The control of rat-heart phosphofructokinase by citrate and other regulators.
ABSTRACT: 1. The effects of ATP, inorganic phosphate and citrate on the relationship between fructose 6-phosphate concentration and initial velocity of reaction has been investigated with a partially purified preparation of rat-heart phosphofructokinase. 2. At low concentrations of ATP (<80mum) rate curves for fructose 6-phosphate approximated to Michaelis-Menten kinetics. At higher ATP concentrations rate curves were sigmoid, the K(m) for fructose 6-phosphate increased and the reaction appeared to be first-order with respect to fructose 6-phosphate at concentrations above its K(m) and of a higher order at concentrations below its K(m). Inorganic phosphate lowered the K(m) for fructose 6-phosphate and the concentration at which the apparent kinetic order decreased. 3. At 40mum-ATP, citrate was an activator at low concentration (<100mum) and an inhibitor at higher concentrations. At 0.5mm-ATP, citrate was inhibitory at all concentrations tested. 4. A new method for phosphofructokinase assay using [U-(14)C]fructose 6-phosphate is described which allows measurements to be made of the velocity of the forward reaction at known concentrations of the products of the reaction. With this method confirmatory evidence has been obtained that concentrations of ATP, AMP, phosphate and citrate may regulate phosphofructokinase in the perfused rat heart.
Project description:1. Pea-seed phosphofructokinase was purified 27-fold by a combination of fractionation with ethanol and ammonium sulphate. Under the conditions of assay, the enzyme was strongly inhibited by phosphoenolpyruvate. This inhibition was reversed by increasing the concentration of fructose 6-phosphate or magnesium chloride, or by lowering the ATP concentration. 2. Citrate, ADP and AMP inhibited phosphofructokinase and increased the sensitivity to phosphoenolpyruvate inhibition. Sulphate and inorganic phosphate stimulated the enzyme activity and decreased the sensitivity to phosphoenolpyruvate. 3. In the presence of inorganic phosphate and low concentrations of ATP, inhibition by phosphoenolpyruvate ceased and phosphoenolpyruvate became stimulatory. 4. The possible significance of these results in the control of plant carbohydrate metabolism is discussed.
Project description:1. Phosphofructokinase from rat kidney cortex has been partially purified by using a combination of isoelectric and ammonium sulphate precipitation. This preparation was free of enzymes which interfered with the measurement of either product of phosphofructokinase. 2. At concentrations greater than the optimum, ATP caused inhibition which was decreased by raising the fructose 6-phosphate concentration. This suggested that ATP reduced the affinity of phosphofructokinase for the other substrate. Citrate potentiated the ATP inhibition. 3. AMP and fructose 1,6-diphosphate relieved the inhibition by ATP or citrate by increasing the affinity of the enzyme for fructose 6-phosphate. 4. K(+) is shown to stimulate and Ca(2+) to inhibit phosphofructokinase. 5. The similarity between the complex properties of phosphofructokinase from kidney cortex and other tissues (e.g. cardiac and skeletal muscle, brain and liver) suggests that the enzyme in kidney cortex tissue is normally subject to metabolic control, similar to that in other tissues.
Project description:1. The properties of phosphofructokinase after its slight purification from the mucosa of rat jejunum were studied. 2. The enzyme is inhibited by almost 100% by an excess of ATP (1.6mm), with 0.2mm-fructose 6-phosphate. AMP, ADP, P(i) and NH(4) (+) at 0.2, 0.76, 1.0 and 2mm respectively do not individually prevent the inhibition of phosphofructokinase activity by 1.6mm-ATP with 0.2mm-fructose 6-phosphate to any great extent, but all of them together completely prevent the inhibition of phosphofructokinase by ATP. 3. One of the effects of high concentrations of ATP on the enzyme was to increase enormously the apparent K(m) value for the other substrate fructose 6-phosphate, and this increase is largely counteracted by the presence of AMP, ADP, P(i) and NH(4) (+). At low concentrations of ATP the above effectors individually decrease the concentration of fructose 6-phosphate required for half-maximum velocity and when present together they decrease it further, in a more than additive way. 4. When fructose 6-phosphate is present at a saturating concentration (5mm), 0.3mm-NH(4) (+) increases the maximum velocity of the reaction 3.3-fold; with 0.5mm-fructose 6-phosphate, 4.5mm-NH(4) (+) is required for maximum effect. The other effectors do not change the maximum reaction velocity. 5. The results presented here suggest that NH(4) (+), AMP, ADP and P(i) synergistically decrease the inhibition of phosphofructokinase activity at high concentrations of ATP by decreasing the concentration of fructose 6-phosphate required for half-maximum velocity. Such synergism among the effectors and an observed, low ;energy charge' [(ATP+(1/2)ADP)/(AMP+ADP+ATP)] in conjunction with the possibility of a relatively high NH(4) (+) and fructose 6-phosphate concentration in this tissue, may keep the mucosal phosphofructokinase active and uninhibited by ATP under aerobic conditions, thus explaining the high rate of aerobic glycolysis and the lack of Pasteur effect in this tissue.
