Observations on the biosynthesis of thiamine in yeast.
ABSTRACT: 1. Methods are described for the isolation of radioactively pure thiamine from yeast and its degradation on a small scale to its cyclic components. 2. A degradation of the pyrimidine ring and a thin-layer method for the separation of thiamine, its derivatives and pyrimidine and thiazole residues are described. 3. [(14)C]Formate is more effectively incorporated into the pyrimidine residue than into the thiazole residue, whereas the reverse is true with l-[Me-(14)C]methionine. 4. Experiments with [Me-(14)C,(35)S]methionine demonstrate that methionine provides an intact unit for the biosynthesis of the thiazole ring. 5. [6-(14)C]Orotic acid is insignificantly incorporated into the pyrimidine residue of thiamine. 6. Experiments with [1-(14)C]- and [2-(14)C]-acetate indicate that it is incorporated as a unit into the thiazole residue, but that only C-2 is incorporated into the pyrimidine residue. 7. l-[U-(14)C]Alanine is also effectively incorporated into the thiazole residue. 8. These results are discussed in relation to possible pathways of biosynthesis of the two ring components of the thiamine molecule.
Project description:1. Yeast was grown in a minimal synthetic medium together with a range of (14)C-labelled substrates under standardized conditions. After isolation, the purified thiamine was cleaved by sulphite and the pyrimidine and thiazole moieties were purified and assayed for radioactivity. 2. In order of decreasing incorporation, [(14)C]formate, [3-(14)C]serine, [2-(14)C]glycine and [2-(14)C]acetate supplied label for the pyrimidine, and [2-(14)C]glycine, [3-(14)C]serine, [1-(14)C]glycine, [(14)C]formate and [2-(14)C]acetate for the thiazole. Incorporation of label into the fragments from several other (14)C-labelled substrates, including [Me-(14)C]- and [3,4-(14)C(2)]-methionine, was insignificant. 3. [3-(14)C]Serine was shown not to contribute label to C-2 of the thiazole ring. 4. Significant incorporation of nitrogen from [(15)N]glycine into the thiazole moiety, but not into the pyrimidine moiety, was established. 5. It appears that C-2 and N-3 of the thiazole ring are formed from C-2 and the nitrogen atom of glycine, but the entire methionine molecule does not appear to be implicated.
Project description:Thiamine (vitamin B1) is synthesized de novo by certain yeast, fungi, plants, protozoans, bacteria and archaea. The pathway of thiamine biosynthesis by archaea is poorly understood, particularly the route of sulfur relay to form the thiazole ring. Archaea harbor structural homologs of both the bacterial (ThiS-ThiF) and eukaryotic (THI4) proteins that mobilize sulfur to thiazole ring precursors by distinct mechanisms.Based on comparative genome analysis, halophilic archaea are predicted to synthesize the pyrimidine moiety of thiamine by the bacterial pathway, initially suggesting that also a bacterial ThiS-ThiF type mechanism for synthesis of the thiazole ring is used in which the sulfur carrier ThiS is first activated by ThiF-catalyzed adenylation. The only ThiF homolog of Haloferax volcanii (UbaA) was deleted but this had no effect on growth in the absence of thiamine. Usage of the eukaryotic THI4-type sulfur relay was initially considered less likely for thiamine biosynthesis in archaea, since the active-site cysteine residue of yeast THI4p that donates the sulfur to the thiazole ring by a suicide mechanism is replaced by a histidine residue in many archaeal THI4 homologs and these are described as D-ribose-1,5-bisphosphate isomerases. The THI4 homolog of the halophilic archaea, including Hfx. volcanii (HVO_0665, HvThi4) was found to differ from that of methanogens and thermococci by having a cysteine residue (Cys165) corresponding to the conserved active site cysteine of yeast THI4p (Cys205). Deletion of HVO_0665 generated a thiamine auxotroph that was trans-complemented by a wild-type copy of HVO_0665, but not the modified gene encoding an HvThi4 C165A variant.Based on our results, we conclude that the archaeon Hfx. volcanii uses a yeast THI4-type mechanism for sulfur relay to form the thiazole ring of thiamine. We extend this finding to a relatively large group of archaea, including haloarchaea, ammonium oxidizing archaea, and some methanogen and Pyrococcus species, by observing that these organisms code for THI4 homologs that have a conserved active site cysteine residue which is likely used in thiamine biosynthesis. Thus, archaeal members of IPR002922 THI4 family that have a conserved cysteine active site should be reexamined for a function in thiamine biosynthesis.
