Fractionation of the chymotryptic precipitate of Bombyx mori silk fibroin.
ABSTRACT: 1. A solution of Bombyx mori silk fibroin was digested with chymotrypsin. Amino acid analyses of the chymotryptic precipitate showed in addition to the main constituents Gly, Ala, Ser and Tyr, very small amounts of Lys, His, Arg, Asp, Thr, Glu, Pro, Cys, Val, Met, Ile, Leu, Phe and Trp. 2. A stable solution of the chymotryptic precipitate in 6m-urea was obtained by dialysing a solution in 50% (w/v) lithium thiocyanate against 6m-urea. 3. The dinitrophenylated chymotryptic precipitate in 6m-urea was fractionated by gel filtration and by ion-exchange chromatography. On Dowex 1 (X2), a main fraction I(d) and three further fractions with different amino acid compositions and molecular weights were obtained. 4. Specific rearrangement and fission of the bonds involving the serine nitrogen atoms of fraction I(d) and fractionation of the resulting mixture by gel filtration yielded five fractions. Two of these fractions had the compositions DNP-Ser-(Gly(6),Ala(4),Ser) and DNP-Ser-(Gly(4),Ala(2) or Ala(3),Ser) and are presumably double repeating units according to the proposed formula of Lucas, Shaw & Smith (1957), namely [Ser-Gly-(Ala-Gly)(n)](2), for n values of 2 and 1 respectively.
Project description:A diagonal-electrophoresis method for the selective purification of serine phosphate peptides was applied to tryptic, chymotryptic and peptic digests of oxidized ovalbumin. This method is based on the release of the phosphate group bound to serine by treatment with alkaline phosphatase on paper. The identified serine phosphate peptides were purified by paper electrophoresis at pH6.5 and 2.0, dephosphorylation with bacterial alkaline phosphatase, and paper electrophoresis at pH2.0 again, in that order. The presence of two groups of serine phosphate peptides was apparent from the amino acid composition. One group contained no lysine, cysteic acid, proline, leucine or isoleucine (sequence 1) and the other had all those amino acids (sequence 2). Further degradation with subtilisin of those peptides and ;dansyl'-Edman sequence analysis established their partial sequences. The proposed sequences are as follows (with ;SerP' representing serine phosphate): sequence 1, -Ala-Gly-Arg-Glu-Val-Val-Gly-SerP-Ala-Glu-Ala-Gly-Asp-Val-Ala-Ala-Ser-(Val,Glx(2),Ser,Phe)-Arg-; sequence 2, -Asp-Lys-Leu-Pro-Gly-Phe-Gly-Asp-SerP-Ile-Glx-Ala-Glx-CySO(3)H-Gly-(Thr,Ser,Val)-(Asp,His,Val)-. The partial sequence of one of the phosphopeptides, Asp-(Glu,Ile,SerP), reported by Flavin (1954) was used to establish the proposed sequence 2.
Project description:1. The low-molecular-weight components of myosin from rabbit skeletal muscle migrated as four bands on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in 8m-urea but only as three in systems containing sodium dodecyl sulphate. The two bands of intermediate mobility in 8m-urea (Ml(2) and Ml(3)) had identical mobilities in sodium dodecyl sulphate. 2. The isolation of pure samples of all four low-molecular-weight components by DEAE-Sephadex chromatography is described. 3. The amino acid compositions of components Ml(2) and Ml(3) were identical. Further analyses showed the presence of 1 mol of phosphate/18500g of component Ml(2) and less than 10% of this amount in component Ml(3). Neither light component contained ribose. 4. Alkaline phosphatase from Escherichia coli converted component Ml(2) into Ml(3). Incubation with crude preparations of phosphorylase b kinase or protein kinase in the presence of ATP converted component Ml(3) into Ml(2). 5. Phosphorylation of component Ml(3) with the kinases isolated from skeletal muscle and [gamma-(32)P]ATP gave incorporation of (32)P only into component Ml(2) whether whole myosin or separated low-molecular-weight components were used. 6. High-voltage electrophoresis at pH6.5 and pH1.8 of a chymotryptic digest of (32)P-labelled component Ml(2) yielded one major radioactive peptide containing serine phosphate. 7. The amino acid sequence of this peptide was shown to be: Arg-Ala-Ala-Ala-Glu-Gly-Gly-(Ser,Ser(P))-Asn-Val-Phe. This sequence shows no obvious similarity to the site phosphorylated in the conversion of phosphorylase b into phosphorylase a by phosphorylase b kinase. 8. Evidence suggests that in vivo all the 18500-molecular-weight light chain is in the phosphorylated form. The extent of dephosphorylation that occurred during myosin extraction depended on the conditions employed.
