Changes in the enzyme pattern of the mammary gland of the lactating rat after hypophysectomy and weaning.
ABSTRACT: 1. The enzymes glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucomutase, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, phosphofructokinase, ATP-citrate lyase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase have been assayed in rat mammary glands in various stages of involution after hypophysectomy and weaning. 2. After hypophysectomy all seven enzymes decline in activity over a 12-16hr. period but the extent of the decline varies, with acetyl-CoA carboxylase becoming almost totally inactive, ATP-citrate lyase and phosphofructokinase showing a large decrease, and the remaining enzymes a less marked decline. 3. Within 24hr. of removing the litter a change in the pattern of enzyme activity is found very similar to that after hypophysectomy. 4. The significance of these results is discussed in relation to the endocrine control of mammary gland metabolism and the mechanisms of involution.
Project description:1. The enzymes phosphofructokinase (EC 18.104.22.168), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (EC 22.214.171.124), phosphoglucomutase (EC 126.96.36.199), ATP-citrate lyase (EC 188.8.131.52), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (EC 184.108.40.206) and acetyl-CoA synthetase (EC 220.127.116.11) were assayed in rabbit mammary glands at various stages of the pregnancy-lactation cycle. 2. The activities of all enzymes were low during pregnancy and, with the exception of phosphofructokinase, in non-pregnant animals. Two- to ten-fold increases in enzyme activities occurred over the first 20 days of lactation. Although milk yield was considerably decreased, the enzyme activities remained elevated in late lactation (45 days after parturition). 3. These findings are discussed in relation to mammary-gland metabolism and compared with similar observations previously made on ruminants and other small mammals.
Project description:The zonal distribution within rat liver of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, ATP citrate-lyase and fatty acid synthase, the principal enzymes of fatty acid synthesis, was investigated by using dual-digitonin-pulse perfusion. Analysis of enzyme mass by immunoblotting revealed that, in normally feeding male rats, the periportal/perivenous ratio of acetyl-CoA carboxylase mass was 1.9. The periportal/perivenous ratio of ATP citrate-lyase mass was 1.4, and fatty acid synthase exhibited the largest periportal/perivenous mass gradient, having a ratio of 3.1. This pattern of enzyme distribution was observed in male rats only; in females, the periportal/perivenous ratio of enzyme mass was nearly equal. The periportal/perivenous gradients for acetyl-CoA carboxylase, ATP citrate-lyase and fatty acid synthase observed in fed (and fasted) males were abolished when animals were fasted (48 h) and refed (30 h) with a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet. As determined by enzyme assay of eluates obtained from the livers of normally feeding male rats, there is also periportal zonation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity, expressed either as units per mg of eluted protein or units per mg of acetyl-CoA carboxylase protein, suggesting the existence of gradients in both enzyme mass and specific activity. From these results, we conclude that the enzymes of fatty acid synthesis are zonated periportally in the liver of the normally feeding male rat.
Project description:1. Changes in the activities of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (EC 18.104.22.168), phosphofructokinase (EC 22.214.171.124), aldolase (EC 126.96.36.199), extramitochondrial aconitate hydratase (EC 188.8.131.52) and NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (EC 184.108.40.206) have been measured in the livers of developing rats from late foetal life to maturity. 2. The effect of altering the weaning time on some enzymes associated with lipogenesis has been studied. Weaning rats at 15 days of age instead of 21 days results in an immediate increase in the activity of ;malic' enzyme (EC 220.127.116.11) whereas the activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 18.104.22.168) and ATP citrate lyase (EC 22.214.171.124) did not increase until 4-5 days and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2-3 days after early weaning. Weaning rats on to an artificial-milk diet led to complete repression of the rise in activity of hepatic enzymes associated with lipogenesis normally found on weaning, except for ;malic' enzyme, which increased in activity after 20 days of age. 3. The effect of intraperitoneal injections of glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone and thyroxine on the same hepatic enzymes has been investigated. Only thyroxine had any effect on enzyme activities and caused a 20-fold increase in ;malic' enzyme activity and a twofold increase in ATP citrate lyase activity. 4. The activities of hepatic glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and ;malic' enzyme are higher in adult female than in adult male rats and it has been shown that this sex difference in enzyme activities is due to both male and female sex hormones. 5. Hepatic malate, citrate, pyruvate, glucose 6-phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate concentrations have been measured throughout development. 6. The results are discussed in relation to the dietary and hormonal control of hepatic enzyme activities during development.
