High-affinity interaction of the N-terminal myristoylation motif of the neuronal calcium sensor protein hippocalcin with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.
ABSTRACT: Many proteins are associated with intracellular membranes due to their N-terminal myristoylation. Not all myristoylated proteins have the same localization within cells, indicating that other factors must determine their membrane targeting. The NCS (neuronal calcium sensor) proteins are a family of Ca2+-binding proteins with diverse functions. Most members of the family are N-terminally myristoylated and are either constitutively membrane-bound or have a Ca2+/myristoyl switch that allows their reversible membrane association in response to Ca2+ signals. In the case of hippocalcin and NCS-1, or alternatively KChIP1 (K+ channel-interacting protein 1), their N-terminal myristoylation motifs are sufficient for targeting to distinct organelles. We have shown that an N-terminal myristoylated hippocalcin peptide is able to specifically reproduce the membrane targeting of hippocalcin/NCS-1 when introduced into permeabilized cells. The peptide binds to liposomes containing phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] with high affinity (K(d) 50 nM). Full-length hippocalcin also bound preferentially to liposomes supplemented with PtdIns(4,5)P2. Co-expression of hippocalcin-(1-14)-ECFP (enhanced cyan fluorescent protein) or NCS-1-ECFP partially displaced the expressed PH (pleckstrin homology) domain of phospholipase delta1 from the plasma membrane in live cells, indicating that they have a higher affinity for PtdIns(4,5)P2 than does this PH domain. The Golgi localization of the PH domain of FAPP1 (four-phosphate-adaptor protein 1), which binds to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, was unaffected. The localization of NCS-1 and hippocalcin is likely to be determined, therefore, by their interaction with PtdIns(4,5)P2.
Project description:A myristoylated peptide corresponding to the N-terminus of NAP-22 (neuronal axonal myristoylated membrane protein of 22 kDa) causes the quenching of the fluorescence of BODIPY-TMR-labelled PtdIns(4,5) P2 in bilayers of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine containing 40 mol% cholesterol and 0.1 mol% BODIPY-PtdIns(4,5)2. Both fluorescence spectroscopy and total internal reflectance fluorescence microscopy revealed the cholesterol-dependent nature of PtdIns(4,5) P2-enriched membrane-domain formation.
Project description:A phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2]-hydrolytic activity was found to be present in the human platelet membrane fraction, with 20% of the total activity of the homogenate. The membrane-associated phospholipase C activity was extracted with 1% deoxycholate (DOC). The DOC-extractable phospholipase C was partially purified approx. 126-fold to a specific activity of 0.58 mumol of PtdIns-(4,5)P2 cleaved/min per mg of protein, by Q-Sepharose, heparin-Sepharose and Ultrogel AcA-44 column chromatographies. This purified DOC-extractable phospholipase C had an Mr of approx. 110,000, as determined by Ultrogel AcA-44 gel filtration. The enzyme exhibits a maximal hydrolysis for PtdIns-(4,5)P2 at pH 6.5 in the presence of 0.1% DOC. The addition of 0.1% DOC caused a marked activation of both PtdIns(4,5)P2 and phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) hydrolyses by the enzyme. The enzyme hydrolysed PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns in a different Ca2+-dependent manner; the maximal hydrolyses for PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns were obtained at 4 microM- and 0.5 mM-Ca2+ respectively. In the presence of 1 mM-Mg2+, PtdIns(4,5)P2-hydrolytic activity was decreased at all Ca2+ concentrations examined, but PtdIns-hydrolytic activity was not affected.
Project description:The metabolism of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] in rat parotid acinar cells was investigated, particularly with regard to the effects of receptor-active agonists. Stimulation of cholinergic-muscarinic receptors with methacholine provoked a rapid disappearance of 40--50% of [32P]PtdIns(4,5)P2, but had no effect on PtdIns4P. Adrenaline, acting on alpha-adrenoceptors, and Substance P also stimulated net loss of PtdIns(4,5)P2. The beta-adrenoceptor agonist, isoprenaline, and the Ca2+ ionophore, ionomycin, failed to affect labelled PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns4P. By chelation of extracellular Ca2+ with excess EGTA, and by an experimental protocol that eliminates cellular Ca2+ release, it was demonstrated that the agonist-induced decrease in PtdIns(4,5)P2 is independent of both Ca2+ influx and Ca2+ release. These results may suggest that net PtdIns(4,5)P2 breakdown is an early event in the stimulus-response pathway of the parotid acinar cell and could be directly involved in the mechanism of agonist-induced Ca2+ release from the plasma membrane.