Project description:Fermented milks with strong angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity were obtained through a culture with Lactobacillus helveticus KLDS.31 and Lactobacillus casei KLDS.105 with a fermentation and storage temperature of 37 °C. Ultrafiltration fractions with a molecular weight less than 3 kDa in fermented milk whey exhibited the strongest inhibitory activity. Correspondingly, a gastrointestinal digestion experiment showed retention of the bioactivity of these fractions with pepsin and trypsin treatment. Four ACE-inhibitory peptides from fermented milk were isolated, purified by two-step reverse chromatography, and sequenced. Furthermore, the interaction mechanisms between ACE and four isolated peptides were investigated by a molecular docking method and the Independent Gradient Model. Experimental determination of IC50 was done to verify theoretical results. The inhibitory peptide interacted with ACE as follows: Lys-Pro-Ala-Gly-Asp-Phe > Lys-Ala-Ala-Leu-Ser-Gly-Met > Lys-Lys-Ala-Ala-Met-Ala-Met > Leu-Asp-His-Val-Pro-Gly-Gly-Ala-Arg.
Project description:Papain was inhibited with bromo[2-(14)C]acetic acid, the tertiary structure of the inhibited enzyme was unfolded and the disulphide bridges were reduced with mercaptoethanol and aminoethylated. Digestion with trypsin gave a radioactive peptide consisting of residues 18-58 inclusive and containing therefore the sequence of the thirteen unknown residues 29-41 in the primary sequence of papain. This peptide was digested with pepsin to give a radioactive peptide consisting of residues 18-47, which after digestion with 0.4m-hydrochloric acid gave a radioactive peptide consisting of residues 24-43 inclusive. Further digestion with 6m-hydrochloric acid gave peptides that were used to determine the sequence: Ser-Ala-Val-Val-Thr-Ile-Glx-Gly-Ile-Ile-Lys-Ile-Arg for the residues 29-41, so completing the amino acid sequence of papain.
Project description:1. The thermal denaturation and precipitation of beta-lactamase I from Bacillus cereus 569/H/9 at 60 degrees C are reversible, a soluble and almost fully active enzyme being obtained after solution of the precipitate in 5m-guanidinium chloride or 8m-urea and subsequent removal of the denaturing agent. 2. Inactivation of beta-lactamase I occurs rapidly between 50 degrees and 55 degrees C and is shown by circular-dichroism spectra to be accompanied by an extensive conformational change. 3. A change to a different conformation occurs in 6m-urea. This change is also reversible; refolding with almost complete recovery of enzymic activity occurs within 5min of dilution of the denaturing agent. 4. Inactivation of beta-lactamase I at pH3.0 and 11.0 is also associated with conformational changes, since a proportion of the lost activity is recovered within 5min of adjustment of the pH to 7.0.
Project description:The holostean fishes are the extant representatives of the primitive ray-finned fishes from which the present-day teleosts may have evolved. The primary structure of insulin from a holostean fish, the bowfin (Amia calva), was established as: A-chain: Gly-Ile-Val-Glu-Gln-Cys-Cys-Leu-Lys-Pro-Cys-Thr-Ile-Tyr-Glu-Met-Glu- Lys-Tyr-Cys-Asn B-chain: Ala-Ala-Ser-Gln-His-Leu-Cys-Gly-Ser-His-Leu-Val-Glu-Ala-Leu-Phe-Leu- Val-Cys-Gly-Glu-Ser-Gly-Phe-Phe-Tyr-Asn-Pro-Asn-Lys-Ser This amino acid sequence contains several substitutions (methionine at A16, phenylalanine at B16 and serine at B22) at sites that have been strongly conserved in other vertebrate species and that may be expected to influence biological activity. Consistent with this prediction, bowfin insulin was approx. 14-fold less potent than pig insulin in inhibiting the binding of [125I-Tyr-A14](human insulin) to transfected mouse NIH 3T3 cells expressing the human insulin receptor.
Project description:The heavy chain of a pathological human immunoglobulin IgG and also the Fd fragment have been isolated. No free alpha-amino group was present on either and the N-terminal sequence of both has been identified as pyrrolid-2-one-5-carbonylvalylthreonine. Splitting at the four methionine residues of the heavy chain with cyanogen bromide gave five fractions. The fraction from the C-terminal end of the chain was isolated in high yield and the amino acid sequence was: His-Glu-Ala-Leu-His-Asp(NH(2))-His-Tyr-Thr-Glu(NH(2))-Lys-Ser-Leu-Ser-Leu-Ser-Pro-Gly These results give strong support to the view that the heavy chain of immunoglobulin is a single peptide chain.
