The use of fluorine-containing carboxylic acids for the large-scale isolation of highly polymerized deoxyribonucleic acids.
ABSTRACT: 1. The precipitation of the proteins of calf-thymus nucleohistone and herringsperm nucleoprotamine with the salts of fluorine-containing carboxylic acids has been studied. Pentadecafluoro-octanoate gave a precipitate that could be sedimented almost completely by centrifuging at 2350g for 20min. omega-H-Hexadecafluorononanoate, omega-H-eicosafluoro-undecanoate and dodecyl sulphate gave precipitates that could only be partly sedimented under these conditions. 2. A method has been developed for the isolation of highly polymerized DNA on a large scale from calf thymus and herring sperm by the use of pentadecafluorooctanoate. This is more convenient and less tedious than existing methods.
Project description:The mechanism of nucleohistone degradation in calf thymus chromatin during autolysis of the latter involves a release of lysine-rich histone fractions, followed by degradation of the thus-exposed DNA portions; the latter portions are richest in adenine-thymine sequences. After this degradation process, residual nucleohistone fragments of low molecular weight (10(5)) remain. Their chemical composition is special, in that the DNA contains a larger proportion of guanine-cytosine sequences than does the initial DNA and it is combined with arginine-rich histones.
Project description:The HSL7 (histone synthetic lethal 7) gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a protein with close sequence similarity to the mammalian PRMT5 protein, a member of the class of protein arginine methyltransferases that catalyses the formation of omega-N(G)-monomethylarginine and symmetric omega-N(G),N'(G)-dimethylarginine residues in a number of methyl-accepting species. A full-length HSL7 construct was expressed as a FLAG-tagged protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that FLAG-tagged Hsl7 effectively catalyses the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosyl-[methyl-3H]-L-methionine to calf thymus histone H2A. When the acid-hydrolysed radiolabelled protein products were separated by high-resolution cation-exchange chromatography, we were able to detect one tritiated species that co-migrated with an omega-N(G)-monomethylarginine standard. No radioactivity was observed that co-migrated with either the asymmetric or symmetric dimethylated derivatives. In control experiments, no methylation of histone H2A was found with two mutant constructs of Hsl7. Surprisingly, FLAG-Hsl7 does not appear to effectively catalyse the in vitro methylation of a GST (glutathione S-transferase)-GAR [glycine- and arginine-rich human fibrillarin-(1-148) peptide] fusion protein or bovine brain myelin basic protein, both good methyl-accepting substrates for the human homologue PRMT5. Additionally, FLAG-Hsl7 demonstrates no activity on purified calf thymus histones H1, H2B, H3 or H4. GST-Rmt1, the GST-fusion protein of the major yeast protein arginine methyltransferase, was also found to methylate calf thymus histone H2A. Although we detected Rmt1-dependent arginine methylation in vivo in purified yeast histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4, we found no evidence for Hsl7-dependent methylation of endogenous yeast histones. The physiological substrates of the Hsl7 enzyme remain to be identified.
Project description:Four homologues of the naturally occurring polyamine spermine, of the type H(2)N.[CH(2)](3).NH.[CH(2)] (n).NH.[CH(2)](3).NH(2) where n=2, 3, 5 and 6, have been synthesized. Their ability to stabilize Escherichia coli protoplasts against osmotic lysis was compared with that of spermine. All homologues were approximately as effective as spermine. The effect of low concentrations of the homologues on the T(m) of calf thymus DNA and of Aerobacter aerogenes DNA in 0.03m-sodium chloride-1mm-potassium dimethylglutarate buffer, pH6.2, was tested. The increase in T(m) for a given concentration of amine was found to be n=5>n=4 and n=6> n=3>n=2. When calf thymus DNA in 0.15m-sodium chloride-15mm-sodium citrate was used spermine gave the highest increase in T(m). It is concluded that the stabilization of E. coli protoplasts by tetra-amines is a non-specific effect independent of chain length, whereas the elevation of T(m) of DNA is a more specific effect which depends on chain length.
Project description:An enzyme that conjugates the 17beta-hydroxyl group of testosterone was found in the cytosol fraction of human liver. The same enzyme preparation also conjugates the 16alpha-hydroxyl group of oestriol. The enzymic activity could not be sedimented by centrifuging the cytosol fraction at 158000g(av.) for 120min. The testosterone-conjugating as well as the oestriol-conjugating activities were found in the precipitate obtained after 30% saturation of the cytosol fraction with ammonium sulphate. Filtration of the precipitate through Sephadex G-200 enriched the testosterone-conjugating enzyme 50-fold and the oestriol-conjugating enzyme 100-fold. No separation of the two activities was achieved. With labelled testosterone the product of the reaction, testosterone 17beta-glucuronide, was identified by paper chromatography and by crystallization to constant specific radioactivity. Testosterone 17beta-glucuronyltransferase was active between pH7.0 and 8.6 in tris-HCl and tris-maleate buffers. The apparent K(m) values for testosterone and UDP-glucuronic acid were 6.4 and 25mum respectively. The enzyme was active between 37 and 45 degrees C; the activation energy was calculated to be 5kcal/mol. Oestriol did not influence the glucuronidation of testosterone. Controlled heating as well as alternate freezing and thawing of the purified enzyme preparation led to an inactivation of both testosterone-conjugating and oestriol-conjugating activities at similar rates. Testosterone and oestriol, when incubated together, gave a reaction rate that was approximately equal to the sum of the rates when the two substrates were incubated separately. The present findings suggest that testosterone and oestriol are conjugated by two separate enzymes.
