Structure and properties of rat-thymus deoxyribonucleoprotein. A comparison of the electric birefringence and other properties of deoxyribonucleoprotein prepared by various methods.
ABSTRACT: 1. A comparison has been made of the properties of dNP (deoxyribonucleoprotein) prepared in various ways from rat thymus. The variables studied were: (a) extent of homogenization; (b) concentration of various metal ions; (c) concentration of EDTA; (d) extent of dialysis; (e) concentration of dNP. The chief method used for studying the dNP was that of electric birefringence; this gives information about the optical and electrical properties of molecules oriented in an electric field and about their length. 2. The extent of homogenization during the preparation affects the birefringence properties only slightly and the solubility properties of the constituent DNA not at all. However, the protein content of the dNP decreases after repeated homogenization. 3. In the presence of added Ca(2+), Mg(2+) or Na(+) an insoluble product is obtained. 4. The presence of added EDTA affects the birefringence properties only slightly. 5. In the final stage of preparation, both very limited dialysis and extensive dialysis (in terms of volume ratio) cause partial insolubility of the final product. 6. dNP prepared at low concentrations resembles in some respects dNP prepared at higher concentrations and then subjected to limited enzyme action but it is not degraded (as by extensive enzyme action); ultracentrifuge studies of the constituent DNA confirm that no degradation of the DNA has occurred. 7. It is concluded that dNP prepared at low concentrations or by extensive dialysis is denatured and that preparation of ;native' material is favoured by maintenance of a high dNP concentration and by fairly limited dialysis.
Project description:1. Deoxyribonucleoprotein was prepared from rat thymus and was studied chiefly by the method of electric birefringence. The birefringence depends on the electrical and optical properties of the molecules and on their volume; the decay time of birefringence (after the removal of the electric field) depends on molecular length. 2. A comparison was made of the properties of deoxyribonucleoprotein redissolved after precipitation in 0.15m-sodium chloride with those of the original material, the main object being to find if structural changes have occurred in the former. As a preliminary, the dependence of the solubility of the deoxyribonucleoprotein on the concentration of added salt was investigated, and the birefringence properties were also studied after the addition of sodium chloride at low concentrations, after the alteration of pH and after dialysis. 3. It was found that precipitation of deoxyribonucleoprotein occurs in two fractions, beginning at about 0.4mm-sodium chloride. The solubility is minimal at about 0.15m-sodium chloride. 4. The electric birefringence and decay time of the deoxyribonucleoprotein decrease with increasing concentration of added sodium chloride, and the birefringence also decreases after dialysis. Prolonged dialysis leads to precipitation. 5. The properties of deoxyribonucleoprotein redissolved after precipitation with 0.15m-sodium chloride differ considerably from those of the original deoxyribonucleoprotein. This is attributed to some type of disorganization process occurring during precipitation. It is concluded that the organization of the original structure is very specific.
Project description:Preparation of the L form of rabbit liver pyruvate kinase (EC 220.127.116.11) in the presence of fructose 1,6-diphosphate yielded an enzyme which was kinetically identical with the M or muscle-type form of pyruvate kinase found in liver. Chromatographic and dialysis studies of this complex showed that most of the fructose 1,6-diphosphate molecules were loosely bound to the enzyme, but dilution-dissociation studies and binding experiments established that there was a high initial affinity between the enzyme and fructose 1,6-diphosphate (K(assoc.)=2.3x10(9)), and that binding of the loosely bound fructose 1,6-diphosphate was concentration-dependent and a necessary condition to overcome the co-operative interaction observed with the homotropic effector phosphoenolpyruvate. Preparation of the liver enzyme in the absence of EDTA did not yield a predominantly M form of the enzyme, and incubation of the M form in the presence of EDTA did not convert it into the L form, but resulted in inhibition of enzyme activity. Immunological studies confirmed that the L and M forms in liver were distinct, and that preparation of the L form in the presence of fructose 1,6-diphosphate did not produce an enzyme antigenically different from the L form prepared in the absence of this heterotropic effector.