Project description:1. Thiamine or the pyrimidine moiety of thiamine added in excess to a growing culture of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 repressed subsequent thiamine synthesis in non-growing organisms. 2. A mutant unable to convert added pyrimidine moiety into thiamine was not repressible by the pyrimidine, showing that thiamine, not the pyrimidine, was the repressor. 3. Thiamine repression occurred at 40mmug. of thiamine/mg. dry wt. or above and de-repression occurred at 30mmug. of thiamine/mg. dry wt. or below. 4. Thiamine controlled the pyrimidine and thiazole pathways at the same concentration and to the same extent. 5. Biosynthesis of the thiazole moiety had, in contrast with biosynthesis of the pyrimidine moiety, an additional feedback inhibition control that allowed utilization of the exogenous thiazole. 6. The enzymes joining the pyrimidine and thiazole moieties were repressible by high concentrations of thiamine. 7. Thiamine was rapidly converted into thiamine pyrophosphate and this appeared to be the active repressor. 8. Theoretical aspects of control of converging pathways are discussed.
Project description:Thiamine pyrophosphate 1 is an essential cofactor in all living systems. Its biosynthesis involves the separate syntheses of the pyrimidine 2 and thiazole 3 precursors, which are then coupled. Two biosynthetic routes to the thiamine thiazole have been identified. In prokaryotes, five enzymes act on three substrates to produce the thiazole via a complex oxidative condensation reaction, the mechanistic details of which are now well established. In contrast, only one gene product is involved in thiazole biosynthesis in eukaryotes (THI4p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Here we report the preparation of fully active recombinant wild-type THI4p, the identification of an iron-dependent sulphide transfer reaction from a conserved cysteine residue of the protein to a reaction intermediate and the demonstration that THI4p is a suicide enzyme undergoing only a single turnover.
Project description:Thiamine biosynthesis is commonly regulated by a riboswitch mechanism; however, the enzymatic steps and regulation of this pathway in archaea are poorly understood. Haloferax volcanii, one of the representative archaea, uses a eukaryote-like Thi4 (thiamine thiazole synthase) for the production of the thiazole ring and condenses this ring with a pyrimidine moiety synthesized by an apparent bacterium-like ThiC (2-methyl-4-amino-5-hydroxymethylpyrimidine [HMP] phosphate synthase) branch. Here we found that archaeal Thi4 and ThiC were encoded by leaderless transcripts, ruling out a riboswitch mechanism. Instead, a novel ThiR transcription factor that harbored an N-terminal helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA binding domain and C-terminal ThiN (TMP synthase) domain was identified. In the presence of thiamine, ThiR was found to repress the expression of thi4 and thiC by a DNA operator sequence that was conserved across archaeal phyla. Despite having a ThiN domain, ThiR was found to be catalytically inactive in compensating for the loss of ThiE (TMP synthase) function. In contrast, bifunctional ThiDN, in which the ThiN domain is fused to an N-terminal ThiD (HMP/HMP phosphate [HMP-P] kinase) domain, was found to be interchangeable for ThiE function and, thus, active in thiamine biosynthesis. A conserved Met residue of an extended α-helix near the active-site His of the ThiN domain was found to be important for ThiDN catalytic activity, whereas the corresponding Met residue was absent and the α-helix was shorter in ThiR homologs. Thus, we provide new insight into residues that distinguish catalytic from noncatalytic ThiN domains and reveal that thiamine biosynthesis in archaea is regulated by a transcriptional repressor, ThiR, and not by a riboswitch.IMPORTANCE Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) is a cofactor needed for the enzymatic activity of many cellular processes, including central metabolism. In archaea, thiamine biosynthesis is an apparent chimera of eukaryote- and bacterium-type pathways that is not well defined at the level of enzymatic steps or regulatory mechanisms. Here we find that ThiN is a versatile domain of transcriptional repressors and catalytic enzymes of thiamine biosynthesis in archaea. Our study provides new insight into residues that distinguish catalytic from noncatalytic ThiN domains and reveals that archaeal thiamine biosynthesis is regulated by a ThiN domain transcriptional repressor, ThiR, and not by a riboswitch.
