The inhibition of phosphoglucomutase by beryllium.
ABSTRACT: 1. The inhibition of phosphoglucomutase by beryllium has been examined. 2. Inhibition by beryllium does not occur unless a complex-forming agent such as cysteine or imidazole is present. It is therefore similar to activation by magnesium. 3. The inhibition is progressive and the rate follows first-order kinetics, which may be defined by a bimolecular rate constant. 4. In the presence of magnesium the rate of inhibition is less. By using a fixed time for inhibition competition between beryllium and magnesium may be demonstrated. After inhibition has taken place, the addition of magnesium does not reverse it.
Project description:1. The action of beryllium on the following enzymes has been examined: alkaline phosphatase (Escherichia coli and kidney), acid phosphatase, phosphoprotein phosphatase, apyrase (potato), adenosine triphosphatase (liver nuclei, liver mitochondria, brain microsomes), glucose 6-phosphatase, polysaccharide phosphorylases a and b, phosphoglucomutase, hexokinase, phosphoglyceromutase, ribonuclease, A-esterase (rabbit serum), cholinesterase (horse serum), chymotrypsin. Alkaline phosphatase and phosphoglucomutase are inhibited by 1mum-beryllium sulphate whereas the other enzymes are largely unaffected by 1mm-beryllium sulphate. 2. Possible mechanisms for the inhibition of phosphoglucomutase and alkaline phosphatase are discussed.
Project description:The enzyme phosphoglucomutase functions at a key point in carbohydrate metabolism. In this paper, we show that the synthesis of the major isoform of yeast phosphoglucomutase, encoded by the GAL5 (PGM2) gene, is regulated in a manner that is distinct from that previously described for other enzymes involved in galactose metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Accumulation of this isoform increased four- to sixfold when the culture experienced either glucose depletion or heat shock. However, heat shock induction did not occur unless the cells were under glucose repression. This nonadditive increase in expression suggests that the regulatory mechanisms controlling the heat shock induction and glucose repression of the GAL5 gene are functionally related. We previously demonstrated that phosphoglucomutase is modified by a posttranslational Glc-phosphorylation reaction. We now show that this posttranslational modification, like phosphoglucomutase expression itself, is also regulated by galactose induction and glucose repression. Finally, no evidence was found to indicate that the Glc-phosphorylation of phosphoglucomutase alters its enzymatic activity under the conditions examined.
Project description:Mutations designated gtaC and gtaE that affect alpha-phosphoglucomutase activity required for interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and alpha-glucose 1-phosphate were mapped to the Bacillus subtilis pgcA (yhxB) gene. Backcrossing of the two mutations into the 168 reference strain was accompanied by impaired alpha-phosphoglucomutase activity in the soluble cell extract fraction, altered colony and cell morphology, and resistance to phages phi29 and rho11. Altered cell morphology, reversible by additional magnesium ions, may be correlated with a deficiency in the membrane glycolipid. The deficiency in biofilm formation in gtaC and gtaE mutants may be attributed to an inability to synthesize UDP-glucose, an important intermediate in a number of cell envelope biosynthetic processes.
Project description:We aimed at investigating mortality among beryllium-exposed workers, according to solubility of beryllium and beryllium compounds. We conducted an historical cohort study of 16,115 workers employed during 1925-2008 in 15 facilities, including eight entailing exposure to insoluble beryllium and seven entailing exposure to soluble/mixed beryllium compounds, who were followed up for mortality until 2011. Data were analyzed using indirect standardization and Cox regression modeling. Lung cancer standardized mortality ratio (SMR, national reference rates) was 1.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.10) in the whole cohort, 0.88 (95% CI: 0.75-1.03) in the insoluble beryllium subcohort, and 1.09 (95% CI: 0.99-1.09) in the soluble/mixed beryllium subcohort. For lung cancer, there was an association with period of hire in soluble/mixed beryllium plants but not in insoluble plants, and, conversely, employment in soluble/mixed plants was associated with increased mortality only among workers hired before 1955. There was no trend with duration of employment. Mortality from chronic beryllium disease increased, in particular, among workers hired before 1955 in soluble/mixed beryllium facilities. There was no increase in lung cancer mortality in the entire cohort and lung cancer mortality was not increased among beryllium workers hired in 1955 or later in soluble/mixed beryllium facilities, or at any time among those employed in insoluble beryllium facilities.
