An episomal mammalian replicon: sequence-independent binding of the origin recognition complex.
ABSTRACT: An extrachromosomally replicating plasmid was used to investigate the specificity by which the origin recognition complex (ORC) interacts with DNA sequences in mammalian cells in vivo. We first showed that the plasmid pEPI-1 replicates semiconservatively in a once-per-cell-cycle manner and is stably transmitted over many cell generations in culture without selection. Chromatin immunoprecipitations and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that, in G1-phase cells, Orc1 and Orc2, as well as Mcm3, another component of the prereplication complex, are bound to multiple sites on the plasmid. These binding sites are functional because they show the S-phase-dependent dissociation of Orc1 and Mcm3 known to be characteristic for prereplication complexes in mammalian cells. In addition, we identified replicative nascent strands and showed that they correspond to many plasmid DNA regions. This work has implications for current models of replication origins in mammalian systems. It indicates that specific DNA sequences are not required for the chromatin binding of ORC in vivo. The conclusion is that epigenetic mechanisms determine the sites where mammalian DNA replication is initiated.
Project description:The eukaryotic origin recognition complex (ORC) selects the genomic sites where prereplication complexes are assembled and DNA replication begins. In proliferating mammalian cells, ORC activity appears to be regulated by reducing the affinity of the Orc1 subunit for chromatin during S phase and then preventing reformation of a stable ORC-chromatin complex until mitosis is completed and a nuclear membrane is assembled. Here we show that part of the mechanism by which this is accomplished is the selective association of Orc1 with Cdk1 (Cdc2)/cyclin A during the G(2)/M phase of cell division. This association accounted for the appearance in M-phase cells of hyperphosphorylated Orc1 that was subsequently dephosphorylated during the M-to-G(1) transition. Moreover, inhibition of Cdk activity in metaphase cells resulted in rapid binding of Orc1 to chromatin. However, chromatin binding was not mediated through increased affinity of Orc1 for Orc2, suggesting that additional events are involved in the assembly of functional ORC-chromatin sites. These results reveal that the same cyclin-dependent protein kinase that initiates mitosis in mammalian cells also concomitantly inhibits assembly of functional ORC-chromatin sites.
Project description:Selection of initiation sites for DNA replication in eukaryotes is determined by the interaction between the origin recognition complex (ORC) and genomic DNA. In mammalian cells, this interaction appears to be regulated by Orc1, the only ORC subunit that contains a bromo-adjacent homology (BAH) domain. Since BAH domains mediate protein-protein interactions, the human Orc1 BAH domain was mutated, and the mutant proteins expressed in human cells to determine their affects on ORC function. The BAH domain was not required for nuclear localization of Orc1, association of Orc1 with other ORC subunits, or selective degradation of Orc1 during S-phase. It did, however, facilitate reassociation of Orc1 with chromosomes during the M to G1-phase transition, and it was required for binding Orc1 to the Epstein-Barr virus oriP and stimulating oriP-dependent plasmid DNA replication. Moreover, the BAH domain affected Orc1's ability to promote binding of Orc2 to chromatin as cells exit mitosis. Thus, the BAH domain in human Orc1 facilitates its ability to activate replication origins in vivo by promoting association of ORC with chromatin.
Project description:The binding of the prereplication complex proteins Orc1, Orc2, Mcm3, Mcm7, and Cdc6 and the novel DNA unwinding element (DUE) binding protein DUE-B to the endogenous human c-myc replicator was studied by chromatin immunoprecipitation. In G(1)-arrested HeLa cells, Mcm3, Mcm7, and DUE-B were prominent near the DUE, while Orc1 and Orc2 were least abundant near the DUE and more abundant at flanking sites. Cdc6 binding mirrored that of Orc2 in G(1)-arrested cells but decreased in asynchronous or M-phase cells. Similarly, the signals from Orc1, Mcm3, and Mcm7 were at background levels in cells arrested in M phase, whereas Orc2 retained the distribution seen in G(1)-phase cells. Previously shown to cause histone hyperacetylation and delocalization of replication initiation, trichostatin A treatment of cells led to a parallel qualitative change in the distribution of Mcm3, but not Orc2, across the c-myc replicator. Orc2, Mcm3, and DUE-B were also bound at an ectopic c-myc replicator, where deletion of sequences essential for origin activity was associated with the loss of DUE-B binding or the alteration of chromatin structure and loss of Mcm3 binding. These results show that proteins implicated in replication initiation are selectively and differentially bound across the c-myc replicator, dependent on discrete structural elements in DNA or chromatin.
