ABSTRACT: The growth of a Pseudomonas on n-decane was found to produce stearic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, decanoic acid, octanoic acid, beta-hydroxydecanoic acid, beta-hydroxyoctanoic acid, beta-hydroxyhexanoic acid and beta-hydroxyadipic acid. Small amounts of n-decanamide and n-valeramide were also isolated. The effects of nitrogen and oxygen limitation on the formation of these products in continuous fermentations is reported.
Project description:Biotransformation of fatty acid methyl esters to dicarboxylic acids has attracted much attention in recent years; however, reports of sebacic acid production using such biotransformation remain few. The toxicity of decanoic acid is the main challenge for this process. Decane induction has been reported to be essential to activate the enzymes involved in the ?,?-oxidation pathway before initiating the biotransformation of methyl decanoate to sebacic acid. However, we observed the accumulation of intermediates (decanoic acid and 10-hydroxydecanoic acid) during the induction period. In this study, we examined the effects of these intermediates on the biotransformation process. The presence of decanoic acid, even at a low concentration (0.2 g/L), inhibited the transformation of 10-hydroxydecanoic acid to sebacic acid. Moreover, about 24-32% reduction in the decanoic acid oxidation was observed in the presence of 0.5-1.5 g/L 10-hydroxydecanoic acid. To eliminate these inhibitory effects, we applied substrate-limiting conditions during the decane induction process, which eliminated the accumulation of decanoic acid. Although the productivity of sebacic acid (34.5?±?1.10 g/L) was improved, by 28% over that achieved using the previously methods, after 54 h, the accumulation of 10-hydroxydecanoic acid was still detected. The accumulation of 10-hydroxydecanoic acid even under the decane limiting conditions could be an evidence that oxidation of 10-hydroxydecanoic acid could be the rate-limiting step in this process. The improvement of this reaction should be an important objective for further development of the production of sebacic acid using biotransformation.
Project description:In this study, we present an investigation of the yeast response to the exposure to octanoic and decanoic acids, two major fermentation inhibitors. Aerobically grown cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae U13 wine strain have been exposed to 0,05 mM of octanoic and decanoic acid. We have compared the variations of expression induced by the acid challenges in comparison to a reference non trated modality, as well as the two acid responses. The transcriptome analysis is build in a triangular design in which the RNA extracted from three modalities : reference (non treated cells) , cells exposed to octanoic acid, and cells exposed to decanoic acid are compared. Overall design: 12 samples have been analyzed in a triangular design (4 samples per modalité), four references (non treated cells), four samples exposed to octanoic acid, four samples exposed to decanoic acid
Project description:In this study, we present an investigation of the yeast response to the exposure to octanoic and decanoic acids, two major fermentation inhibitors. Aerobically grown cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae U13 wine strain have been exposed to 0,05 mM of octanoic and decanoic acid. We have compared the variations of expression induced by the acid challenges in comparison to a reference non trated modality, as well as the two acid responses. The transcriptome analysis is build in a triangular design in which the RNA extracted from three modalities : reference (non treated cells) , cells exposed to octanoic acid, and cells exposed to decanoic acid are compared. 12 samples have been analyzed in a triangular design (4 samples per modalité), four references (non treated cells), four samples exposed to octanoic acid, four samples exposed to decanoic acid
Project description:Medium-chain fatty acids (octanoic and decanoic acids) are well known as fermentation inhibitors. During must fermentation, the toxicity of these fatty acids is enhanced by ethanol and low pH, which favors their entrance in the cell, resulting in a decrease of internal pH. We present here the characterization of the mechanisms involved in the establishment of the resistance to these fatty acids. The analysis of the transcriptome response to the exposure to octanoic and decanoic acids revealed that two partially overlapping mechanisms are activated; both responses share many genes with an oxidative stress response, but some key genes were activated differentially. The transcriptome response to octanoic acid stress can be described mainly as a weak acid response, and it involves Pdr12p as the main transporter. The phenotypic analysis of knocked-out strains confirmed the role of the Pdr12p transporter under the control of WAR1 but also revealed the involvement of the Tpo1p major facilitator superfamily proteins (MFS) transporter in octanoic acid expulsion. In contrast, the resistance to decanoic acid is composite. It also involves the transporter Tpo1p and includes the activation of several genes of the beta-oxidation pathway and ethyl ester synthesis. Indeed, the induction of FAA1 and EEB1, coding for a long-chain fatty acyl coenzyme A synthetase and an alcohol acyltransferase, respectively, suggests a detoxification pathway through the production of decanoate ethyl ester. These results are confirmed by the sensitivity of strains bearing deletions for the transcription factors encoded by PDR1, STB5, OAF1, and PIP2 genes.
