Studies on glutathione S-alkyltransferase of the rat.
ABSTRACT: 1. A rat-liver enzyme catalysing the S-alkylation of glutathione by iodomethane and various other alkyl compounds has been identified and partially purified; its stability, specificity and response to inhibitors and activators and to changes in reaction pH have been studied. 2. The enzyme is distinct from glutathione S-aryltransferase, but both enzymes respond similarly to various inhibitors. 3. A similar enzyme has been found in the kidney and adrenal of rat and in the liver and kidney of numerous species. 4. The identity and the physiological role of the enzyme are discussed.
Project description:1. Liver supernatant preparations from rats and ferrets catalyse the conjugation of some epoxides with glutathione. The enzyme involved might be called ;glutathione S-epoxidetransferase', as it is different from glutathione S-aryltransferase, the enzyme catalysing the conjugation of 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene, 4-nitro-pyridine N-oxide and other cyclic compounds with glutathione and from the enzyme catalysing the conjugation of iodomethane and glutathione. 2. The enzyme does not catalyse the reaction with cysteine. It is not inactivated by dialysis but is unstable at pH 5.0. 3. The role of the enzyme in metabolism of foreign compounds is discussed.
Project description:1. Heat-inactivation experiments, ammonium sulphate-fractionation studies, enzyme-inhibition studies with S-(alphabeta-diethoxycarbonylethyl)glutathione, and evidence from the distribution of activities in rat liver, in rat kidney and in the livers of other animals, indicate that reactions of glutathione with (i) trans-benzylideneacetone, (ii) cyclohex-2-en-1-one, (iii) trans-cinnamaldehyde, (iv) diethyl maleate, (v) diethyl fumarate and (vi) 2,3-dimethyl-4-(2-methylenebutyryl)phenoxyacetic acid are catalysed by different enzymes. 2. Evidence is presented that the enzymes catalysing the reactions of glutathione with substrates (i)-(iv) are different from glutathione S-alkyltransferase, S-aryltransferase and S-epoxidetransferase. 3. The name ;glutathione S-alkenetransferases' is proposed for enzymes catalysing reactions of glutathione with alphabeta-unsaturated compounds. 4. The Arrenhius plot for the enzyme-catalysed reaction of diethyl maleate with glutathione is discontinuous, with lower energy of activation at 38 degrees .
Project description:1. The name ;glutathione S-aralkyltransferase' is proposed for the enzyme catalysing the reaction of benzyl chloride with GSH. 2. Results from heat-inactivation studies, ammonium sulphate-fractionation and acid-precipitation experiments, and studies of the distribution of activities in rat liver, in rat kidney and in the livers of other animals indicate that glutathione S-aralkyltransferase differs from glutathione S-alkyltransferase, S-aryltransferase, S-epoxidetransferase and an S-alkenetransferase. 3. The distribution of these enzymes in the livers of the animal species examined was different. 4. Glutathione S-alkyltransferase, S-aralkyltransferase and the S-alkenetransferase that are present in rat liver supernatant were inhibited by GSSG, and the nature of the inhibition varied in each case. 5. 3,5-Di-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl acetate reacts spontaneously with GSH, but the rat liver-supernatant-catalysed reaction of GSH with this and other aralkyl esters was weak. 6. A probable function of the glutathione S-transferases is the protection of cellular constituents from strong electrophilic agents.
Project description:1. alpha-3,4,5,6-Tetrachlorocyclohex-1-ene and gamma-2,3,4,5,6-pentachlorocyclohex-1-ene are conjugated with glutathione in vitro by a rat-liver enzyme that is probably glutathione S-aryltransferase. 2. Chlorocyclohexane and the alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane were not substrates for rat-liver glutathione S-aryltransferase. 3. Glutathione-S-aryltransferase activity was present in tissue preparations of houseflies of insecticide-resistant and -susceptible strains. More activity was found in a dieldrin-resistant strain of houseflies fed on dieldrin than in either a dieldrin-resistant strain not fed on dieldrin or a control strain of dieldrin-susceptible houseflies. 4. Housefly soluble supernatant preparations converted S-(2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl)glutathione into the corresponding cysteine and mercapturic acid derivatives.
