The flavonol glycosides in the fruit of Pyrus communis L. cultivar Bon Chretien.
ABSTRACT: 1. Two new flavonol glycosides were isolated from the fruit of Pyrus communis L. cultivar Bon Chrétien. These were identified as isorhamnetin 3-rhamnogalactoside and a derivative of isorhamnetin 3-glucoside which was associated (possibly acylated) with an unknown aliphatic organic acid. 2. The melting point of isorhamnetin 3-glucoside isolated from Bon Chrétien pears is different from that of isorhamnetin 3-glucoside previously isolated from Argemone mexicana and Calendula officinalis. 3. Isorhamnetin 3-rhamnoglucoside was isolated from the fruit of Pyrus communis L. cultivar Bon Chrétien. This glycoside appears to be identical with narcissin, previously isolated from Narcissus tazetta and Lilium auratum. 4. Isoquercitrin, previously reported to be present in pear leaves, was isolated from the fruit of Bon Chrétien pears. 5. The isolated glycosides were present in the peels and flesh of the fruit, but were absent from the cores.
Project description:BACKGROUND:As a class of natural antioxidants in plants, fruit flavonol metabolites are beneficial to human health. However, the regulatory networks for flavonol biosynthesis in most fruits are largely unknown. Previously, we reported a spontaneous pear bud sport 'Red Zaosu' (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) with a high flavonoid content in its fruit. The identification of the flavonol biosynthetic regulatory network in this mutant pear fruit is crucial for elucidating the flavonol biosynthetic mechanism in fruit. RESULTS:Here, we demonstrated the PbMYB12b positively regulated flavonols biosynthesis in 'Red Zaosu' fruit. Initially, we investigated the accumulation patterns of four major quercetin glycosides and two major isorhamnetin glycosides in the fruit of 'Red Zaosu' and its wild-type 'Zaosu'. A PRODUCTION OF FLAVONOL GLYCOSIDES (PFG)-type MYB transcription factor PbMYB12b was also screened for because of its correlation with flavonol accumulation in pear fruit. The biofunction of PbMYB12b was verified by transient overexpression and RNAi assays in pear fruit and young leaves. Overexpression of PbMYB12b enhanced the biosynthesis of quercetin glycosides and isorhamnetin glycosides by positively regulating a general flavonoids biosynthesis gene PbCHSb and a flavonol biosynthesis gene PbFLS. This finding was also supported by dual-luciferase transient expression assay and transient ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter assay. CONCLUSIONS:Our study indicated that PbMYB12b positively regulated flavonol biosynthesis, including four major quercetin glycosides and two major isorhamnetin glycosides, by promoting the expression of PbCHSb and PbFLS in pear fruit.
Project description:We developed retrotransposon-based insertional polymorphism (RBIP) markers based on the long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences of copia-like retrotransposon Ppcrt4 and flanking genome sequences, which were derived from 454 sequencing data from Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) 'Hosui'. Out of 40 sequences including both LTR and flanking genome regions, we developed 22 RBIP markers and used them for DNA profiling of 80 pear cultivars: 64 Japanese, 10 Chinese (Pyrus ussuriensis) and 6 European (Pyrus communis). Three RBIP markers were enough to differentiate 'Hosui' from the other Japanese pear cultivars. The 22 RBIP markers could also distinguish 61 of the 64 Japanese pear cultivars. European pears showed almost no amplification of the 22 RBIP markers, which might suggest that retrotransposons had transposed during Asian pear evolution or reflect the genetic relationship between Asian and European pears. Sixteen of the RBIP markers could be positioned on a genetic linkage map of 'Hosui'. The RBIP loci were distributed in 10 linkage groups, and some loci were very closely located within the same linkage group. The information obtained will be applicable to developing cultivar-specific RBIP marker sets in plants.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of pear tree comparing a resistant/tolerant cultivar with a susceptible cultivar to the Stemphylium vesicarium fungus Rocha' pear is an economically important portuguese Pyrus communis L. cultivar very susceptible to the Stemphylium vesicarium pathogenic fungus, the brown spot agent, causing huge decrease on fruit quality and yield production. Field control of brown spot disease is based in systemic application of antifungal chemicals with high economic costs and dramatic consequences to public health and environmental pollution. Plant-pathogen interactions involve a series of events encompassing constitutive and induced plant defence responses whose dissection has been a research target for control many crop diseases. The biosynthesis of cell wall polymers and antifungal compounds appear to be an efficient physical and chemical barrier to infection.To understand the molecular responses behind defence mechanisms of resistant/tolerant and susceptible cultivars of Pyrus communis L. to the S. vesicarium fungus, cDNA microarray technology was used to identify the genes differentially expressed along a time course leaf inoculation between 'Rocha' pear cultivar (a high susceptible cultivar) and 'Ercolini' pear cultivar (a resistant/tolerant pear cultivar). This study aims to contribute with information on the molecular mechanisms involved in host-pathogen interactions responsible for pear tree brown spot disease and resistance to Stemphylium vesicarium. Experimental condition: 'Ercolini' vs 'Rocha' (each experiment including 5 plants from each cultivar). 3 time-points: water-inoculation (T0h), 6 hours after inoculation with S. vesicarium (T6h) and 24 hours after inoculation with S. vesicarium. Biological replicates: 3 in each time-point. One replicate per array.