Project description:The activities of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, ATP citrate-lyase and fatty acid synthetase remained low until parturition at 22 days of gestation and increased significantly within 1 day post partum. Administration of progesterone on days 20 and 21 and at parturition abolished the increases for at least 48 h after parturition. Removal of the pups of normal rats prevented the increases in activities of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and ATP citrate-lyase, but not of fatty acid synthetase, and administration of prolactin corticosterone or insulin did not stimulate activity. Tissue from suckled glands in which the ducts had been ligated at parturition showed no increase in the activities of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and ATP citrate-lyase within 24 h, whereas fatty acid synthetase activity was similar to that in the sham-operated contralateral glands. Foetoplacentectomy on day 18 increased the activity of fatty acid synthetase but not of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and ATP citrate-lyase; suckling of these dams by foster pups increased both acetyl-CoA carboxylase and ATP citrate-lyase.
Project description:1. Highly purified rat mammary-gland acetyl-CoA carboxylase was inhibited by milk obtained from rats 12h after their young were weaned. 2. All the inhibitory activity was found in the particulate fraction (R(105)) obtained on centrifuging the milk. It could be extracted from milk fraction R(105) with acetone and identified as a complex mixture of non-esterified fatty acids, present in high concentration (nearly 10mm) in the milk. 3. Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase was observed at low concentrations (0.2-20mum) of several of these fatty acids when fresh fully active enzyme was used. Enzyme that had been partly inactivated by aging, or by storing in the absence of citrate, was stimulated by low concentrations but inhibited by high concentrations of fatty acids. 4. Various experiments suggested that fatty acids produce irreversible inactivation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. 5. The effects of palmitoyl-CoA on mammary-gland acetyl-CoA carboxylase were found to resemble those of fatty acids, except that palmitoyl-CoA was effective at lower concentration. 6. The effect of milk fraction R(105) was tested on six other enzymes previously shown to decline to various extents after weaning. Although several of these enzymes were affected by unfractionated milk fraction R(105), none was significantly inhibited by the acetone extract or by low concentrations of lauric acid. 7. The findings are consistent, both qualitatively and quantitatively, with a regulatory mechanism whereby milk fatty acids shut off fatty acid synthesis in the mammary gland after weaning by inhibiting acetyl-CoA carboxylase.
Project description:The intracellular location of pyruvate carboxylase (EC 126.96.36.199), citrate synthase (EC 188.8.131.52) and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (EC 184.108.40.206) in rat mammary gland was investigated by using a fractional-extraction technique. The results indicate a mitochondrial location for all three enzymes.
Project description:1. The activities of gluconeogenic and glycolytic enzymes and the concentrations of citrate, ammonia, amino acids, glycogen, glucose 6-phosphate, acetyl-CoA, lactate and pyruvate were measured in kidney cortex of normal, diabetic, cortisone-treated and growth hormone-treated rats. 2. In kidney cortex of diabetic, cortisone-treated and growth hormone-treated rats the activities of glucose 6-phosphatase (EC 220.127.116.11), fructose 1,6-diphosphatase (EC 18.104.22.168) and phosphopyruvate carboxylase (EC 22.214.171.124) were increased. 3. The activities of glutamate dehydrogenase (EC 126.96.36.199), alanine aminotransferase (EC 188.8.131.52), aspartate aminotransferase (EC 184.108.40.206) and pyruvate carboxylase (EC 220.127.116.11) were increased in diabetic and cortisone-treated rats. In growth hormone-treated rats the activity of aspartate aminotransferase was depressed but those of the other three enzymes were unchanged. 4. The activity of hexokinase (EC 18.104.22.168) was not altered in any of these conditions. Phosphofructokinase (EC 22.214.171.124) activity was depressed only in growth hormone-treated rats. Pyruvate kinase (EC 126.96.36.199) activity was depressed in cortisone-treated and growth hormone-treated rats but unchanged in diabetic rats. 5. Amino acids, acetyl-CoA and glucose 6-phosphate contents were increased in rat kidneys in all these three conditions. Ammonia content was increased in diabetic and cortisone-treated rats but was markedly diminished in growth hormone-treated rats. 6. The [lactate]/[pyruvate] ratio was elevated in diabetic and cortisone-treated rats but unchanged in growth hormone-treated rats. Citrate content was increased in the kidney cortex of diabetic and growth hormone-treated rats but was unchanged in cortisone-treated rats. The activity of ATP citrate lyase (EC 188.8.131.52) was depressed in diabetic and growth hormone-treated rats but was increased in cortisone-treated rats. 7. Glycogen content was moderately elevated in growth hormone-treated rats and markedly elevated in diabetic rats, whereas no change in glycogen content was observed in cortisone-treated rats. Glycogen synthetase (EC 184.108.40.206) activity was unchanged in all these three conditions. Phosphorylase (EC 220.127.116.11) activity was not affected in cortisone-treated rats but was depressed in diabetic and growth hormone-treated rats.
