CTX-M-14, a plasmid-mediated CTX-M type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase isolated from Escherichia coli.
ABSTRACT: Four Escherichia coli isolates harboring CTX-M-14, with a single Ala231-->Val substitution compared to CTX-M-9, had three different ribotypes. Cefotaxime resistance was plasmid encoded and conjugatively transferable. Three isolates had the same plasmid restriction enzyme digestion profile, suggesting clonal spread of a resistant plasmid. A high k(cat)/K(m) value for cefotaxime (20.3 microM(-1) s(-1)) but low values for ceftazidime and aztreonam (< 0.02 microM(-1) s(-1)) were observed in hydrolysis assays, indicating resistance to cefotaxime (MIC > or = 64 microg/ml) but susceptibility to ceftazidime (MIC < or = 2 microg/ml).
Project description:The plasmid-mediated novel beta-lactamase CTX-M-64 was first identified in Shigella sonnei strain UIH-1, which exhibited resistance to cefotaxime (MIC, 1,024 microg/ml) and ceftazidime (MIC, 32 microg/ml). The amino acid sequence of CTX-M-64 showed a chimeric structure of a CTX-M-15-like beta-lactamase (N- and C-terminal moieties) and a CTX-M-14-like beta-lactamase (central portion, amino acids 63 to 226), suggesting that it originated by homologous recombination between the corresponding genes. The introduction of a recombinant plasmid carrying bla(CTX-M-64) conferred resistance to cefotaxime in Escherichia coli, and the activities of cefotaxime and ceftazidime were restored in the presence of clavulanic acid. Of note, CTX-M-64 production could also confer consistent resistance to ceftazidime, which differs from the majority of CTX-M-type enzymes, which poorly hydrolyze ceftazidime. These results were consistent with the kinetic parameters determined with the purified CTX-M-64 enzyme. The bla(CTX-M-64) gene was flanked upstream by an ISEcp1 sequence and downstream by an orf477 sequence. The sequence of the 45-bp spacer region between the right inverted repeat (IRR) of ISEcp1 and bla(CTX-M-64) was exactly identical to that of ISEcp1-bla(CTX-M-15-like). Moreover, the presence of a putative IRR of ISEcp1 at the right end of truncated orf477 is indicative of an ISEcp1-mediated transposition event in the bla(CTX-M-64) gene. The emergence of CTX-M-64 by probable homologous recombination would suggest the natural potential of an alternative mechanism for the diversification of CTX-M-type beta-lactamases.
Project description:Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) of the CTX-M type are increasingly being reported worldwide, with more than 90 known variants. Clinical Escherichia coli isolate Bre-1 was isolated in 2009 and displayed an unusual ESBL phenotype, made of a synergy image between expanded cephalosporins and clavulanic acid discs and susceptibility to penicillins. E. coli Bre-1 harbored a novel CTX-M-encoding gene, designated bla(CTX-M-93). CTX-M-93 differed from CTX-M-27 by only a single L169Q substitution. Compared to CTX-M-27, CTX-M-93 conferred higher MICs of ceftazidime for E. coli (MIC of 8 versus 1.5 μg/ml) and decreased MICs of other expanded-cephalosporins (MIC of cefotaxime of 1 versus 32 μg/ml) and penicillins (MIC of ticarcillin of 0.5 versus >256 μg/ml). A comparison of enzymatic properties revealed that the L169Q substitution led to a decreased Km for ceftazidime (25.5 versus 330 μM) but decreased hydrolytic activity against good substrates, such as cefotaxime (kcat of 0.6 versus 113 s(-1)), probably owing to the alteration of the omega loop positioning during the catalytic process. The blaCTX-M-93 gene was surrounded by the ISEcp1 and IS903 elements and inserted onto a 150-kb non-self-transferrable IncF-type plasmid. E. coli Bre-1 belongs to phylogroup D and is of multilocus sequence type (MLST) 624, a sequence type found only in rare Spanish CTX-M-14-producing E. coli isolates. We have characterized a novel CTX-M variant, CTX-M-93, lacking significant penicillin hydrolysis but with increased ceftazidime hydrolysis.