Project description:Metal-induced hypersensitivity is driven by T-cell sensitization to metal ions. Although numerous metals are associated with the development of diffuse parenchymal lung disease, beryllium-induced hypersensitivity is the best-studied to date. This review focuses on the interaction between innate and adaptive immunity that leads to the development of chronic beryllium disease. After beryllium exposure, activation of the innate immune system occurs through the engagement of pattern-recognition receptors. This activation leads to cell death, release of alarmins, and activation and migration of dendritic cells to lung-draining lymph nodes. These events culminate in the development of an adaptive immune response that is characterized by beryllium-specific, T-helper type 1-polarized, CD4+ T-cells and granuloma formation in the lung. The unique ability of beryllium to bind to human leukocyte antigen-DP molecules that express a glutamic acid at position 69 of the β-chain alters the charge and conformation of the human leukocyte antigen-DP-peptide complex. These changes induce post-translational modifications that are recognized as non-self. In essence, the ability of beryllium to create neoantigens underlies the genesis of chronic beryllium disease, and demonstrates the similarity between beryllium-induced hypersensitivity and autoimmunity.
Project description:Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous lung disorder caused by a hypersensitivity to beryllium and characterized by the accumulation of beryllium-specific CD4(+) T cells in the lung. Genetic susceptibility to beryllium-induced disease is strongly associated with HLA-DP alleles possessing a glutamic acid at the 69th position of the ?-chain (?Glu69). The structure of HLA-DP2, the most prevalent ?Glu69-containing molecule, revealed a unique solvent-exposed acidic pocket that includes ?Glu69 and represents the putative beryllium-binding site. The delineation of mimotopes and endogenous self-peptides that complete the ??TCR ligand for beryllium-specific CD4(+) T cells suggests a unique role of these peptides in metal ion coordination and the generation of altered self-peptides, blurring the distinction between hypersensitivity and autoimmunity.
Project description:Aldehydes play a key role in the human metabolism. Therefore, it is essential to know their reactivity with beryllium compounds in order to assess its effects in the body. The reactivity of simple aldehydes towards beryllium halides (F, Cl, Br, I) was studied through solution and solid-state techniques and revealed distinctively different reactivities of the beryllium halides, with BeF2 being the least and BeI2 the most reactive. Rearrangement and aldol condensation reactions were observed and monitored by in situ NMR spectroscopy. Crystal structures of various compounds obtained by Be2+ -catalyzed cyclization, rearrangement, and aldol addition reactions or ligation of beryllium halides have been determined, including unprecedented one-dimensional BeCl2 chains and the first structurally characterized example of an 1-iodo-alkoxide. Long-term studies showed that only aldehydes without a β-H can form stable beryllium complexes, whereas other aldehydes are oligo- and polymerized or decomposed by beryllium halides.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Peak beryllium inhalation exposures and exposure to the skin may be relevant for developing beryllium sensitization (BeS). The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with BeS to inform the prevention of sensitization, and the development of chronic beryllium disease (CBD). METHODS:In a survey of short-term workers employed at a primary beryllium manufacturing facility between the years 1994-1999, 264 participants completed a questionnaire and were tested for BeS. A range of qualitative and quantitative peak inhalation metrics and skin exposure indices were created using: personal full-shift beryllium exposure measurements, 15 min to 24 h process-specific task and area exposure measurements, glove measurements as indicator of skin exposure, process-upset information gleaned from historical reports, and self-reported information on exposure events. Hierarchical clustering was conducted to systematically group participants based on similarity of patterns of 16 exposure variables. The associations of the exposure metrics with BeS and self-reported skin symptoms (in work areas processing beryllium salts as well as in other work areas) were evaluated using correlation analysis, log-binomial and logistic regression models with splines. RESULTS:Metrics of peak inhalation exposure, indices of skin exposure, and using material containing beryllium salts were significantly associated with skin symptoms and BeS; skin symptoms were a strong predictor of BeS. However, in this cohort, we could not tease apart the independent effects of skin exposure from inhalation exposure, as these exposures occurred simultaneously and were highly correlated. Hierarchical clustering identified groups of participants with unique patterns of exposure characteristics resulting in different prevalence of BeS and skin symptoms. A cluster with high skin exposure index and use of material containing beryllium salts had the highest prevalence of BeS and self-reported skin symptoms, followed by a cluster with high inhalation and skin exposure index and a very small fraction of jobs in which beryllium salts were used. A cluster with low inhalation and skin exposure and no workers using beryllium salts had no cases of BeS. CONCLUSION:Multiple pathways and types of exposure were associated with BeS and may be important for informing BeS prevention. Prevention efforts should focus on controlling airborne beryllium exposures with attention to peaks, use of process characteristics (e.g. the likelihood of upset conditions to design interventions) minimize skin exposure to beryllium particles, and in particular, eliminate skin contact with beryllium salts to interrupt potential exposure pathways for BeS risk.