Project description:1. Mammary tissue was obtained from rabbits at various stages of pregnancy and lactation and used for tissue-slice incubations (to measure the rate of fatty acid synthesis and CO(2) production) and to determine relevant enzymic activities. A biphasic adaptation in fatty acid synthetic capacity during lactogenesis was noted. 2. The first lactogenic response occurred between day 15 and 24 of pregnancy. Over this period fatty acid synthesis (from acetate) increased 14-fold and the proportions of fatty acids synthesized changed to those characteristic of milk fat (77-86% as C(8:0)+C(10:0) acids). 3. The second lactogenic response occurred post partum as indicated by increased rates of fatty acid synthesis and CO(2) production (from acetate and glucose) and increased enzymic activities. 4. Major increases in enzymic activities between mid-pregnancy and lactation were noted for ATP citrate lyase (EC 18.104.22.168), acetyl-CoA synthetase (EC 22.214.171.124), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (EC 126.96.36.199), fatty acid synthetase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 188.8.131.52), and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (EC 184.108.40.206). Smaller increases in activity occurred with glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 220.127.116.11) and NADP(+)-isocitrate dehydrogenase (EC 18.104.22.168) and the activity of NADP(+)-malate dehydrogenase (EC 22.214.171.124) was negligible at all periods tested. 5. During pregnancy and lactation there was a close temporal relationship between fatty acid synthetic capacity and the activities of ATP citrate lyase (r=0.94) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (r=0.90).
Project description:The effect of insulin on glucose metabolism in mammary gland was studied by the euglycaemic/hyperinsulinaemic-clamp technique. Measurement of metabolite concentrations and enzyme activities in the mammary gland suggests two sites of action of insulin: phosphofructokinase-1 and acetyl-coA carboxylase. The increase in phosphofructokinase-1 activity could be linked to the 2-fold increase in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate concentration, since no change in maximal activity and in sensitivity of the enzyme toward fructose 6-phosphate was detected in vitro.
Project description:Protein kinase activity in high-speed supernatant fractions prepared from rat epididymal adipose tissue previously incubated in the absence or presence of insulin was investigated by following the incorporation of 32P from [gamma-32P]ATP into phosphoproteins separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electro-phoresis. Incorporation of 32P into several endogenous proteins in the supernatant fractions from insulin-treated tissue was significantly increased. These included acetyl-CoA carboxylase and ATP citrate lyase (which exhibit increased phosphorylation within fat-cells exposed to insulin), together with two unknown proteins of subunit Mr 78000 and 43000. The protein kinase activity increased by insulin was distinct from cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, was not dependent on Ca2+ and was not appreciably affected by dialysis or gel filtration. The rate of phosphorylation of added purified fat-cell acetyl-CoA carboxylase and ATP citrate lyase was also increased by 60-90% in high-speed-supernatant fractions prepared from insulin-treated tissue. No evidence for any persistent changes in phosphoprotein phosphatase activity was found. It is concluded that insulin action on acetyl-CoA carboxylase, ATP citrate lyase and other intracellular proteins exhibiting increased phosphorylation involves an increase in cyclic AMP-independent protein kinase activity in the cytoplasm. The possibility that the increase reflects translocation from the plasma membrane, perhaps after phosphorylation by the protein tyrosine kinase associated with insulin receptors, is discussed.