Project description:The phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] [and to a lesser extent, the phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PtdIns4P)] phosphodiesterase and monoesterase activities of a rat brain supernatant have been studied by using 32P-labelled substrates prepared from human red blood cells. PtdIns(4,5)P2 monoesterase is maximally stimulated by Mg2+, though some activity is detectable in Ca2+/EDTA (Mg2+-free) buffers. The phosphodiesterase, however, is Ca2+-dependent, and in Ca2+/EDTA buffers with the pure lipid as substrate, shows maximal activity at 100 nM-Ca2+. If PtdIns(4,5)P2 is presented as a component of a lipid mixture of similar composition to that of the inner half of the lipid bilayer of a rat liver plasma membrane, the phosphodiesterase shows considerable activity at 1 microM-Ca2+, and is maximal at 100 microM-Ca2+. However, if it is assayed against the same substrate in Ca2+/EGTA buffers with 3mM-Mg2+ and 80 mM-KCl present (as an approximate parallel with the ionic environment in vivo), it shows no detectable activity below 100 microM-Ca2+, and is maximal at 1 mM-Ca2+. The monoesterase can hydrolyse PtdIns(4,5)P2 in such a lipid mixture at all Ca2+ concentrations with 1 or 3 mM-Mg2+ present. PtdIns(4,5)P2 phosphodiesterase can be induced to attack its substrate under ionic conditions similar to those in vivo (0.1-1 microM-Ca2+; 1 mM-Mg2+; 80 mM-KCl) by the conversion of its substrate into a non-bilayer configuration. If given such a substrate [by mixing PtdIns(4,5)P2 with an excess of phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn)] it shows a shallow Ca2+-dependency curve from 0.1 to 100 microM and then a steep rise to 1 mM-Ca2+. Together these observations lead us to the suggestion that a perturbation in a membrane in vivo equivalent to a non-bilayer configuration would be sufficient to induce phosphodiesterase-catalysed PtdIns(4,5)P2 breakdown. When given substrates mixed with excess PtdEtn at pH 7.25 (or 5.5), 1 microM-Ca2+, 1 mM-Mg2+ and 80 mM-KCl, the rat brain supernatant phosphodiesterase activity hydrolysed PtdIns(4,5)P 50-100-fold faster than it hydrolysed phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns). If the supernatant was presented with such a non-bilayer mixture containing a ten-fold excess of PtdIns over PtdIns(4,5)P2, the latter phospholipid was still hydrolysed by phosphodiesterasic cleavage at nearly ten times the rate of the former. Receptor-stimulated phosphodiesterase cleavage of polyphosphoinositides is an early event in cell activation by many agonists. The properties of PtdIns(4,5)P2 phosphodiesterase in vitro suggest that a change in the presentation of its substrate would be a sensitive and sufficient control on the enzyme's activity in vivo.
Project description:Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH; thyroliberin) stimulated rapid hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] by a phosphodiesterase (phospholipase C) in GH3 cells, a prolactin-secreting rat pituitary tumour cell line. TRH caused a rapid decrease in the level of PtdIns(4,5)P2 to 60% of control and stimulated a marked transient increase in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, the unique product of phosphodiesteratic hydrolysis of PtdIns(4,5)P2, to a peak of 410% of control at 15 s. TRH also caused decreases in phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate (PtdIns4P) and phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) to 65% and 93% of control at 15 s respectively. Inositol 1,4-bisphosphate was increased to a peak of 450% at 30 s; inositol 1-monophosphate and inositol were not elevated until 30 s and 1 min respectively after TRH addition. To study whether PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis may be caused by an elevation in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, the changes induced by TRH in the levels of inositol sugars were compared with the effects of membrane depolarization by high extracellular [K+]. The elevation in cytosolic [Ca2+] induced by K+ depolarization did not change the level of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. These data suggest that phosphodiesteratic hydrolysis of PtdIns(4,5)P2 may be the initial event in TRH stimulation of inositol lipid metabolism in GH3 cells and that PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis is not stimulated by an elevation in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. The decreases in PtdIns4P and PtdIns may be due to enhanced conversion of PtdIns into PtdIns4P into PtdIns(4,5)P2 or to their direct hydrolysis by phosphomonoesterases and/or phosphodiesterases. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that TRH-stimulated PtdIns(4,5)P2 breakdown causes Ca2+ mobilization leading to prolactin secretion.