Project description:To investigate the events leading to initiation of DNA replication in mammalian chromosomes, the time when hamster origin recognition complexes (ORCs) became functional was related to the time when Orc1, Orc2 and Mcm3 proteins became stably bound to hamster chromatin. Functional ORCs, defined as those able to initiate DNA replication, were absent during mitosis and early G(1) phase, and reappeared as cells progressed through G(1) phase. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that hamster Orc1 and Orc2 proteins were present in nuclei at equivalent concentrations throughout the cell cycle, but only Orc2 was stably bound to chromatin. Orc1 and Mcm3 were easily eluted from chromatin during mitosis and early G(1) phase, but became stably bound during mid-G(1) phase, concomitant with the appearance of a functional pre-replication complex at a hamster replication origin. Since hamster Orc proteins are closely related to their human and mouse homologs, the unexpected behavior of hamster Orc1 provides a novel mechanism in mammals for delaying assembly of pre-replication complexes until mitosis is complete and a nuclear structure has formed.
Project description:In unicellular eukaryotes, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and in multicellular organisms, the replication origin is recognized by the heterohexamer origin recognition complex (ORC) containing six proteins, Orc1 to Orc6, while in members of the domain Archaea, the replication origin is recognized by just one protein, Orc1/Cdc6; the sequence of Orc1/Cdc6 is highly related to those of Orc1 and Cdc6. Similar to Archaea, trypanosomatid genomes contain only one gene encoding a protein named Orc1. Since trypanosome Orc1 is also homologous to Cdc6, in this study we named the Orc1 protein from trypanosomes Orc1/Cdc6. Here we show that the recombinant Orc1/Cdc6 from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcOrc1/Cdc6) and from Trypanosoma brucei (TbOrc1/Cdc6) present ATPase activity, typical of prereplication machinery components. Also, TcOrc1/Cdc6 and TbOrc1/Cdc6 replaced yeast Cdc6 but not Orc1 in a phenotypic complementation assay. The induction of Orc1/Cdc6 silencing by RNA interference in T. brucei resulted in enucleated cells, strongly suggesting the involvement of Orc1/Cdc6 in DNA replication. Orc1/Cdc6 is expressed during the entire cell cycle in the nuclei of trypanosomes, remaining associated with chromatin in all stages of the cell cycle. These results allowed us to conclude that Orc1/Cdc6 is indeed a member of the trypanosome prereplication machinery and point out that trypanosomes carry a prereplication machinery that is less complex than other eukaryotes and closer to archaea.
Project description:The eukaryotic six-subunit origin recognition complex (ORC) governs the initiation site of DNA replication and formation of the prereplication complex. In this report we describe the isolation of the wild-type Homo sapiens (Hs)ORC and variants containing a Walker A motif mutation in the Orc1, Orc4, or Orc5 subunit using the baculovirus-expression system. Coexpression of all six HsORC subunits yielded a stable complex containing HsOrc subunits 1-5 (HsORC1-5) with virtually no Orc6 protein (Orc6p). We examined the ATPase, DNA-binding, and replication activities of these complexes. Similar to other eukaryotic ORCs, wild-type HsORC1-5 possesses ATPase activity that is stimulated only 2-fold by single-stranded DNA. HsORC1-5 with a mutated Walker A motif in Orc1p contains no ATPase activity, whereas a similar mutation of either the Orc4 or Orc5 subunit did not affect this activity. The DNA-binding activity of HsORC1-5, using lamin B2 DNA as substrate, is stimulated by ATP 3- to 5-fold. Mutations in the Walker A motif of Orc1p, Orc4p, or Orc5p reduced the binding efficiency of HsORC1-5 modestly (2- to 5-fold). Xenopus laevis ORC-depleted extracts supplemented with HsORC1-5 supported prereplication complex formation and X. laevis sperm DNA replication, whereas the complex with a mutation in the Walker A motif of the Orc1, Orc4, or Orc5 subunit did not. These studies indicate that the ATP-binding motifs of Orc1, Orc4, and Orc5 are all essential for the replication activity associated with HsORC.
Project description:In higher eukaryotes, the origin recognition complex (ORC) lacks sequence-specific DNA binding, and it remains unclear what other factors specify an origin of DNA replication. The Epstein-Barr virus origin of plasmid replication (OriP) recruits ORC, but the precise mechanism of ORC recruitment and origin activation is not clear. We now show that ORC is recruited selectively to the dyad symmetry (DS) region of OriP as a consequence of direct interactions with telomere repeat factor 2 (TRF2) and ORC1. TRF-binding sites within DS stimulate replication initiation and facilitate ORC recruitment in vitro and in vivo. TRF2, but not TRF1 or hRap1, recruits ORC from nuclear extracts. The amino-terminal domain of TRF2 associated with a specific region of ORC1 and was necessary for stimulation of DNA replication. These results support a model in which TRF2 stimulates OriP replication activity by direct binding with ORC subunits.