Project description:Ultrasound is one of the most commonly used methods to prepare Pickering emulsions. In the study, zein nanoparticles-flaxseed gum (ZNP-FSG) complexes were fabricated through various preparation routes. Firstly, the ZNP-FSG complexes were prepared either through direct homogenization/ultrasonication of the zein and flaxseed gum mixture or through pretreatment of zein and/or flaxseed gum solutions by ultrasonication before homogenization. The Pickering emulsions were then produced with the various ZNP-FSG complexes prepared. ZNP-FSG complexes and the final emulsions were then characterized. We found that the complex prepared by ultrasonication of zein as pretreatment followed by homogenization of the ZNP with FSG ((ZNP<sub>U</sub>-FSG)H) exhibited the smallest turbidity, highest absolute potential value, relatively small particle size, and formed the most stable complex particles. Meanwhile, complex prepared through direct ultrasonication plus homogenization on the mixture ((ZNP-FSG)HU) showed significantly decreased emulsifying properties and stability. Compared with the complex without ultrasonic treatment, the complex and emulsion, which prepared by ultrasonicated FSG were extremely unstable, and the phase separation phenomenon of the emulsion was observed 30 min after preparation. The above conclusions are also in line with the findings obtained from the properties of the corresponding emulsions, such as the droplets size, microstructure, freeze-thaw stability, and storage stability. It is, therefore, clear that to produce stable Pickering emulsion, ultrasonication should be avoided to apply together at the end of ZNP-FGS complex preparation. It is worth noticing that the emulsions prepared by complex with ultrasonicated zein (ZNP<sub>U</sub>-FSG)H are smaller, distributed more uniformly, and are able to encapsulate oil droplets well. It was found that the emulsions prepared with ZNP<sub>U</sub>-FSG remained stable without serum phase for 14 days and exhibited improved stability at low-temperature storage. The current study will provide guidance for the preparation of protein-polysaccharide complexes and Pickering emulsions for future work.
Project description:Protein sedimentation sans cryoprotection is a new approach to magic angle spinning (MAS) and dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of proteins. It increases the sensitivity of the experiments by a factor of ∼4.5 in comparison to the conventional DNP sample preparation and circumvents intense background signals from the cryoprotectant. In this paper, we investigate sedimented samples and concentrated frozen solutions of natural abundance bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the absence of a glycerol-based cryoprotectant. We observe DNP signal enhancements of ε ∼ 66 at 140 GHz in a BSA pellet sedimented from an aqueous solution containing the biradical polarizing agent TOTAPOL and compare this with samples prepared using the conventional protocol (i.e., dissolution of BSA in a glycerol/water cryoprotecting mixture). The dependence of DNP parameters on the radical concentration points to the presence of an interaction between TOTAPOL and BSA, so much so that a frozen solution sans cryoprotectant still gives ε ∼ 50. We have studied the interaction of BSA with another biradical, SPIROPOL, that is more rigid than TOTAPOL and has been reported to give higher enhancements. SPIROPOL was also found to interact with BSA, and to give ε ∼ 26 close to its maximum achievable concentration. Under the same conditions, TOTAPOL gives ε ∼ 31, suggesting a lesser affinity of BSA for SPIROPOL with respect to TOTAPOL. Altogether, these results demonstrate that DNP is feasible in self-cryoprotecting samples.
Project description:1. Mn(2+)-inhibited and Mn(2+)-activated aminopeptidases have been observed in ox brain and separated from one another by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. 2. The Mn(2+)-inhibited enzyme has been purified 36-fold; it exhibits a specificity for tripeptide substrates, whereas the Mn(2+)-activated aminopeptidase cleaves dipeptides as well as tripeptides. 3. Ammonium sulphate treatment generates a Mn(2+)-stimulated aminopeptidase that is stable to dialysis against EDTA and water, in contrast with an endogenous Mn(2+)-activated preparation that is irreversibly denatured by such dialysis against EDTA and water.
Project description:The potential biomarkers of Parkinson's disease are α-synuclein and neurofilament light chain (NFL). However, inconsistent preanalytical preparation of plasma could lead to variations in levels of these biomarkers. Different types of potassium salts of EDTA and different centrifugation temperatures during plasma preparation may affect the results of α-synuclein and NFL measurements. In this study, we prepared plasma from eight patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and seven healthy controls (HCs) by using di- and tri-potassium (K<sub>2</sub>- and K<sub>3</sub>-) EDTA tubes and recruited a separated cohort with 42 PD patients and 40 HCs for plasma samples prepared from whole blood by centrifugation at room temperature and 4°C, respectively, in K<sub>2</sub>-EDTA tubes. The plasma levels of α-synuclein and NFL in K<sub>2</sub>- and K<sub>3</sub>-EDTA were similar. However, the levels of α-synuclein in the plasma prepared at 4°C (101.57 ± 43.43 fg/ml) were significantly lower compared with those at room temperature (181.23 ± 196.31 fg/ml, <i>P</i> < 0.001). Room temperature preparation demonstrated elevated plasma levels of α-synuclein in PD patients (256.6 ± 50.2 fg/ml) compared with the HCs (102.1 ± 0.66 fg/ml, <i>P</i> < 0.001), whereas this increase in PD was not present by preparation at 4°C. Both plasma preparations at room temperature and 4°C demonstrated consistent results of NFL, which are increased in PD patients compared with HCs. Our findings confirmed that K<sub>2</sub>- and K<sub>3</sub>-EDTA tubes were interchangeable for analyzing plasma levels of α-synuclein and NFL. Centrifugation at 4°C during plasma preparation generates considerable reduction and variation of α-synuclein level that might hinder the detection of α-synuclein level changes in PD.
