Mucosa-associated bacteria in the human gastrointestinal tract are uniformly distributed along the colon and differ from the community recovered from feces.
ABSTRACT: The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbors a complex community of bacterial cells in the mucosa, lumen, and feces. Since most attention has been focused on bacteria present in feces, knowledge about the mucosa-associated bacterial communities in different parts of the colon is limited. In this study, the bacterial communities in feces and biopsy samples from the ascending, transverse, and descending colons of 10 individuals were analyzed by using a 16S rRNA approach. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that 10(5) to 10(6) bacteria were present in the biopsy samples. To visualize the diversity of the predominant and the Lactobacillus group community, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was performed. DGGE analysis and similarity index comparisons demonstrated that the predominant mucosa-associated bacterial community was host specific and uniformly distributed along the colon but significantly different from the fecal community (P < 0.01). The Lactobacillus group-specific profiles were less complex than the profiles reflecting the predominant community. For 6 of the 10 individuals the community of Lactobacillus-like bacteria in the biopsy samples was similar to that in the feces. Amplicons having 99% sequence similarity to the 16S ribosomal DNA of Lactobacillus gasseri were detected in the biopsy samples of nine individuals. No significant differences were observed between healthy and diseased individuals. The observed host-specific DGGE profiles of the mucosa-associated bacterial community in the colon support the hypothesis that host-related factors are involved in the determination of the GI tract microbial community.
Project description:The distribution of mucosa-associated bacteria, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli and closely related lactic acid bacteria, in biopsy samples from the ascending, transverse, and descending parts of the colon from four individuals was investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bifidobacterial genus-specific, Lactobacillus group-specific, and universal bacterial primers were used in a nested PCR approach to amplify a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. DGGE profiles of the bifidobacterial community were relatively simple, with one or two amplicons detected at most sampling sites in the colon. DGGE profiles obtained with Lactobacillus group-specific primers were complex and varied with host and sampling site in the colon. The overall bacterial community varied with host but not sampling site.
Project description:A Lactobacillus group-specific PCR primer, S-G-Lab-0677-a-A-17, was developed to selectively amplify 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) from lactobacilli and related lactic acid bacteria, including members of the genera Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, and WEISSELLA: Amplicons generated by PCR from a variety of gastrointestinal (GI) tract samples, including those originating from feces and cecum, resulted predominantly in Lactobacillus-like sequences, of which ca. 28% were most similar to the 16S rDNA of Lactobacillus ruminis. Moreover, four sequences of Leuconostoc species were retrieved that, so far, have only been detected in environments other than the GI tract, such as fermented food products. The validity of the primer was further demonstrated by using Lactobacillus-specific PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the 16S rDNA amplicons of fecal and cecal origin from different age groups. The stability of the GI-tract bacterial community in different age groups over various time periods was studied. The Lactobacillus community in three adults over a 2-year period showed variation in composition and stability depending on the individual, while successional change of the Lactobacillus community was observed during the first 5 months of an infant's life. Furthermore, the specific PCR and DGGE approach was tested to study the retention in fecal samples of a Lactobacillus strain administered during a clinical trial. In conclusion, the combination of specific PCR and DGGE analysis of 16S rDNA amplicons allows the diversity of important groups of bacteria that are present in low numbers in specific ecosystems to be characterized, such as the lactobacilli in the human GI tract.
Project description:Using 16S rRNA gene-based approaches, we analyzed the responses of ileal and colonic bacterial communities of weaning piglets to dietary addition of four fermentable carbohydrates (inulin, lactulose, wheat starch, and sugar beet pulp). An enriched diet and a control diet lacking these fermentable carbohydrates were fed to piglets for 4 days (n = 48), and 10 days (n = 48), and the lumen-associated microbiota were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes. Bacterial diversities in the ileal and colonic samples were measured by assessing the number of DGGE bands and the Shannon index of diversity. A higher number of DGGE bands in the colon (24.2 +/- 5.5) than in the ileum (9.7 +/- 4.2) was observed in all samples. In addition, significantly higher diversity, as measured by DGGE fingerprint analysis, was detected in the colonic microbial community of weaning piglets fed the fermentable-carbohydrate-enriched diet for 10 days than in the control. Selected samples from the ileal and colonic lumens were also investigated using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. This revealed a prevalence of Lactobacillus reuteri in the ileum and Lactobacillus amylovorus-like populations in the ileum and the colon in the piglets fed with fermentable carbohydrates. Newly developed oligonucleotide probes targeting these phylotypes allowed their rapid detection and quantification in the ileum and colon by FISH. The results indicate that addition of fermentable carbohydrates supports the growth of specific lactobacilli in the ilea and colons of weaning piglets.