Project description:European pears (Pyrus communis L.) require a range of cold-temperature exposure to induce ethylene biosynthesis and fruit ripening. Physiological and hormonal responses to cold temperature storage in pear have been well characterized, but the molecular underpinnings of these phenomena remain unclear. An established low-temperature conditioning model was used to induce ripening of 'D'Anjou' and 'Bartlett' pear cultivars and quantify the expression of key genes representing ripening-related metabolic pathways in comparison to non-conditioned fruit. Physiological indicators of pear ripening were recorded, and fruit peel tissue sampled in parallel, during the cold-conditioning and ripening time-course experiment to correlate gene expression to ontogeny. Two complementary approaches, Nonparametric Multi-Dimensional Scaling and efficiency-corrected 2-(??Ct), were used to identify genes exhibiting the most variability in expression. Interestingly, the enhanced alternative oxidase (AOX) transcript abundance at the pre-climacteric stage in 'Bartlett' and 'D'Anjou' at the peak of the conditioning treatments suggests that AOX may play a key and a novel role in the achievement of ripening competency. There were indications that cold-sensing and signaling elements from ABA and auxin pathways modulate the S1-S2 ethylene transition in European pears, and that the S1-S2 ethylene biosynthesis transition is more pronounced in 'Bartlett' as compared to 'D'Anjou' pear. This information has implications in preventing post-harvest losses of this important crop.
Project description:Approximately 70% of birch pollen allergic patients in Europe experience hypersensitivity reactions to Immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactive food sources. This so-called pollen-food syndrome (PFS) is defined by allergic symptoms elicited promptly by the ingestion of fruits, nuts, or vegetables in these patients. So far, in the literature, less attention has been given to Bet v 1 cross-reactive symptoms caused by pear (<i>Pyrus communis</i>). In the Netherlands, pears are widely consumed. The primary objective of this study was to measure the type and severity of allergic symptoms during pear challenges in birch pollen allergic patients, with a positive history of pear allergy, using two different pear varieties. Fifteen patients were included, skin prick test (SPT), prick-to-prick test (PTP), specific Immunoglobulin E (sIgE), and single-blind oral challenges were performed with two pear (<i>Pyrus communis</i>) varieties: the 'Cepuna' (brand name Migo<sup>®</sup>) and the 'Conference' pears. All patients were sensitized to one or both pear varieties. A total of 12 out of 15 participants developed symptoms during the 'Cepuna' food challenge and 14/15 reacted during the 'Conference' challenge. Challenges with the 'Cepuna' pears resulted in less objective symptoms (<i>n</i> = 2) in comparison with challenges with 'Conference' pears (<i>n</i> = 7). Although we did not find significance between both varieties in our study, we found a high likelihood of fewer and less severe symptoms during the 'Cepuna' challenges. Consequently selected pear sensitized patients can try to consume small doses of the 'Cepuna' pear outside the birch pollen season.
Project description:Pears (<i>Pyrus communis</i> L.) cv. Packham's Triumph are very traditional for human consumption, but pear is a highly perishable climacteric fruit with a short shelf-life affected by several diseases with a microbial origin. In this study, a protective effect on the quality properties of pears was evidenced after the surface application of chitosan-<i>Ruta graveolens</i> essential oil coatings (CS + RGEO) in four different concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 %, <i>v</i>/<i>v</i>) during 21 days of storage under 18 °C. After 21 days of treatment, a weight loss reduction of 10% (from 40.2 ± 5.3 to 20.3 ± 3.9) compared to the uncoated pears was evident with CS + RGEO 0.5%. All the fruits' physical-chemical properties evidenced a protective effect of the coatings. The maturity index increased for all the treatments. However, the pears with CS + RGEO 1.5% were lower (70.21) than the uncoated fruits (98.96). The loss of firmness for the uncoated samples was higher compared to the coated samples. The pears' most excellent mechanical resistance was obtained with CS + RGEO 0.5% after 21 days of storage, both for compression resistance (7.42 kPa) and force (22.7 N). Microbiological studies demonstrated the protective power of the coatings. Aerobic mesophilic bacteria and molds were significantly reduced (in 3 Log CFU/g compared to control) using 15 µL/mL of RGEO, without affecting consumer perception. The results presented in this study showed that CS + RGEO coatings are promising in the post-harvest treatment of pears.
