Biological breakdown of benzylpenicillin by preformed mats of penicillin-producing organisms.
ABSTRACT: 1. Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus flavus degraded benzylpenicillin in the same way. 2. Degradation of the antibiotic was initiated by the cleavage of phenylacetic acid from 6-aminopenicillanic acid. 3. Phenylacetic acid was left unchanged whereas 6-aminopenicillanic acid was degraded into cysteine and valine. This reaction is probably complex. 4. Cysteine was not utilized but valine was cleaved into acetone and glycine. Catabolism of valine by the preformed mats of the two moulds confirms this result. This step probably involves the formation of propan-2-ol. 5. Cleavage of benzylpenicillin into phenylacetic acid and 6-aminopenicillanic acid was performed through the activity of a cellular-bound enzyme.
Project description:1. The penicillin acylase of Eschericha coli N.C.I.B. 8743 is a reversible enzyme. Reaction rates for the two directions have been determined. 2. Measurements of the rates of enzymic synthesis of penicillins from 6-aminopenicillanic acid and various carboxylic acids revealed that p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid was the best substrate, followed by phenylacetic, 2-thienylacetic, substituted phenylacetic, 3-hexenoic and n-hexanoic acids. 3. The rate of synthesis of penicillin improved when amides or N-acylglycines were used; alpha-aminobenzylpenicillin and phenoxymethylpenicillin were only synthesized when using these more energy-rich compounds. 4. Phenyl-acetylglycine was the best substrate for the synthesis of benzylpenicillin compared with other derivatives of phenylacetic acid. 5. The enzyme was specific for acyl-l-amino acids, benzylpenicillin being synthesized from phenylacetyl-l-alpha-aminophenylacetic acid but not from phenylacetyl-d-alpha-aminophenylacetic acid. 6. alpha-Phenoxyethylpenicillin was synthesized from 6-aminopenicillanic acid and alpha-phenoxypropionylthioglycollic acid non-enzymically, but the rate was faster in the presence of the enzyme. 7. The E. coli acylase catalysed the acylation of hydroxylamine by acids or amides to give hydroxamic acids, the phenylacetyl group being the most suitable acyl group. The enzyme also catalysed other acyl-group transfers.
Project description:1. 3H was incorporated into solvent-soluble penicillin from isopenicillin N and 6-aminopenicillanic acid 3H-labelled in the 2beta-methyl group when the labelled compounds were incubated with a crude extract of Penicillum chrysogenum. 2. With a soluble protein fraction of the extract incorporation from isopenicillin N occurred on addition of phenyl-acetyl-CoA. 3. Labelled benzylpenicillin was isolated after incubation of the crude extract with phenylacetyl-CoA and isopenicillin and the addition of unlabelled benzylpenicillin as a carrier. 4. No incorporation of 3H into solvent-soluble penicillin was detected on incubation of these extracts with penicillin N.
Project description:: The biosynthesis of penicillin G (PG) is compartmentalized, which forces penicillin and its intermediates to cross the membrane barriers. Although many aspects around the penicillin intermediates traffic system remain unclosed, the transmembrane transporter protein involvement has been only predicted. In the present work, detection of PG and isopenicillin N (IPN) in Monascus ruber M7 was performed and functions of mfst gene as a transporter were investigated by the combination of gene deletion (?mfst) complementation (?mfsT::mfsT) and overexpression (M7::PtrpC-mfsT). While, the feeding of PG pathway precursor side chain and amino acids, i.e., phenylacetic acid, D-valine, and L-cysteine was performed for the interpretation of mfsT gene role as an intermediate transporter. The results showed that, the feeding of phenylacetic acid, D-valine, and L-cysteine possessed a significant effect on morphologies, secondary metabolites (SMs) production of all above-mentioned strains including M. ruber M7. The results of UPLC-MS/MS revealed that, ?mfsT interrupt the penicillin G (PG) production in M. ruber M7 by blocking the IPN transportation, while PG and IPN produced by the ?mfsT::mfsT have been recovered the similar levels to those of M. ruber M7. Conclusively, these findings suggest that the M. ruber M7 is, not only a PG producer, but also, indicate that the mfsT gene is supposed to play a key role in IPN intermediate compound transportation during the PG production in M. ruber M7.