Project description:The diversity and stability of the fecal bacterial microbiota in weaning pigs was studied after introduction of an exogenous Lactobacillus reuteri strain, MM53, using a combination of cultivation and techniques based on genes encoding 16S rRNA (16S rDNA). Piglets (n = 9) were assigned to three treatment groups (control, daily dosed, and 4th-day dosed), and fresh fecal samples were collected daily. Dosed animals received 2.5 x 10(10) CFU of antibiotic-resistant L. reuteri MM53 daily or every 4th day. Mean Lactobacillus counts for the three groups ranged from 1 x 10(9) to 4 x 10(9) CFU/g of feces. Enumeration of strain L. reuteri MM53 on MRS agar (Difco) plates containing streptomycin and rifampin showed that the introduced strain fluctuated between 8 x 10(3) and 5 x 10(6) CFU/g of feces in the two dosed groups. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments, with primers specific for variable regions 1 and 3 (V1 and V3), was used to profile complexity of fecal bacterial populations. Analysis of DGGE banding profiles indicated that each individual maintained a unique fecal bacterial population that was stable over time, suggesting a strong host influence. In addition, individual DGGE patterns could be separated into distinct time-dependent clusters. Primers designed specifically to restrict DGGE analysis to a select group of lactobacilli allowed examination of interspecies relationships and abundance. Based on relative band migration distance and sequence determination, L. reuteri was distinguishable within the V1 region 16S rDNA gene patterns. Daily fluctuations in specific bands within these profiles were observed, which revealed an antagonistic relationship between L. reuteri MM53 (band V1-3) and another indigenous Lactobacillus assemblage (band V1-6).
Project description:Altered bacterial composition and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) may be associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study aimed to determine the fecal and mucosa-associated bacterial composition along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and to assess SIBO in IBS. Bacterial composition of feces, and mucosa of the duodenum and sigmoid colon was determined by 16S rRNA-amplicon-sequencing. SIBO was evaluated by bacterial culture of duodenal aspirate, glucose and lactulose breath tests. Mucosal antibacterial gene expression was assessed by PCR Array. The bacterial profiles of feces and the mucosa of sigmoid colon, but not duodenum, differed between IBS patients (n?=?17) and HS (n?=?20). The IBS specific bacterial profiles were linked to the colonic antibacterial gene expression. Fecal bacterial profile differed between IBS subtypes, while the mucosa-associated bacterial profile was associated with IBS symptom severity and breath tests results at baseline (H2 and/or CH4???15 ppm). The prevalence of SIBO was similar between IBS patients and HS. This study demonstrates that alterations in the bacterial composition of the sigmoid colon of IBS patients were linked to symptoms and immune activation. While breath tests reflected the mucosa-associated bacterial composition, there was no evidence for high prevalence of SIBO or small intestinal bacterial alterations in IBS.
Project description:BACKGROUND: How to maintain "gut health" is a goal for scientists throughout the world. Therefore, microbiota management models for testing probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics have been developed. METHODS: The SHIME model was used to study the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus 1014 on the fermentation pattern of the colon microbiota. Initially, an inoculum prepared from human feces was introduced into the reactor vessels and stabilized over 2-wk using a culture medium. This stabilization period was followed by a 2-wk control period during which the microbiota was monitored. The microbiota was then subjected to a 4-wk treatment period by adding 5 mL of sterile peptone water with L. acidophilus CRL1014 at the concentration of 10⁸ CFU/mL to vessel one (the stomach compartment). Plate counts, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) and ammonium analyses were carried out for monitoring of the microbial community from the colon compartments. RESULTS: A significant increase (p < 0.01) in the Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. populations was observed during the treatment period. The DGGE obtained showed changes in the lactobacilli community from the colon compartments of the SHIME reactor. The (SCFA) concentration increased (p < 0.01) during the treatment period, due mainly to significant increased levels of acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. However, ammonium concentrations decreased during the same period (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the beneficial influence of L. acidophilus CRL 1014 on microbial metabolism and lactobacilli community composition for improving human health.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota has been established in Crohn's disease (CD), but the molecular characterization of this dysbiosis in Chinese subjects with CD remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the predominant bacterial composition of the faecal and mucosal-associated microbiota in Chinese CD patients using culture-independent techniques. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Eighteen patients with CD and 9 healthy controls were included in this study. The faeces and the intestinal mucosal tissues from the ulcerated and nonulcerated sites were subjected to bacterial community fingerprinting using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The predominant bacterial composition in the faeces and mucosa was determined with DNA sequencing and BLAST. We showed that the bacterial diversity in the faeces of CD patients was reduced compared with that in healthy controls (p<0.01). The faecal bacterial dysbiosis of the patients was characterized by an elevated abundance of ?-Proteobacteria (especially Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri) and a reduced proportion of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Five bacterial species defined the microbiota imbalance of the ulcerated mucosa in CD, including an increase in Escherichia coli, a decrease in Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Lactobacillus coleohominis, Bacteroides sp and Streptococcus gallolyticus in the bacterial community as compared with the nonulcerated (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:This is the first description of intestinal microbiota dysbiosis in Chinese CD patients. These results allow a better understanding of the faecal and mucosal microbiota in CD, showing a predominance of some opportunistic pathogenic bacteria and a decrease in beneficial bacterial species. The findings may provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of CD in Chinese population.