Project description:1. Rat-liver supernatant catalyses the reaction of diethyl maleate with glutathione. 2. Evidence is presented that the enzyme involved is different from the known glutathione-conjugating enzymes, glutathione S-alkyltransferase, S-aryltransferase and S-epoxidetransferase. 3. Rat-liver supernatant catalyses the reaction of a number of other alphabeta-unsaturated compounds, including aldehydes, ketones, lactones, nitriles and nitro compounds, with glutathione: separate enzymes may be responsible for these reactions.
Project description:Two forms of glutathione S-aryltransferase were purified from rat liver. The only differences noted between the two forms were in the chromatographic and electrophoretic properties, which permitted the separation of the two species. The molecular weights of the enzyme and its subunits were estimated as about 50000 and 23000 respectively. The steady-state kinetics did no follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics when one substrate concentration was kept constant while the second substrate concentration was varied. Several S-substituted GSH derivatives were tested as inhibitors of the enzymic reaction. The enzyme was inactivated by thiol-group reagents.
Project description:1. Glutathione-S-aryltransferase activity from grass grubs (Costelytra zealandica) was inhibited by phthaleins, sulphonphthaleins and some dicarboxylic acids. 2. These compounds had no detectable action on the enzyme from sheep liver. 3. In insect enzyme the inhibition was competitive with respect to glutathione and non-competitive with respect to the aromatic substrate. 4. Michaelis constants and inhibitor constants were measured for sheep-liver or grass-grub enzyme between pH5 and pH10 and evidence was obtained for the presence of two groups with pK9.2 in the glutathione-binding site of the insect enzyme. 5. Only one such group was detected in the sheep-liver enzyme.
Project description:1. 2-Chloro-1-(2,4,5-trichlorophenyl)vinyl dimethyl phosphate (tetrachlorvinphos) is demethylated by mammalian liver supernatant (100000g) protein in the presence of GSH. 2. GSH acts as an acceptor of the transferred methyl group to form S-methyl glutathione. 3. The enzyme that catalyses this reaction is present in the soluble fraction of liver from mouse, rat, rabbit and pig at similar activity. The enzyme was purified 45-fold from pig liver, dimethyl 1-naphthyl phosphate being used as assay substrate. 4. Methyl groups are readily removed from most of the substrates studied; ethyl groups are removed at one-fiftieth to one-hundredth of the rate for methyl groups. It is likely that the enzyme plays an important role in the detoxification of the phosphate triester pesticides containing CH(3)-O-P groups.
Project description:Renal and hepatic GSH (reduced glutathione) S-transferase were compared with respect to substrate and inhibitory kinetics and hormonal influences in vivo. An example of each of five classes of substrates (aryl, aralkyl, epoxide, alkyl and alkene) was used. In the gel filtration of renal or hepatic cytosol, an identical elution volume was found for all the transferase activities. Close correspondence in Km values was found for aryl, epoxide- and alkyl-transferase activities, with only the aralkyl activity significantly lower in kidney. Probenecid and p-aminohippurate were competitive inhibitors of renal aryl-, aralkyl-, epoxide- and alkyl-transferase activities and inhibited renal alkene activity. Close correspondence in Ki values for inhibition by probenecid of these activities in kidney and liver was found. In addition, furosemide was a potent competitive inhibitor of renal alkyl-transferase activity. Hypophysectomy resulted in significant increases in aryl-, araklyl-, and expoxide-transferase activities in liver and kidney. The hypophysectomy-induced increases in renal aryl- and aralkyl-transferase activities (approx. 100%) were more than twofold greater than increases in hepatic activities (approx. 40%). Administration of thyroxine prevented the hypophysectomy-induced increase in aryltransferase activity in both kidney and liver. The renal GSH S-transferases, in view of similarities to the hepatic activities, may play a role as cytoplasmic organic-anion receptors, as previously proposed for the hepatic enzymes.
Project description:A Mu-class glutathione S-transferase purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from bovine lens displayed thioltransferase activity, catalysing the transthiolation reaction between GSH and hydroxyethyldisulphide. The thiol-transfer reaction is composed of two steps, the formation of GSSG occurring through the generation of an intermediate mixed disulphide between GSH and the target disulphide. Unlike glutaredoxin, which is only able to catalyse the second step of the transthiolation process, glutathioneS-transferase catalyses both steps of the reaction. Data are presented showing that bovine lens glutathione S-transferase and rat liver glutaredoxin, which was used as a thioltransferase enzyme model, can operate in synergy to catalyse the GSH-dependent reduction of hydroxyethyldisulphide.