular RNA after 3h inhibition. A model was suggested to explain the partial stabilization and accumulation of the mRNA fraction and the acceleration in the rate of synthesis of mRNA when chloramphenicol was added to cultures in growth-limiting media.
Project description:1. Repression by glucose of beta-galactosidase synthesis is spontaneously reversible in all strains of Escherichia coli examined long before the glucose has all been consumed. The extent of recovery and the time necessary for reversal differ among various strains. Other inducible enzymes show similar effects. 2. This transient effect of glucose repression is observed in constitutive (i(-)) and permease-less (y(-)) cells as well as in the corresponding i(+) and y(+) strains. 3. Repression is exerted by several rapidly metabolizable substrates (galactose, ribose and ribonucleosides) but not by non-metabolized or poorly metabolized compounds (2-deoxyglucose, 2-deoxyribose, phenyl thio-beta-galactoside and 2-deoxyribonucleosides). 4. The transient repression with glucose is observed in inducible cells supplied with a powerful inducer of beta-galactosidase synthesis (e.g. isopropyl thio-beta-galactoside) but not with a weak inducer (lactose); in the latter instance glucose repression is permanent. Diauxic growth on glucose plus lactose can be abolished by including isopropyl thio-beta-galactoside in the medium. 5. In some strains phosphate starvation increases catabolite repression; in others it relieves it. Adenine starvation in an adenine-requiring mutant also relieves catabolite repression by glycerol but not that by glucose. Restoration of phosphate or adenine to cells starved of these nutrients causes a pronounced temporary repression. Alkaline-phosphatase synthesis is not affected by the availability of adenine. 6. During periods of transient repression of induced enzyme synthesis the differential rate of RNA synthesis, measured by labelled uracil incorporation in 2min. pulses, shows a temporary rise. 7. The differential rate of uracil incorporation into RNA falls during exponential growth of batch cultures of E. coli. This is equally true for uracil-requiring and non-requiring strains. The fall in the rate of incorporation has been shown to be due to a real fall in the rate of RNA synthesis. The significance of the changes in the rate of RNA synthesis is discussed. 8. A partial model of catabolite repression is presented with suggestions for determining the chemical identification of the catabolite co-repressor itself.
Project description:Liver homogenates of avian species, but not of mammals, form glycogen from glucose, mannose, fructose and galactose. Incorporation of labelled glucose, fructose and mannose, but not of labelled galactose, into glycogen is diluted isotopically by unlabelled glucose. Except for fructose, glycogen formation from other substrates by pigeon liver homogenates compares favourably with that from the same substrates in pigeon liver slices. Optimum conditions for glycogen synthesis from glucose by pigeon liver homogenate are: medium of incubation, 0.175m-sucrose-45mm-potassium chloride-15mm-glycylglycine buffer, pH7.5; concentration of substrate, 15mm; concentration of tissue, less than 120mg./ml.; temperature of incubation, 37-43 degrees ; atmosphere, oxygen. Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, Ca(2+), EDTA, PP(i), 2-deoxyglucose 6-phosphate and microsomal fraction of rat liver are inhibitory to glycogen synthesis from glucose. Starvation of pigeons for 24 and 48hr. leads to a slight stimulation of glycogen synthesis in their liver homogenates as compared with fed controls. Pigeon liver homogenates can be separated into subcellular fractions that on reconstitution can synthesize glycogen. All the enzymes of the glycogen pathway except soluble high-K(m) glucokinase are present in pigeon liver.
Project description:A simple, rapid method is described of preparing intact cells as small (about 2mm) pieces of organized tissue capable of performing synthetic metabolic functions. It has been applied to the study of glucuronidation in rat liver. In this process, snips appear less damaged, more versatile and more active than tissue slices and yield results of reproducibility comparable with those with homogenates. From a comparison with the literature, snips glucuronidate the substrates employed at a rate much the same as in perfused preparations and some 30% less than the rate in isolated-hepatocyte suspensions; the advantages they offer in certain situations over these two techniques are discussed.
Project description:1. Normal and partially hepatectomized rats (150g) were injected daily with d-chloramphenicol (20mg) for a period of 4 weeks, in order to investigate whether defective mitochondria could be induced in vivo in higher organisms as in yeast, and to measure the degree of inhibition of the mitochondrial function thus obtained. 2. The antibiotic did not affect growth and increased the amount of liver protein without changing the mitochondrial yield. 3. The respiration of isolated mitochondria from regenerated liver (regeneration completed) with succinate, alpha-oxo-glutarate, isocitrate and malate, was decreased in the chloramphenicol-treated rats, whereas in normal liver the antibiotic increased the mitochondrial oxygen consumption with succinate and did not significantly change the respiration with other substrates. 4. Mitochondrial cytochromes and respiratory enzymes were also decreased in amount in regenerated liver from the treated rats and enhanced in normal liver. 5. The protein specific radioactivities of most mitochondrial and microsomal subfractions, 30min after an injection of [(14)C]leucine, were decreased in regenerated liver under the action of chloramphenicol. Conversely, the incorporation of [(14)C]leucine into proteins of most subfractions in incubations of liver slices was enhanced in the case of normal rats treated with the antibiotic. 6. It is concluded that in regenerated liver chloramphenicol induces functionally defective mitochondria by inhibiting their biogenesis, whereas in normal liver the stimulation of respiration and protein synthesis is probably a secondary detoxication response.