Project description:The enzyme penicillin G acylase (EC 22.214.171.124) catalyzes amide-bond cleavage in benzylpenicillin (penicillin G) to yield 6-aminopenicillanic acid, an intermediate chemical used in the production of semisynthetic penicillins. A thermostable penicillin G acylase from Alcaligenes faecalis (AfPGA) has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in two different space groups: C222(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 72.9, b = 86.0, c = 260.2 , and P4(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 85.6, c = 298.8 . Data were collected at 293 and the structure was determined using the molecular-replacement method. Like other penicillin acylases, AfPGA belongs to the N-terminal nucleophilic hydrolase superfamily, has undergone post-translational processing and has a serine as the N-terminal residue of the ?-chain. A disulfide bridge has been identified in the structure that was not found in the other two known penicillin G cylase structures. The presence of the disulfide bridge is perceived to be one factor that confers higher stability to this enzyme.
Project description:1. Antisera have been produced in rabbits to benzylpenicillin and four members of the cephalosporin C family and to conjugates of these substances with bovine gamma-globulin. 2. Deacetoxycephalosporin C reacted less readily and deacetylcephalosporin C lactone more readily with bovine gamma-globulin than did benzylpenicillin, cephalosporin C or deacetylcephalosporin C. 3. Antisera to free or conjugated benzylpenicillin agglutinated red cells sensitized with a variety of penicillins, but only reacted to a significant extent with cells sensitized with the cephalosporins tested when the latter contained an N-phenylacetyl or chemically related side chain. 4. Antisera to members of the cephalosporin C family agglutinated cells sensitized with these cephalosporins or with penicillin N, but did not react with cephalosporins whose side chains were chemically unrelated to alpha-aminoadipic acid. 5. Members of the cephalosporin C family and products of hydrolysis of cephalosporin C behaved as hapten inhibitors of antisera to cephalosporin C, but 7-aminocephalosporanic acid was relatively ineffective. 6. These findings are discussed in relation to differences in the chemical properties of penicillins and cephalosporins.
Project description:1. Pseudomonas pyocyanea N.C.T.C. 8203 produces a beta-lactamase that is inducible by high concentrations of benzylpenicillin or cephalosporin C. Methicillin appeared to be a relatively poor inducer, but this could be attributed in part to its ability to mask the enzyme produced. Much of the enzyme is normally cell-bound. 2. No evidence was obtained that the crude enzyme preparation consisted of more than one beta-lactamase and the preparation appeared to contain no significant amount of benzylpenicillin amidase or of an acetyl esterase. 3. The maximum rate of hydrolysis of cephalosporin C and several other derivatives of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid by the crude enzyme was more than five times that of benzylpenicillin. Methicillin, cloxacillin, 6-aminopenicillanic acid and 7-aminocephalosporanic acid were resistant to hydrolysis, and methicillin and cloxacillin were powerful competitive inhibitors of the action of the enzyme on easily hydrolysable substrates. 4. Cephalosporin C, cephalothin and cephaloridine yielded 2 equiv. of acid/mole on enzymic hydrolysis, and deacetylcephalorsporin C yielded 1 equiv./mole. Evidence was obtained that the opening of the beta-lactam ring of cephalosporin C and cephalothin is accompanied by the spontaneous expulsion of an acetoxy group and that of cephaloridine by the expulsion of pyridine. 5. A marked decrease in the minimum inhibitory concentration of benzylpenicillin and several hydrolysable derivatives of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid was observed when the size of the inoculum was decreased. This suggested that the production of a beta-lactamase contributed to the factors responsible for the very high resistance of Ps. pyocyanea to these substances. It was therefore concluded that the latter might show synergism with the enzyme inhibitors, methicillin and cloxacillin, against this organism.