Project description:Accurate DNA replication requires a complex interplay of many regulatory proteins at replication origins. The CMG (Cdc45·Mcm2-7·GINS) complex, which is composed of Cdc45, Mcm2-7, and the GINS (Go-Ichi-Ni-San) complex consisting of Sld5 and Psf1 to Psf3, is recruited by Cdc6 and Cdt1 onto origins bound by the heterohexameric origin recognition complex (ORC) and functions as a replicative helicase. Trypanosoma brucei, an early branched microbial eukaryote, appears to express an archaea-like ORC consisting of a single Orc1/Cdc6-like protein. However, unlike archaea, trypanosomes possess components of the eukaryote-like CMG complex, but whether they form an active helicase complex, associate with the ORC, and regulate DNA replication remains unknown. Here, we demonstrated that the CMG complex is formed in vivo in trypanosomes and that Mcm2-7 helicase activity is activated by the association with Cdc45 and the GINS complex in vitro. Mcm2-7 and GINS proteins are confined to the nucleus throughout the cell cycle, whereas Cdc45 is exported out of the nucleus after DNA replication, indicating that nuclear exclusion of Cdc45 constitutes one mechanism for preventing DNA re-replication in trypanosomes. With the exception of Mcm4, Mcm6, and Psf1, knockdown of individual CMG genes inhibits DNA replication and cell proliferation. Finally, we identified a novel Orc1-like protein, Orc1b, as an additional component of the ORC and showed that both Orc1b and Orc1/Cdc6 associate with Mcm2-7 via interactions with Mcm3. All together, we identified the Cdc45·Mcm2-7·GINS complex as the replicative helicase that interacts with two Orc1-like proteins in the unusual origin recognition complex in trypanosomes.
Project description:DNA replication origins serve as sites of replicative helicase loading. In all eukaryotes, the six-subunit origin recognition complex (Orc1-6; ORC) recognizes the replication origin. During late M-phase of the cell-cycle, Cdc6 binds to ORC and the ORC-Cdc6 complex loads in a multistep reaction and, with the help of Cdt1, the core Mcm2-7 helicase onto DNA. A key intermediate is the ORC-Cdc6-Cdt1-Mcm2-7 (OCCM) complex in which DNA has been already inserted into the central channel of Mcm2-7. Until now, it has been unclear how the origin DNA is guided by ORC-Cdc6 and inserted into the Mcm2-7 hexamer. Here, we truncated the C-terminal winged-helix-domain (WHD) of Mcm6 to slow down the loading reaction, thereby capturing two loading intermediates prior to DNA insertion in budding yeast. In "semi-attached OCCM," the Mcm3 and Mcm7 WHDs latch onto ORC-Cdc6 while the main body of the Mcm2-7 hexamer is not connected. In "pre-insertion OCCM," the main body of Mcm2-7 docks onto ORC-Cdc6, and the origin DNA is bent and positioned adjacent to the open DNA entry gate, poised for insertion, at the Mcm2-Mcm5 interface. We used molecular simulations to reveal the dynamic transition from preloading conformers to the loaded conformers in which the loading of Mcm2-7 on DNA is complete and the DNA entry gate is fully closed. Our work provides multiple molecular insights into a key event of eukaryotic DNA replication.
Project description:Eukaryotic DNA replication is preceded by the assembly of prereplication complexes (pre-RCs) at or very near origins in G1 phase, which licenses origin firing in S phase. The archaeal DNA replication machinery broadly resembles the eukaryal apparatus, though simpler in form. The eukaryotic replication initiator origin recognition complex (ORC), which serially recruits Cdc6 and other pre-RC proteins, comprises six components, Orc1-6. In archaea, a single gene encodes a protein similar to both the eukaryotic Cdc6 and the Orc1 subunit of the eukaryotic ORC, with most archaea possessing one to three Orc1/Cdc6 orthologs. Genome sequence analysis of the extreme acidophile Picrophilus torridus revealed a single Orc1/Cdc6 (PtOrc1/Cdc6). Biochemical analyses show MBP-tagged PtOrc1/Cdc6 to preferentially bind ORB (origin recognition box) sequences. The protein hydrolyzes ATP in a DNA-independent manner, though DNA inhibits MBP-PtOrc1/Cdc6-mediated ATP hydrolysis. PtOrc1/Cdc6 exists in stable complex with PCNA in Picrophilus extracts, and MBP-PtOrc1/Cdc6 interacts directly with PCNA through a PIP box near its C terminus. Furthermore, PCNA stimulates MBP-PtOrc1/Cdc6-mediated ATP hydrolysis in a DNA-dependent manner. This is the first study reporting a direct interaction between Orc1/Cdc6 and PCNA in archaea. The bacterial initiator DnaA is converted from an active to an inactive form by ATP hydrolysis, a process greatly facilitated by the bacterial ortholog of PCNA, the ? subunit of Pol III. The stimulation of PtOrc1/Cdc6-mediated ATP hydrolysis by PCNA and the conservation of PCNA-interacting protein motifs in several archaeal PCNAs suggest the possibility of a similar mechanism of regulation existing in archaea. This mechanism may involve other yet to be identified archaeal proteins.