Project description:Non-substituted racemic poly(DL-lactic acid) (PLA) and substituted racemic poly(DL-lactic acid)s or poly(DL-2-hydroxyalkanoic acid)s with different side-chain lengths, i.e., poly(DL-2-hydroxybutanoic acid) (PBA), poly(DL-2-hydroxyhexanoic acid) (PHA), and poly(DL-2-hydroxydecanoic acid) (PDA) were synthesized by acid-catalyzed polycondensation of DL-lactic acid (LA), DL-2-hydroxybutanoic acid (BA), DL-2-hydroxyhexanoic acid (HA), and DL-2-hydroxydecanoic acid (DA), respectively. The hydrolytic degradation behavior was investigated in phosphate-buffered solution at 80 and 37 °C by gravimetry and gel permeation chromatography. It was found that the reactivity of monomers during polycondensation as monitored by the degree of polymerization (DP) decreased in the following order: LA > DA > BA > HA. The hydrolytic degradation rate traced by DP and weight loss at 80 °C decreased in the following order: PLA > PDA > PHA > PBA and that monitored by DP at 37 °C decreased in the following order: PLA > PDA > PBA > PHA. LA and PLA had the highest reactivity during polymerization and hydrolytic degradation rate, respectively, and were followed by DA and PDA. BA, HA, PBA, and PHA had the lowest reactivity during polymerization and hydrolytic degradation rate. The findings of the present study strongly suggest that inter-chain interactions play a major role in the reactivity of non-substituted and substituted LA monomers and degradation rate of the non-substituted and substituted PLA, along with steric hindrance of the side chains as can be expected.
Project description:Highlights•Low toxic effects of medium-chain ?-hydroxy fatty acids on yeast cells .•Systematic comparison of cytochrome P450 enzyme activities on octanoic acid .•De novo biosynthesis of 8-hydroxyoctanoic acid .•Improvement of cytochrome P450 activity with ethanol or by addition of hemin .
Project description:The pattern of fatty acids synthesized by mammary-gland explants from rabbits during pregnancy and early lactation has been studied. From day 12 to day 18 of pregnancy, long-chain (C(14:0)-C(18:1)) fatty acids were the major products. From day 18 to day 21 of pregnancy there was an increase of up to 12-fold in the rate of fatty acid synthesis per unit wet weight of tissue that was almost exclusively caused by the synthesis of octanoic fatty acid and decanoic fatty acid, which are characteristic of rabbit milk. These medium-chain fatty acids were mainly incorporated into triglycerides. From day 22 to day 27 of pregnancy there was little change in the rate of fatty acid synthesis and the proportions of fatty acids synthesized were essentially the same as those synthesized by the lactating gland, i.e. 80-90% octanoic acid plus decanoic acid. About 2-4 days before parturition a second lipogenic stimulus occurred, although the pattern of fatty acids synthesized did not change.
Project description:1. A procedure for the extraction and purification of antimicrobial factors from the stomach contents of sucking rabbits is described. 2. The fatty acid composition of the hydrogenated ;rabbit stomach oil' is given. 3. The most active factors isolated were identified as free n-decanoic acid and n-octanoic acid. 4. The antimicrobial activities of some fatty acids and that of ;rabbit stomach oil' are compared.
Project description:1. An avocado supernatant fraction converted fatty acids of medium chain length (C(8)-C(12)) into a polar product. 2. The product was identified as the beta-hydroxy derivative of the substrate by g.l.c. and t.l.c. analysis. 3. For hydroxylation of the fatty acids, CoA, ATP and molecular oxygen were required. Acyl carrier protein gave some stimulation. The reaction took place with oxygen alone if acyl-CoA was the substrate. 4. Hydroxylation was maximal with decanoic acid but dodecanoic acid and octanoic acid were also very active. Acids of shorter or longer chain lengths were not hydroxylated. 5. NAD(+) concentration caused complete inhibition at 0.5mm and may be an important control mechanism for the reaction in vivo. 6. The reaction was inhibited by iodoacetamide and by bipyridyl and carbon monoxide, indicating involvement of thiol and heavy metal groups.
Project description:The hypothesis that chronic feeding of the triglycerides of octanoate (trioctanoin) and decanoate (tridecanoin) in "a regular non-ketogenic diet" is anticonvulsant was tested and possible mechanisms of actions were subsequently investigated. Chronic feeding of 35E% of calories from tridecanoin, but not trioctanoin, was reproducibly anticonvulsant in two acute CD1 mouse seizure models. The levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate in plasma and brain were not significantly increased by either treatment relative to control diet. The respective decanoate and octanoate levels are 76?µM and 33?µM in plasma and 1.17 and 2.88?nmol/g in brain. Tridecanoin treatment did not alter the maximal activities of several glycolytic enzymes, suggesting that there is no reduction in glycolysis contributing to anticonvulsant effects. In cultured astrocytes, 200?µM of octanoic and decanoic acids increased basal respiration and ATP turnover, suggesting that both medium chain fatty acids are used as fuel. Only decanoic acid increased mitochondrial proton leak which may reduce oxidative stress. In mitochondria isolated from hippocampal formations, tridecanoin increased respiration linked to ATP synthesis, indicating that mitochondrial metabolic functions are improved. In addition, tridecanoin increased the plasma antioxidant capacity and hippocampal mRNA levels of heme oxygenase 1, and FoxO1.