Project description:The red color of fruit is an attractive plant trait for consumers. Plants with color-faded fruit have a lower commercial value, such as 'Red Bartlett' pears (<i>Pyrus communis</i> L.) that have dark-red fruit in the early stages of fruit development that subsequently fade to red-green at maturity. To identify the reason for color fading, we first analyzed the anthocyanin content of peel from 'Red Bartlett,' which displays the color fading phenomenon, and 'Starkrimson,' which has no color fading. Results showed that the anthocyanin content of 'Red Bartlett' peel decreased significantly late in fruit development, while in 'Starkrimson' there was no significant decrease. Next, RNA-Sequencing was used to identify 947 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between 'Red Bartlett' and 'Starkrimson.' Among them, 471 genes were upregulated and 476 genes were downregulated in 'Red Bartlett' at the late development stage relative to 'Starkrimson.' During 'Red Bartlett' color fading, the structural gene <i>LDOX</i> and six GST family genes were downregulated, while FLS, LAC, POD, and five light-responding genes were significantly upregulated. Additionally, 45 genes encoding transcription factors MYB, bHLH, WRKY, NAC, ERF, and zinc finger were identified among 947 DEGs. Changes in the expression of these genes may be responsible for the decrease in anthocyanin accumulation in 'Red Bartlett' fruit. Taken together, this study demonstrated that color fading of 'Red Bartlett' was closely linked to reduced anthocyanin biosynthesis, increased anthocyanin degradation and suppression of anthocyanin transport. It also provided novel evidence for the involvement of light signals in the color fading of red-skinned pears.
Project description:Ripening affects the nutritional contents and quality of fleshy fruits, and it plays an important role during the process of fruit development. Studies have demonstrated that ubiquitin-conjugating (UBC or E2) genes can regulate fruit ripening, but the characterization of UBCs in pear is not well documented. The recently published genome-wide sequences of Pyrus bretschneideri and Pyrus communis have allowed a comprehensive analysis of this important gene family in pear. Using bioinformatics approaches, we identified 83 (PbrUBCs) and 84 (PcpUBCs) genes from P. bretschneideri and P. communis, respectively, which were divided into 13 subfamilies. In total, 198 PbrUBC paralogous, 215 PcpUBC paralogous, and 129 orthologous gene pairs were detected. Some paralogous gene pairs were found to be distributed on the same chromosome, suggesting that these paralogs may be caused by tandem duplications. The expression patterns of most UBC genes were divergent between Pyrus bretschneideri and Pyrus communis during pear fruit development. Remarkably, the transcriptome data showed that UBC genes might play a more important role in fruit ripening for further study. This is the first report on the systematic analysis of two Pyrus UBC gene families, and these data will help further study the role of UBC genes in fruit development and ripening, as well as contribute to the functional verification of UBC genes in pear.
Project description:Although Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) genes have been identified in several plants, little is known about PEBP genes in pears. In this study, a total of 24 PEBP genes were identified, in which 10, 5 and 9 were from Pyrus bretschneideri genome, Pyrus communis genome and Pyrus betuleafolia genome, respectively. Subsequently, gene structure, phylogenetic relationship, chromosomal localization, promoter regions, collinearity and expression were determined with these PEBP genes. It was found that only PbFT from PEBP genes of P. bretschneideri was relatively highly expressed in leaves during flower bud differentiation. Whereas, expression patterns of TFL1 homologues, gene23124 and gene16540, were different from PbFT in buds. The expression pattern and the treatment of reduction day-length indicated that the expression of PbFT in leaves were regulated by day-length and circadian clock. Additionally, the phenotype of transgenic Arabidopsis suggested that PbFT played a role in not only promoting flower bud differentiation, but also regulating the balance between vegetative and reproductive growth. These results may provide important information for further understanding of the evolution and function of PEBP genes in pears.
Project description:The transcriptomes of five pear cultivars, 'Hosui' (P. pyrifolia), 'Yali' (P. bretschneideri), 'Kuerlexiangli' (P. sinkiangensis), 'Nanguoli' (P. ussuriensis), and 'Starkrimson' (P. communis) were sequenced at seven key fruit developmental stages, from fruit setting to maturation and fruit senescence after harvesting. In total, 33,136 genes that could be mapped by reads, were analyzed. Most gene expression cluster models showed a steadily decreasing trend. Gene expression patterns had obvious differences according to maturity type, that is, post-ripening cultivars were still vigorous at maturity, and showed a higher proportion of up-regulated genes; non post-ripening cultivars had a gradually decreasing tendency during fruit maturation. Meanwhile, differentially expressed genes related to fruit quality and development, such as stone cells, sugar, acid and hormones, were identified. Co-expression analysis revealed that several ethylene synthesis genes and polyphenoloxidase-related genes interacted with each other directly, and an indirect relationship was reflected between ethylene synthesis genes and ethylene response genes. In addition, the highly diverse SNPs represented the great differences between oriental and occidental pears. Understanding how RNA-seq based gene-expression patterns and differential gene expression contribute to fruit quality allows us to build models for gene-expression for fruit development of Pyrus species.