Project description:Phosphofructokinase (EC 18.104.22.168) from a citric acid-producing strain of Aspergillus niger was partially purified by the application of affinity chromatography on Blue Dextran--Sepharose and the use of fructose 6-phosphate and glycerol as stabilizers in the working buffer. The resulting preparation was still impure, but free of enzyme activities interfering with kinetic investigations. Kinetic studies showed that the enzyme exhibits high co-operativity with fructose 6-phosphate, but shows Michaelis--Menten kinetics with ATP, which inhibits at concentrations higher than those for maximal activity. Citrate and phosphoenolpyruvate inhibit the enzyme; citrate increases the substrate (fructose 6-phosphate) concentration for half-maximal velocity, [S]0.5, and the Hill coefficient, h. The inhibition by citrate is counteracted by NH4+, AMP and phosphate. Among univalent cations tested only NH4+ activates by decreasing the [S]0.5 for fructose 6-phosphate and h, but has no effect on Vmax. AMP and ADP activate at low and inhibit at high concentrations of fructose 6-phosphate, thereby decreasing the [S]0.5 for fructose 6-phosphate. Phosphate has no effect in the absence of citrate. The results indicate that phosphofructokinase from A. niger is a distinct species of this enzyme, with some properties similar to those of the yeast enzyme and in some other properties resembling the mammalian enzyme. The results of determinations of activity at substrate and effector concentrations resembling the conditions that occur in vivo support the hypothesis that the apparent insensitivity of the enzyme to citrate during the accumulation of citric acid in the fungus is due to counteraction of citrate inhibition by NH4+.
Project description:1. Ox heart phosphofructokinase catalyses isotope-exchange reactions at pH6.7 between ADP and ATP, and between fructose 6-phosphate and fructose 1,6-diphosphate, the latter reaction being absolutely dependent on the presence of the magnesium complex of ADP. 2. The reaction kinetics are hyperbolic with respect to substrate concentration for both exchange reactions (within the experimental error). 3. The influence of pH, AMP and citrate suggests that the fructose 6-phosphate-fructose 1,6-diphosphate exchange is subject to effector control, and is abolished by dissociation of the enzyme. 4. These results are discussed in relation to the reaction mechanism of the enzyme.
Project description:1. Attempts were made to define the role of phosphofructokinase in glycolytic control and the factors regulating the concentration of l-glycerol 3-phosphate in rat epididymal fat pads incubated in vitro. 2. Glycolysis rates were altered by anoxia or by additions of insulin, adrenaline or both to the incubation medium, and the changes in rate were related to changes in the steady-state concentrations of hexose phosphates, adenine nucleotides, l-glycerol 3-phosphate and citrate in the whole tissue. Measurements were also made of the lactate/pyruvate concentration ratio in the medium after incubation. 3. The mass-action ratios of phosphofructokinase, calculated from the whole-tissue concentrations of products and substrates, were less than 0.1% of the value of the ratio at pH7.4 at equilibrium. 4. Only in the presence of adrenaline could the observed stimulation of glycolytic flux be related to a possible activation of phosphofructokinase since, in this situation, the concentration of one substrate, fructose 6-phosphate, was not altered and the concentration of the other, ATP, was decreased. Increased glycolytic flux in the presence of insulin may be explained by an observed increase in the concentration of the substrate, fructose 6-phosphate. Under anaerobic conditions, glycolytic flux was decreased but this did not appear to be the result of inhibition of phosphofructokinase, since the concentrations of both substrates, fructose 6-phosphate and ATP, were decreased. The changes in glycolytic flux with insulin and anoxia may be secondary to changes in the rate of glucose uptake. 5. Changes in l-glycerol 3-phosphate concentration appear to be related both to changes in the concentration of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and to changes in the NADH/NAD(+) concentration ratio in the cytoplasm. They do not seem to be related directly to alterations in glycolytic rate.
Project description:Phosphofructokinase (EC 22.214.171.124) from Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) brucei brucei was purified to homogeneity by using a three-step procedure that may be performed within 1 day. Proteolysis, which removes a fragment of Mr approx. 2000, may occur during the purification, but this can be prevented by including antipain, an inhibitor of cysteine proteinases, in the buffers during the purification. The subunits of the enzyme appear to be identical in size, with an Mr of 49 000. The Mr of the native enzyme was estimated to be approx. 220 000, suggesting a tetrameric structure. Kinetic studies showed the activity to depend hyperbolically on the concentration of ATP but sigmoidally on the concentration of fructose 6-phosphate. Although cyclic AMP, AMP and ADP stimulated the enzyme activity at low concentrations of fructose 6-phosphate, the last two nucleotides were inhibitory at high concentrations of this substrate. Phosphoenolpyruvate behaved as an allosteric inhibitor of the phosphofructokinase. Citrate, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, fructose 2,6-bisphosphate and Pi did not influence significantly the activity of the enzyme.