Project description:The microbial flora of the vagina plays a major role in preventing genital infections, including bacterial vaginosis (BV) and candidiasis (CA). An integrated approach based on PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and real-time PCR was used to study the structure and dynamics of bacterial communities in vaginal fluids of healthy women and patients developing BV and CA. Universal eubacterial primers and Lactobacillus genus-specific primers, both targeted at 16S rRNA genes, were used in DGGE and real-time PCR analysis, respectively. The DGGE profiles revealed that the vaginal flora was dominated by Lactobacillus species under healthy conditions, whereas several potentially pathogenic bacteria were present in the flora of women with BV. Lactobacilli were the predominant bacterial population in the vagina for patients affected by CA, but changes in the composition of Lactobacillus species were observed. Real-time PCR analysis allowed the quantitative estimation of variations in lactobacilli associated with BV and CA diseases. A statistically significant decrease in the relative abundance of lactobacilli was found in vaginal fluids of patients with BV compared to the relative abundance of lactobacilli in the vaginal fluids of healthy women and patients with CA.
Project description:This study aimed at evaluating potential differences among the bacterial communities from formation water and oil samples originated from biodegraded and non-biodegraded Brazilian petroleum reservoirs by using a PCR-DGGE based approach. Environmental DNA was isolated and used in PCR reactions with bacterial primers, followed by separation of 16S rDNA fragments in the DGGE. PCR products were also cloned and sequenced, aiming at the taxonomic affiliation of the community members. The fingerprints obtained allowed the direct comparison among the bacterial communities from oil samples presenting distinct degrees of biodegradation, as well as between the communities of formation water and oil sample from the non-biodegraded reservoir. Very similar DGGE band profiles were observed for all samples, and the diversity of the predominant bacterial phylotypes was shown to be low. Cloning and sequencing results revealed major differences between formation water and oil samples from the non-biodegraded reservoir. Bacillus sp. and Halanaerobium sp. were shown to be the predominant components of the bacterial community from the formation water sample, whereas the oil sample also included Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Rhodococcus sp., Streptomyces sp. and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The PCR-DGGE technique, combined with cloning and sequencing of PCR products, revealed the presence of taxonomic groups not found previously in these samples when using cultivation-based methods and 16S rRNA gene library assembly, confirming the need of a polyphasic study in order to improve the knowledge of the extent of microbial diversity in such extreme environments.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To identify the microbiota communities in the vaginal tracts of healthy Mexican women across the pregnancy. METHODS: Vaginal swabs were obtained during the prenatal visit of women from all trimesters (n = 64) of healthy pregnant women of Mexico City. DNA was isolated from each sample, and PCR-DGGE and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments were used to identify the bacterial communities. RESULTS: 21 different microorganisms were identified in the vaginal samples. Lactobacillus genus was present in 98% of women studied. Four lactobacilli species were identified in vaginal samples. L. acidophilus was the predominant (78%) followed by L. iners (54%), L. gasseri (20%), and L. delbrueckii (6%). 17 different microorganisms related to bacterial vaginosis conditions were identified. Ureaplasma urealyticum was the predominant (21%) followed by BVAB1 (17%) and Gemella bergeriae (7.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Lactobacillus genus predominates in the vaginal samples of Mexican pregnant women associated with different microorganisms related to bacterial vaginosis conditions.