Project description:The toxicity of soluble metal compounds is often different from that of the parent metal. Since no reliable data on acute toxicity, local effects, and mutagenicity of beryllium metal have ever been generated, beryllium metal powder was tested according to the respective Organisation for Economical Co-Operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Acute oral toxicity of beryllium metal was investigated in rats and local effects on skin and eye in rabbits. Skin-sensitizing properties were investigated in guinea pigs (maximization method). Basic knowledge about systemic bioavailability is important for the design of genotoxicity tests on poorly soluble substances. Therefore, it was necessary to experimentally compare the capacities of beryllium chloride and beryllium metal to form ions under simulated human lung conditions. Solubility of beryllium metal in artificial lung fluid was low, while solubility in artificial lysosomal fluid was moderate. Beryllium chloride dissolution kinetics were largely different, and thus, metal extracts were used in the in vitro genotoxicity tests. Genotoxicity was investigated in vitro in a bacterial reverse mutagenicity assay, a mammalian cell gene mutation assay, a mammalian cell chromosome aberration assay, and an unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay. In addition, cell transformation was tested in a Syrian hamster embryo cell assay, and potential inhibition of DNA repair was tested by modification of the UDS assay. Beryllium metal was found not to be mutagenic or clastogenic based on the experimental in vitro results. Furthermore, treatment with beryllium metal extracts did not induce DNA repair synthesis, indicative of no DNA-damaging potential of beryllium metal. A cell-transforming potential and a tendency to inhibit DNA repair when the cell is severely damaged by an external stimulus were observed. Beryllium metal was also found not to be a skin or eye irritant, not to be a skin sensitizer, and not to have relevant acute oral toxic properties.
Project description:Despite limiting side-effects, lithium is the drug of choice for the treatment of bipolar depression. Its action may be due, in part, to its ability to dampen phosphatidylinositol turnover by inhibiting myo-inositol monophosphatase. Beryllium has been identified as a potent inhibitor of partially purified myo-inositol monophosphatase isolated from rat brain (Ki = 150 nM), bovine brain (Ki = 35 nM), and from the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH (Ki = 85 nM). It is over three orders of magnitude more potent than LiCl (Ki = 0.5-1.2 mM). Kinetic analysis reveals that beryllium is a competitive inhibitor of myo-inositol monophosphatase, in contrast with lithium which is an uncompetitive inhibitor. Inhibition of exogenous [3H]inositol phosphate hydrolysis by beryllium (IC50 = 250-300 nM) was observed to the same maximal extent as that seen with lithium in permeabilized SK-N-SH cells, reflecting inhibition of cellular myo-inositol monophosphatase. However, in contrast with that observed with lithium, agonist-induced accumulation of inositol phosphate was not observed with beryllium in permeabilized and non-permeabilized SK-N-SH cells and in rat brain slices. Similar results were obtained in permeabilized SK-N-SH cells when GTP-gamma-S was used as an alternative stimulator of inositol phosphate accumulation. The disparity in the actions of beryllium and lithium suggest that either (1) selective inhibition of myo-inositol monophosphatase does not completely explain the action of lithium on the phosphatidylinositol cycle, or (2) that uncompetitive inhibition of myo-inositol monophosphatase is a necessary requirement to observe functional lithium mimetic activity.