Project description:1. To investigate the mechanism of the reversible inactivation of pig spleen phosphofructokinase by ATP, the effect of order of addition of reactants (substrates, effectors and enzyme solution) was studied by preincubating the enzyme before assay with various combinations of its substrates and effectors. 2. Preincubation of the enzyme with MgATP or ATP at pH7.0 before addition of fructose 6-phosphate caused a rapid and much greater inhibition of activity than that observed when the reaction (carried out at identical substrate concentrations) was initiated with enzyme. 3. The rapid inhibition caused by preincubation with ATP, together with the sigmoidal response to fructose 6-phosphate and activation by AMP, were all blocked by prior photo-oxidation of the enzyme with Methylene Blue, which selectively destroys the inhibitory binding site for ATP [Ahlfors & Mansour (1969) J. Biol. Chem.244, 1247-1251]. 4. Fructose 6-phosphate, but not Mg(2+), protected phosphofructokinase from inhibition during preincubation with ATP in a manner that was sigmoidally dependent on the fructose 6-phosphate concentration. 5. Mg(2+), by protecting the enzyme from the inhibitory effect of preincubation at low pH (7.0) and by preventing its activation during preincubation with fructose 6-phosphate, demonstrated both a weak activating effect in the absence of the other substrates and a stronger inhibitory effect in the presence of fructose 6-phosphate. 6. Positive effectors (K(+), NH(4) (+), AMP and aspartate) protected the enzyme from inhibition during preincubation with MgATP in proportion to their potency as activators, but citrate potentiated the ATP inhibition. P(i) significantly slowed the inactivation process without itself acting as a positive effector. 7. The non-linear dependence of the initial rate of the unmodified enzyme on protein concentration (associated with increased positive homotropic co-operativity to fructose 6-phosphate) was intensified by preincubation with ATP and abolished by photo-oxidation. 8. The results are interpreted in terms of an association-dissociation model which postulates that protonation, at low pH, of a photo-oxidation-sensitive inhibitory site for ATP allows more rapid dissociation of an active tetramer to an inactive dimeric species.
Project description:1. Glucose uptake or glucose formation has been studied in kidney cortex slices to investigate metabolic control of phosphofructokinase and fructose-diphosphatase activities. 2. Glucose uptake is increased and glucose formation is decreased by anoxia, cyanide or an uncoupling agent. Under these conditions the intracellular concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate and ATP decreased whereas that of fructose diphosphate either increased or remained constant, and the concentrations of AMP and ADP increased. 3. Glucose uptake was decreased, and glucose formation from glycerol or dihydroxyacetone was increased, by the presence of ketone bodies or fatty acids, or after starvation of the donor animal. Under these conditions, the concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate and citrate were increased, whereas those of fructose diphosphate and the adenine nucleotides were unchanged (see also Newsholme & Underwood, 1966). 4. It is concluded that anoxia and cell poisons increase glucose uptake and decrease gluconeogenesis by stimulating phosphofructokinase and inhibiting fructose diphosphatase, whereas ketone bodies, fatty acids or starvation increase gluconeogenesis and decrease glucose uptake through the citrate inhibition of phosphofructokinase.
Project description:1. Phosphofructokinase from rat liver has been partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation so as to remove enzymes that interfere in one assay for phosphofructokinase. The properties of this enzyme were found to be similar to those of the same enzyme from other tissues (e.g. cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle and brain) that were previously investigated by other workers. 2. Low concentrations of ATP inhibited phosphofructokinase activity by decreasing the affinity of the enzyme for the other substrate, fructose 6-phosphate. Citrate, and other intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, also inhibited the activity of phosphofructokinase. 3. This inhibition was relieved by either AMP or fructose 1,6-diphosphate; however, higher concentrations of ATP decreased and finally removed the effect of these activators. 4. Ammonium sulphate protected the enzyme from inactivation, and increased the activity by relieving the inhibition due to ATP. The latter effect was similar to that of AMP. 5. Phosphofructokinase was found in the same cellular compartment as fructose 1,6-diphosphatase, namely the soluble cytoplasm. 6. The properties of phosphofructokinase and fructose 1,6-diphosphatase are compared and a theory is proposed that affords dual control of both enzymes in the liver. The relation of this to the control of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis is discussed.