Project description:Three clinical strains (Escherichia coli Rio-6, E. coli Rio-7, and Enterobacter cloacae Rio-9) collected in 1996 and 1999 from hospitals in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) were resistant to broad-spectrum cephalosporins and gave a positive double-disk synergy test. Two bla(CTX-M) genes encoding beta-lactamases of pl 7.9 and 8.2 were implicated in this resistance: the bla(CTX-M-9) gene observed in E. coli Rio-7 and E. cloacae Rio-9 and a novel CTX-M-encoding gene, designated bla(CTX-M-16), observed in E. coli strain Rio-6. The deduced amino acid sequence of CTX-M-16 differed from CTX-M-9 only by the substitution Asp-240-->Gly. The CTX-M-16-producing E. coli transformant exhibited the same level of resistance to cefotaxime (MIC, 16 microg/ml) but had a higher MIC of ceftazidime (MIC, 8 versus 1 microg/ml) than the CTX-M-9-producing transformant. Enzymatic studies revealed that CTX-M-16 had a 13-fold higher affinity for aztreonam and a 7.5-fold higher k(cat) for ceftazidime than CTX-M-9, thereby showing that the residue in position 240 can modulate the enzymatic properties of CTX-M enzymes. The two bla(CTX-M-9) genes and the bla(CTX-M-16) gene were located on different plasmids, suggesting the presence of mobile elements associated with CTX-M-encoding genes. CTX-M-2 and CTX-M-8 enzymes were found in Brazil in 1996, and two other CTX-M beta-lactamases, CTX-M-9 and CTX-M-16, were subsequently observed. These reports are evidence of the diversity of CTX-M-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Brazil.
Project description:Serratia marcescens Rio-5, one of 18 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains isolated in several hospitals in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) in 1996 and 1997, exhibited a high level of resistance to aztreonam (MIC, 512 microgram/ml) and a distinctly higher level of resistance to cefotaxime (MIC, 64 microgram/ml) than to ceftazidime (MIC, 8 microgram/ml). The strain produced a plasmid-encoded ESBL with a pI of 7.5 whose bla gene was not related to those of other plasmid-mediated Ambler class A ESBLs. Cloning and sequencing revealed a bla gene encoding a novel class A beta-lactamase in functional group 2be, designated BES-1 (Brazil extended-spectrum beta-lactamase). This enzyme had 51% identity with chromosomal class A penicillinase of Yersinia enterocolitica Y56, which was the most closely related enzyme and 47 to 48% identity with CTX-M-type beta-lactamases, which were the most closely related ESBLs. In common with CTX-M enzymes, BES-1 exhibited high cefotaxime-hydrolyzing activity (k(cat), 425 s(-1)). However, BES-1 differed from CTX-M enzymes by its significant ceftazidime-hydrolyzing activity (k(cat), 25 s(-1)), high affinity for aztreonam (K(i), 1 microM), and lower susceptibility to tazobactam (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)], 0.820 microM) than to clavulanate (IC(50), 0.045 microM). Likewise, certain characteristic structural features of CTX-M enzymes, such as Phe-160, Ser-237, and Arg-276, were observed for BES-1, which, in addition, harbored different residues (Ala-104, Ser-171, Arg-220, Gly-240) and six additional residues at the end of the sequence. BES-1, therefore, may be an interesting model for further investigations of the structure-function relationships of class A ESBLs.