Project description:1. The effect of pH, temperature, reactant concentration and reaction time has been investigated for the synthesis of benzylpenicillin, dl-alpha-hydroxybenzylpenicillin and d-alpha-aminobenzylpenicillin from 6-aminopenicillanic acid by the penicillin acylase of Escherichia coli. 2. Synthesis of penicillins from carboxylic acids proceeds most rapidly at pH5; with amides the optimum pH is higher (6-7) but the reverse reaction rapidly sets in. This can be counteracted by lowering the pH or adding more amide. Optimum temperatures are 35-40 degrees . 3. Most rapid synthesis of penicillin was obtained with the N-acylglycine and methyl ester derivatives of carboxylic acids. Increasing the amide/6-APA ratio above 1:1 raised the rate of synthesis of penicillins. 4. Preferential synthesis of d-alpha-hydroxybenzylpenicillin takes place in a reaction mixture containing dl-mandelic acid. 5. From d- and l-mandelamide, d- and l-alpha-hydroxybenzylpenicillins were prepared, the former being more bioactive than the latter. p-Hydroxy- and 3,4-dihydroxybenzylpenicillins were also prepared, the latter being more active against some Gram-negative bacteria than benzylpenicillin.
Project description:1. Mycobacterium smegmatis (N.C.T.C. 8158), M. fortuitum and M. phlei (MPI) produce a constitutive beta-lactamase that has penicillinase and cephalosporinase activity. 2. The beta-lactamases of these three species of acid-fast bacteria were mainly cell-bound, only small amounts of activity being liberated into the extracellular fluid. The total beta-lactamase activity of these mycobacteria was much lower than that of certain Gram-positive organisms, but comparable with that reported for species of Gram-negative bacteria. 3. The beta-lactamases of intact cells of the mycobacteria were not freely accessible to any of the substrates tested, but the apparent crypticity factor to benzylpenicillin was greater than that to cephaloridine and cephalosporin C. 4. Attempts to induce beta-lactamase activity in M. smegmatis and M. phlei failed even with high concentrations of inducer. 5. The beta-lactamases obtained from the three species of mycobacteria showed different substrate specificities, including different relative activities as cephalosporinases and penicillinases respectively. 6. Certain derivatives of 6-aminopenicillanic acid and 7-aminocephalosporanic acid were found to be resistant to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases of M. smegmatis and M. fortuitum. 7. The beta-lactamase of M. smegmatis was competitively inhibited by a number of beta-lactamase-resistant derivatives of 6-aminopenicillanic acid, but not by similar derivatives of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
Project description:Industrial production of penicillins with the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum is based on an unprecedented effort in microbial strain improvement. Sequencing of the 32.19 Mb genome of P. chrysogenum Wisconsin54-1255 revealed many genes responsible for key steps in penicillin production. DNA microarrays were used to compare the transcriptomes of the sequenced strain and a penicillinG high-producing strain, grown in the presence and absence of the side-chain precursor phenylacetic acid. Transcription of genes involved in biosynthesis of valine, cysteine and alpha-aminoadipic acid, the amino-acid precursors for penicillin biosynthesis, as well as genes encoding microbody proteins, increased in the high-producing strain. Many key (intra)cellular transport processes involving penicillins and intermediates remain to be characterized at the molecular level. Genes predicted to encode transporters were strongly overrepresented among the genes transcriptionally upregulated under conditions that stimulate penicillinG production, illustrating potential for future genomics-driven functional analysis. Keywords: genetic modification Overall design: Transcriptome analysis was performed on aerobic, glucose-limited chemostat cultures (D=0.03h-1)of the Wisconsin54-1255 strain and the derived industrial, penicillinG high-producing strain DS1769032. Chemostat cultivation offers the possibility to keep specific growth rate and other key parameters constant33. Some intermediates of β-lactam biosynthesis are produced in the absence of the side-chain precursor phenylacetic acid (PAA), but penicillinG biosynthesis is strictly dependent on PAA addition to culture media.
Project description:We investigated the role of amino acid to maintain HSC function. To identify essential amino acids for HSCs, CD34-KSL cells were cultured in single amino acids deficient medium. And cultured cells were transplanted into lethally irradiated mice. Then, the donor chimerism and lineage contribution was estimated. Surprisingly, HSC proliferation was prevented in valine and cysteine deficient medium in vitro. Donor cells cultured in these medium were also not engrafted. To elucidate the effects and influences of cysteine and valine in HSCs, we performed global gene expression profiling experiments by RNA-sequencing analysis. Gene sets categorized with cell cycle, mitosis, cell division or DNA replication were strongly down-regulated in both valine- or cysteine-depleted conditions These results imply distinctive amino-acid metabolism involved in HSC division. Gene expression profiles of ten thousand HSCs cultured in cysteine or valine deficient medium for 24 hours were compared with that of HSCs cultured in complete medium by using RNA-sequencing analysis