Project description:Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can influence fertility in farm animals. Some evidence in mice and sheep have suggested that PUFAs may influence offspring sex ratio, which may have significant value for cattle production. To test this hypothesis, three groups of Holstein cows were supplemented with either 0%, 3% or 5% protected fat (PF) in the form of calcium salt of fatty acids (rich in omega-6) from 14-21 days pre-partum until conception. Proven-fertile frozen semen from the same ejaculate was used for insemination. Calf sex recorded at birth was 8/19 (42.1%) male offspring in the control group, increasing to 14/20 (70%, <i>P</i> > 0.05) and 17/20 (85%, <i>P</i> < 0.05) in 3% and 5% PF, respectively. To test if this effect was caused by a direct influence on the oocyte, we supplemented bovine cumulus oocyte complexes during <i>in vitro</i> maturation with either omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), omega-6 linoleic acid (LA) or trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Sex ratio of the produced transferable embryos was determined using PCR of SRY gene. Similar to the <i>in vivo</i> results, sex ratio was skewed to the male side in the embryos derived from LA- and CLA-treated oocytes (79% and 71%) compared to control and ALA-treated oocytes (44% and 54%, respectively). These results indicate that both dietary and <i>in vitro</i> supplementation of omega-6 PUFAs can skew the sex ratio towards the male side in cattle. Further experiments are required to confirm this effect on a larger scale and to study the mechanisms of action that might be involved.
Project description:1. The histones of trout liver were examined and four main fractions (f1, f2b, f2a and f3) were isolated and characterized. 2. The amino acid analyses, N-terminal group analyses and starch-gel electrophoresis patterns are remarkably similar to the corresponding fractions of calf thymus. 3. The group f2a was also separated into two subfractions, f2al and f2a2, which are similar to those of calf thymus.
Project description:The ratios of total histone to DNA for rat liver nuclei isolated by four methods as well as for calf liver nuclei isolated by one method were determined by obtaining the ratios of the total areas of the electrophoretic histone peaks for the liver nuclei to the corresponding total area given by a known amount of standard calf thymus histone. Ratios of total histone to DNA of approx. 2 for rat liver nuclei isolated at pH3.8 or 5.8 and for calf liver nuclei isolated at pH3.8 were confirmed twice by the above procedure and also by direct measurement, by the method of Lowry et al. (1951), of histone extracted in 0.2m-H(2)SO(4). The histones of calf thymus, calf liver and rat liver were characterized by their amino acid compositions and by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis.
Project description:1. The interaction of polyamines and methylglyoxal bis(guanythydrazone) (1, 1'-[(methylethanediylidene)-dinitrilo]diguanidine) with isolated rat liver nuclei was investigated by electron microscopy. 2. At 4mM, putrescine was without effect; however, spermidine, spermine or methylglyoxal bis(guanythydrazone) resulted in dispersed chromatin and alterations in nucleolar structure. In addition, spermidine or methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) caused marked aggregation of interchromatin granules. 3. The DNA template property of calf thymus DNA was examined by using DNA polymerases from Escherichia coli, Micrococcus lysodeikticus and calf thymus in the presence of 0-5 mM-amine. 4. In the presence of DNA polymerase, spermine or methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) inhibited activity, whereas putrescine or spermidine had much less effect or in some cases stimulated [3H]dTMP incorporation. 5. Template activity which was inhibited by spermine or methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) could be partially restored by additional DNA or enzyme. 6. When mixed with calf thymus DNA, calf thymus histone inhibited template activity as measured with E. coli DNA polymerase. The template activity of such a 'histone-nucleate' could not be restored by putrescine, spermidine, spermine or methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone). 7. DNA template activity of isolated rat liver nuclei was tested by using E. coli DNA polymerase. None of the amines was able to increase the template activity of the nuclear DNA in vitro.
Project description:1. Experiments were carried out to determine the extent of dissociation of histone from deoxyribonucleohistone as a result of irradiation with gamma-rays from (60)Co. 2. The bulk of the nucleohistone was removed from the irradiated solutions either by sedimentation or by precipitation with dilute sodium chloride solution. The supernatants were then analysed for DNA and histone. 3. The ratios of histone to DNA in these supernatants were less than for the original nucleohistone. This indicated that histone was dissociated by the irradiation, and then aggregated either with itself or with other nucleohistone molecules, and so was removed with the bulk of the nucleohistone during sedimentation or precipitation.
Project description:Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-specific adenosine deaminase converts adenosine to inosine in dsRNA. The protein has been purified from calf thymus, and here we describe the cloning of cDNAs encoding both the human and rat proteins as well as a partial bovine clone. The human and rat clones are very similar at the amino acid level except at their N termini and contain three dsRNA binding motifs, a putative nuclear targeting signal, and a possible deaminase motif. Antibodies raised against the protein encoded by the partial bovine clone specifically recognize the calf thymus dsRNA adenosine deaminase. Furthermore, the antibodies can immunodeplete a calf thymus extract of dsRNA adenosine deaminase activity, and the activity can be restored by addition of pure bovine deaminase. Staining of HeLa cells confirms the nuclear localization of the dsRNA-specific adenosine deaminase. In situ hybridization in rat brain slices indicates a widespread distribution of the enzyme in the brain.