Project description:CTX-M-25 is a novel extended-spectrum beta-lactamase isolated from a single Canadian Escherichia coli isolate. Susceptibility testing demonstrated that this enzyme confers resistance to both cefotaxime and ceftazidime, but the level of resistance was reduced with the addition of beta-lactamase inhibitors. The bla(CTX-M-25) gene was detected on a 111-kb plasmid. It is a member of the CTX-M-8 group and has the closest amino acid identity (99%; three amino acid substitutions) with CTX-M-26. The bla(CTX-M-26) gene was detected on a 100-kb plasmid isolated from a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain from the United Kingdom, and plasmid profiling revealed that it showed some homology to the bla(CTX-M-25)-harboring plasmid. Both CTX-M genes were located downstream of ISEcp1, although the copy upstream of bla(CTX-M-25) was disrupted by IS50-A. Comparative kinetic studies of recombinant CTX-M-25 and CTX-M-26 enzymes showed that CTX-M-25 has a higher level of ceftazidime hydrolysis (kcat values, 33 and 0.005 s(-1) for CTX-M-25 and CTX-M-26, respectively).
Project description:CTX-M-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have become increasingly common worldwide, with the notable exception of the United States, where TEM- and SHV-type ESBLs have appeared to predominate. We have noted the emergence of ESBLs in our health care system (the University Health System in San Antonio, TX), especially in Escherichia coli isolates, that preferentially hydrolyze cefotaxime rather than ceftazidime, suggesting the possibility of CTX-M-type enzymes. Microbiology laboratory records were reviewed to identify ESBL-producing isolates and to compare the diameters of ceftazidime disk diffusion zones of inhibition to cefotaxime zone diameters. All isolates had been initially detected and confirmed using the procedures recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. A total of 94 stored ESBL-producing isolates recovered between January 2000 and June 2006 (predominately from blood and normally sterile fluids) were retrieved for further study and screened using PCR primers specific for the presence of CTX-M, TEM, and SHV ESBLs. Only small numbers of retained ESBL-producing isolates were available for study in 2000 and 2002. The percentages of available ESBL-producing organisms in the following years were found to produce CTX-M enzymes: 2000, 25%; 2001, 10%; 2002, 0%; 2003, 60%; 2004, 69%; 2005, 89%; and 2006, 70%. The most common CTX-M-type ESBL was CTX-M-15, followed by CTX-M-16, CTX-M-8, and CTX-M-14. Comparing the disk diffusion zone diameters of cefotaxime and ceftazidime was helpful with the initial recognition of CTX-M-producing E. coli, which had an average cefotaxime zone diameter 7 mm smaller than the ceftazidime zone. However, comparing ceftazidime and cefotaxime zones for CTX-M-producing Klebsiella spp. was not helpful with initial recognition. CTX-M enzymes were also identified in Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter spp., and Morganella morganii. Based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of the E. coli isolates, the CTX-M-producing isolates did not represent the spread of a single clone in the institution or in the community. In conclusion, CTX-M-type ESBLs are now the most common ESBL type isolated from patients in our health care system and may also be present but unrecognized in other U.S. locales.
Project description:We describe the characterization of a novel CTX-M beta-lactamase from Salmonella enterica. Four S. enterica isolates (three of serotype Westhampton and one of serotype Senftenberg) resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (cefotaxime and ceftazidime) were recovered in 2004 from living cockles in three supermarkets located in distant geographic areas in France, which got their supplies from the same fishery. The isolates were found to produce a novel extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) belonging to the CTX-M-1 phylogenetic group and named CTX-M-53. The CTX-M-53 beta-lactamase harbored the substitution Asp240Gly, like the CTX-M-15 enzyme, which is specifically implicated in a higher catalytic efficiency against ceftazidime. The bla(CTX-M-53) gene was located on a mobilizable 11-kb plasmid, pWES-1. The complete sequence of pWES-1 revealed the presence of a novel insertion sequence, ISSen2, and an IS26 element upstream and downstream of the bla(CTX-M-53) gene, respectively; however, transposition assays of the bla(CTX-M-53) gene were unsuccessful. IS26 elements may have contributed to the acquisition of the bla(CTX-M-53) gene. Interestingly, the mobilization module of the pWES-1 plasmid was similar to that of quinolone resistance plasmids (carrying the qnrS2 gene) from aquatic sources. Although belonging to two serotypes differentiated on the basis of the O-antigen structure (E1 or E4 groups), the isolates were found to be genetically indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Multilocus sequence typing showed that the isolates of serotype Westhampton had a sequence type, ST14, common among isolates of serotype Senftenberg. This is the first characterization of the CTX-M-53 ESBL, which represents an additional ceftazidime-hydrolyzing CTX-M enzyme.