Project description:This study provides a detailed secondary structural characterization of major ampullate dragline silk from Latrodectus hesperus (black widow) spiders. X-ray diffraction results show that the structure of black widow major ampullate silk fibers is comprised of stacked ?-sheet nanocrystallites oriented parallel to the fiber axis and an amorphous region with oriented (anisotropic) and isotropic components. The combination of two-dimensional (2D) (13)C-(13)C through-space and through-bond solid-state NMR experiments provide chemical shifts that are used to determine detailed information about the amino acid motif secondary structure in black widow spider dragline silk. Individual amino acids are incorporated into different repetitive motifs that make up the majority of this protein-based biopolymer. From the solid-state NMR measurements, we assign distinct secondary conformations to each repetitive amino acid motif and, hence, to the amino acids that make up the motifs. Specifically, alanine is incorporated in ?-sheet (poly(Alan) and poly(Gly-Ala)), 3(1)-helix (poly(Gly-Gly-Xaa), and ?-helix (poly(Gln-Gln-Ala-Tyr)) components. Glycine is determined to be in ?-sheet (poly(Gly-Ala)) and 3(1)-helical (poly(Gly-Gly-X(aa))) regions, while serine is present in ?-sheet (poly(Gly-Ala-Ser)), 3(1)-helix (poly(Gly-Gly-Ser)), and ?-turn (poly(Gly-Pro-Ser)) structures. These various motif-specific secondary structural elements are quantitatively correlated to the primary amino acid sequence of major ampullate spidroin 1 and 2 (MaSp1 and MaSp2) and are shown to form a self-consistent model for black widow dragline silk.
Project description:The known amino acid sequences at the two sites on phosphorylase kinase that are phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase were extended. The sequences of 42 amino acids around the phosphorylation site on the alpha-subunit and of 14 amino acids around the phosphorylation site on the beta-subunit were shown to be: alpha-subunit Phe-Arg-Arg-Leu-Ser(P)-Ile-Ser-Thr-Glu-Ser-Glx-Pro-Asx-Gly-Gly-His-Ser-Leu-Gly-Ala-Asp-Leu-Met-Ser-Pro-Ser-Phe-Leu-Ser-Pro-Gly-Thr-Ser-Val-Phe(Ser,Pro,Gly)His-Thr-Ser-Lys; beta-subunit, Ala-Arg-Thr-Lys-Arg-Ser-Gly-Ser(P)-VALIle-Tyr-Glu-Pro-Leu-Lys. The sites on histone H2B which are phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in vitro were identified as serine-36 and serine-32. The amino acid sequence in this region is: Lys-Lys-Arg-Lys-Arg-Ser32(P)-Arg-Lys-Glu-Ser36(P)-Tyr-Ser-Val-Tyr-Val- [Iwai, K., Ishikawa, K. & Hayashi, H. (1970) Nature (London) 226, 1056-1058]. Serine-36 was phosphorylated at 50% of the rate at which the beta-subunit of phosphorylase kinase was phosphorylated, and it was phosphorylated 6-7-fold more rapidly than was serine-32. The amino acid sequences when compared with those at the phosphorylation sites of other physiological substrates suggest that the presence of two adjacent basic amino acids on the N-terminal side of the susceptible serine residue may be critical for specific substrate recognition in vivo.
Project description:alpha-Crystallin was carboxymethylated with radioactive iodoacetic acid in the presence of 7.6m-urea and then separated into six major fractions by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose in 7m-urea. Based on the amino acid compositions, specific radioactivities and sodium dodecyl sulphate-gel electrophoresis of the fractions, it was concluded that alpha-crystallin contains at least four different subunits: DU1A and DU1B, containing no cysteine; a third component represented by DU2B and DU3 containing one cysteine one cysteine residue per subunit; and DU4, which probably contains two residues of cysteine per subunit. Subunit DU1A was shown to be of sufficient purity for sequence studies. Cyanogen bromide cleavage yielded two peptides, CB-1 and CB-2, in approximately equal amounts as expected. The sum of the molecular weights and amino acid compositions of the peptides were both in excellent agreement with the results obtained for subunit DU1A. The amino acid sequence of the first sixteen residues of peptide CB-1 is: Ser-Leu-Thr-Lys-Asp-Phe-Asp-Glu-Val-Asn-Ile-Asp-Val-Ser-His-Phe-. The sequence of the first seventeen residues of peptide CB-2 is: Asp-Ile-Ala-Ile-Ser-His-Pro-Trp-Ile-Arg-Pro-Ser-Phe-Phe-Glu-Phe-His-. The N-terminal sequence of subunit DU1A was shown to be N-acetylmethionine followed by peptide CB-2.