Project description:1. A method was devised for obtaining the pyrimidine moiety of thiamine in a pure form after its excretion into the medium by de-repressed washed-cell suspensions of mutants of Salmonella typhimurium LT2. 2. By using amino acid-requiring mutants, this excretion of pyrimidine moiety was shown to be dependent on the presence of both methionine and glycine. 3. In the presence of either [Me-(14)C]methionine or [G-(14)C]methionine, methionine-requiring mutants did not incorporate radioactivity into the pyrimidine moiety. 4. In contrast, both [1-(14)C]glycine and [2-(14)C]glycine were incorporated into the pyrimidine moiety excreted by glycine-requiring mutants, and this occurred with little or no dilution of specific radioactivity. 5. The possible requirement for methionine as a cofactor and the significance of the incorporation of both carbon atoms of glycine are discussed.
Project description:Thiamine is an essential cofactor in several enzymatic reactions for all living organisms. Animals cannot synthesize thiamine and depend on their diet. Enhancing the content of thiamine is one of the most important goals of plant breeding to solve the thiamine deficiency associated with the low-thiamin staple crops. In this study, a Glycine max pale green leaf 1 (Gmpgl1) mutant was isolated from the EMS mutagenized population of soybean cultivar, Williams 82. Map-based cloning of the GmPGL1 locus revealed a single nucleotide deletion at the 292th nucleotide residue of the first exon of Glyma.10g251500 gene in Gmpgl1 mutant plant, encoding a thiamine thiazole synthase. Total thiamine contents decreased in both seedlings and seeds of the Gmpgl1 mutant. Exogenous application of thiazole restored the pale green leaf phenotype of the mutant. The deficiency of thiamine in Gmpgl1 mutant led to reduced activities of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), and decreased contents of six amino acids as compared to that in the wild type plants. These results revealed that GmPGL1 played an essential role in thiamine thiazole biosynthesis.
Project description:1. Growth of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 in the presence of adenosine was shown to cause enormous synthesis of thiamine in washed-cell suspensions. 2. Evidence that this was due to de-repression and not an accumulation of precursors was obtained by using a mutant blocked in the biosynthesis of the thiazole moiety, which showed a similarly large synthesis of the pyrimidine of thiamine. 3. The specific requirements for a source of energy, nitrogen and sulphur were investigated, and indicated new synthesis in this system.
Project description:1. The pattern of distribution on the purine pathway of mutants of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 that had the double growth requirement for a purine plus the pyrimidine moiety of thiamine (ath mutants) indicated that purines and the pyrimidine moiety of thiamine share the early part of their biosynthetic pathways, and that 4-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (AIR) is the last common intermediate. Two mutants that at first appeared anomalous were further investigated and found not to affect this deduction. 2. The ribonucleoside form of AIR (AIR(s)) satisfied the requirements both for a purine and for the pyrimidine moiety of thiamine of an ath mutant. 3. Methionine was required for the conversion of AIR into the pyrimidine moiety. 4. Radioactive AIR(s) was converted into radioactive pyrimidine moiety by an ath mutant without significant dilution of specific radioactivity. 5. Possible mechanisms for pyrimidine-moiety biosynthesis from AIR are discussed.
Project description:In bacteria, many genes involved in the biosynthesis of cofactors such as thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) are regulated by ribo switches, regions in the 5' end of mRNAs to which the cofactor binds, thereby affecting translation and/or transcription. TPP riboswitches have now been identified in fungi, in which they alter mRNA splicing. Here, we show that addition of thiamine to cultures of the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii alters splicing of transcripts for the THI4 and THIC genes, encoding the first enzymes of the thiazole and pyrimidine branches of thiamine biosynthesis, respectively, concomitant with an increase in intracellular thiamine and TPP levels. Comparison with Volvox carteri, a related alga, revealed highly conserved regions within introns of these genes. Inspection of the sequences identified TPP riboswitch motifs, and RNA transcribed from the regions binds TPP in vitro. The THI4 riboswitch, but not the promoter region, was found to be necessary and sufficient for thiamine to repress expression of a luciferase-encoding reporter construct in vivo. The pyr1 mutant of C. reinhardtii, which is resistant to the thiamine analogue pyrithiamine, has a mutation in the THI4 riboswitch that prevents the THI4 gene from being repressed by TPP. By the use of these ribo switches, thiamine biosynthesis in C. reinhardtii can be effectively regulated at physiological concentrations of the vitamin.