Project description:2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) activates the myosin ATPase of mammalian skeletal muscle in the presence of Ca2+ or Mg2+, and inhibits it when the bivalent cations are replaced by K+ and EDTA. Activation of Mg2+ATPase is abolished by the presence of unregulated actin. 3-Nitrophenol (3-NP) is also an activator, whereas other analogues (2-nitrophenol, 2-NP, and 4-nitrophenol, 4-NP) are much less effective. Concentrations required for their half-maximal effects (K0.5) range from 2 to 15 mM for 3-NP and DNP in the presence of different cations, and the sequence for the analogues is 3-NP<=DNP<<2-NP approximately 4-NP, which is apparently unrelated to either hydrophobicity or pK. DNP and 3-NP have almost identical effects on the ATPase activity of chymotryptic subfragment 1 as they do on myosin, which is an indication that their target is the globular head region rather than the tail, or the 18 kDa (regulatory) light chain. Analysis of the ATP concentration dependence for subfragment- 1 ATPase in the presence of Ca2+ or Mg2+ shows that DNP activates only at high substrate concentrations, becoming increasingly effective with ATP concentrations in the physiological range. At low substrate concentrations, DNP inhibits hydrolysis by increasing the apparent Km for ATP at the catalytic site. In the presence of Mg2+, it mimics the effect of actin, which increases the Km and accelerates the release of products following hydrolysis. At high substrate concentrations, activation by DNP appears to involve a kinetic component with low affinity for ATP that can increase the overall reaction rate by a factor of 2- to 9-fold, depending on the bivalent cation. This low-affinity component is either induced by the drug (in the presence of Mg2+) or shifted by the drug to a lower ATP concentration range (in the presence of Ca2+).
Project description:The influence of homogenization times on the presence of constituents in the microsomal fraction of skeletal muscle was investigated. Membranes having Ca2+-activated ATPase activity have a fragmentation pattern distinct from that of membranes displaying Ca2+-independent or basal ATPase activity. These latter membranes were found in highest specific concentration in the microsomal fraction prepared from homogenates subjected to short periods of homogenization. 5'-Nucleotidase (EC 18.104.22.168) activity paralleled that of basal ATPase on short periods of homogenization, as also did the specific concentration of cholesterol. Longer periods of homogenization led to a decrease in the specific activity of basal atpase, which reached its lowest value at 120s of homogenization, whereas the specific activity of 5'-nucleotidase and the specific concentration of cholesterol decreased initially in a similar manner to basal ATPase, but both increased substantially after the longest period of homogenization.
Project description:A principal advantage of magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy lies in its ability to determine molecular structure in a noninvasive and quantitative manner. Accordingly, MAS should be widely applicable to studies of the structure of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and formulations. However, the low sensitivity encountered in spectroscopy of natural abundance APIs present at low concentration has limited the success of MAS experiments. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enhances NMR sensitivity and can be used to circumvent this problem provided that suitable paramagnetic polarizing agent can be incorporated into the system without altering the integrity of solid dosages. Here, we demonstrate that DNP polarizing agents can be added in situ during the preparation of amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) via spray drying and hot-melt extrusion so that ASDs can be examined during drug development. Specifically, the dependence of DNP enhancement on sample composition, radical concentration, relaxation properties of the API and excipients, types of polarizing agents and proton density, has been thoroughly investigated. Optimal enhancement values are obtained from ASDs containing 1% w/w radical concentration. Both polarizing agents TOTAPOL and AMUPol provided reasonable enhancements. Partial deuteration of the excipient produced 3× higher enhancement values. With these parameters, an ASD containing posaconazole and vinyl acetate yields a 32-fold enhancement which presumably results in a reduction of NMR measurement time by ?1000. This boost in signal intensity enables the full assignment of the natural abundance pharmaceutical formulation through multidimensional correlation experiments.
Project description:Using the 480 kDa iron-storage protein complex, apoferritin (ApoF), as an example, we demonstrate that sizable dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enhancements can be obtained on sedimented protein samples. In sedimented solute DNP (SedDNP), the biradical polarizing agent is co-sedimented with the protein, but in the absence of a glass-forming agent. We observe DNP enhancement factors ? > 40 at a magnetic field of 5 T and temperatures below 90 K, indicating that the protein sediment state is "glassy" and suitable to disperse the biradical polarizing agent upon freezing. In contrast, frozen aqueous solutions of ApoF yield ? ? 2. Results of SedDNP are compared to those obtained from samples prepared using the traditional glass-forming agent glycerol. Collectively, these and results from previous investigations suggest that the sedimented state can be functionally described as a "microcrystalline glass" and in addition provide a new approach for preparation of samples for DNP experiments.