Project description:Strains of Citrobacter freundii intermediate to cefotaxime but sensitive to ceftazidime were isolated from four different patients in Canada. Sequencing of PCR products by use of CTX-M-specific primers revealed a new combination of four amino acid substitutions. This new gene was designated bla(CTX-M-30) and was encoded on a 3-kb plasmid. The pI of CTX-M-30 was 8.0.
Project description:CONTEXT:The CTX-M family consists of more than 50 ?-lactamases, which are grouped on the basis of sequences into five subtypes including CTX-M-1, CTX-M-2, CTX-M-8, CTX-M-9 and CTX-M-25. OBJECTIVES:The current study aimed to detect subtypes of CTX-M extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) among ESBL positive Klebsiella isolates from patients in Kashan, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 100 clinical isolates of Klebsiella were collected and the isolates, which showed resistance or reduced susceptibility to cefotaxime, ceftazidime and/or aztreonam by the disk diffusion method were selected. These isolates were identified as ESBL-producing isolates by double disk synergy tests using clavulanic acid, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and aztreonam. The blaCTX-M type determinants were identified by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method followed by DNA sequencing. RESULTS:Of the 100 Klebsiella isolates, 41 (41%) demonstrated resistance or reduced susceptibility to ceftazidime and/or aztreonam and 35% (n = 35) were ESBL-producers. Twenty-eight (8o%) of the ESBL-producing isolates carried the blaCTX-M type genes. Based on PCR assays and sequencing of blaCTX-M genes, CTX-M-1, CTX-M-2 and CTX-M-9 were identified in 21 (60%), 15 (42%) and nine (34%) of these isolates, respectively (GenBank accession numbers KJ803828-KJ803829). CONCLUSIONS:Our study showed that the frequency of blaCTX-M genes among Klebsiella isolates in our region is at an alarming rate. Also, we found a high prevalence of blaCTX-M-1 ?-lactamase in Klebsiella isolates in Kashan.
Project description:Two extended-spectrum mutants of the class D beta-lactamase OXA-10 (PSE-2) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates obtained in Ankara, Turkey, were described previously and were designated OXA-11 and -14. P. aeruginosa 906 and 961, isolated at the same hospital, were highly resistant to ceftazidime (MIC >/= 128 microgram/ml) and produced a beta-lactamase with a pI of 6.2. The MICs of ceftriaxone, cefoperazone, cefsulodin, and cefepime were 4- to 16-fold above the typical values for P. aeruginosa, whereas the MICs of penicillins and cefotaxime were raised only marginally. Ceftazidime MICs were not significantly reduced by clavulanate or tazobactam at 4 microgram/ml. Ceftazidime resistance did not transfer conjugatively but was mobilized to P. aeruginosa PU21 by plasmid pUZ8. Both isolates gave similar DNA restriction patterns, suggesting that they were replicates; moreover, they yielded identically sized BamHI fragments that hybridized with a blaOXA-10 probe. DNA sequencing revealed that both isolates had the same new beta-lactamase, designated OXA-16, which differed from OXA-10 in having threonine instead of alanine at position 124 and aspartate instead of glycine at position 157. The latter change is also present in OXA-11 and -14 and seems critical to ceftazidime resistance. Kinetic parameters showed that OXA-16 enzyme was very active against penicillins, cephaloridine, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone, but hydrolysis of ceftazidime was not detected despite the ability of the enzyme to confer resistance.