Project description:We studied the possibility that hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] may be the initiating event for the increase in [32P]Pi incorporation into phosphatidic acid (PtdA) and phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) during carbachol and pancreozymin (cholecystokinin-octapeptide) action in the rat pancreas. After prelabelling acini for 2h, [32P]Pi incorporation into PtdA, PtdIns(4,5)P2 and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) had reached equilibrium. Subsequent addition of carbachol or pancreozymin caused 32P in PtdIns(4,5)P2 to decrease by 30-50% within 10-15 s, and this was followed by sequential increases in [32P]Pi incorporation into PtdA and PtdIns. Similar changes in 32P-labelling of PtdIns4P were not consistently observed. Confirmation that the decrease in 32P in chromatographically-purified PtdIns(4,5)P2 reflected an actual decrease in this substance was provided by the fact that similar results were obtained (a) when PtdIns(4,5)P2 was prelabelled with [2-3H]inositol, and (b) when PtdIns(4,5)P2 was measured as its specific product (glycerophosphoinositol bisphosphate) after methanolic alkaline hydrolysis and ion-exchange chromatography. The secretogogue-induced breakdown of PtdIns(4,5)P2 was not inhibited by Ca2+ deficiency (severe enough to inhibit amylase secretion and Ca2+-dependent hydrolysis of PtdIns), and ionophore A23187 treatment did not provoke PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis. The increase in the hydrolysis of PtdIns(4,5)P2 and the increase in [32P]Pi incorporation into PtdA commenced at the same concentration of carbachol in dose-response studies. Our findings suggest that the hydrolysis of PtdIns(4,5)P2 is an early event in the action of pancreatic secretogogues that mobilize Ca2+, and it is possible that this hydrolysis may initiate the Ca2+-independent labelling of PtdA and PtdIns. Ca2+ mobilization may follow these responses, and subsequently cause Ca2+-dependent hydrolysis of PtdIns and exocytosis.
Project description:The membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) is an important regulator in cell physiology. Hydrolysis of PtdIns(4,5)P2 by phospholipase C (PLC) releases two second messengers, Ins(1,4,5)P3 and diacylglycerol. To dissect the effects of PtdIns(4,5)P2 from those resulting from PLC-generated signals, a metabolically stabilized analogue of PtdIns(4,5)P2 was required. Two analogues were designed in which the scissile O-P bond was replaced with a C-P bond that could not be hydrolyzed by PLC activity. Herein we describe the asymmetric total synthesis of the first metabolically stabilized phospholipase C-resistant analogues of PtdIns(4,5)P2. The key transformation was a Pd(0)-catalyzed coupling of a H-phosphite with a vinyl bromide to form the desired C-P linkage. The phosphonate analogues of PtdIns(4,5)P2 were found to be effective in restoring the sensitivity of the TRPM4 channel to Ca2+ activation.
Project description:The Ca2+-sensor synaptotagmin-1 that triggers neuronal exocytosis binds to negatively charged membrane lipids (mainly phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and phosphoinositides (PtdIns)) but the molecular details of this process are not fully understood. Using quantitative thermodynamic, kinetic and structural methods, we show that synaptotagmin-1 (from Rattus norvegicus and expressed in Escherichia coli) binds to PtdIns(4,5)P2 via a polybasic lysine patch in the C2B domain, which may promote the priming or docking of synaptic vesicles. Ca2+ neutralizes the negative charges of the Ca2+-binding sites, resulting in the penetration of synaptotagmin-1 into the membrane, via binding of PtdSer, and an increase in the affinity of the polybasic lysine patch to phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2). These Ca2+-induced events decrease the dissociation rate of synaptotagmin-1 membrane binding while the association rate remains unchanged. We conclude that both membrane penetration and the increased residence time of synaptotagmin-1 at the plasma membrane are crucial for triggering exocytotic membrane fusion.
Project description:The effect of the GTP analogue guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) on the polyphosphoinositide phospholipase C (PLC) of rat liver was examined by using exogenous [3H]phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2]. GTP[S] stimulated the membrane-bound PLC up to 20-fold, with a half-maximal effect at approx. 100 nM. Stimulation was also observed with guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate, but not with adenosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate, and was inhibited by guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate. Membrane-bound PLC was entirely Ca2+-dependent, and GTP[S] produced both a decrease in the Ca2+ requirement and an increase in activity at saturating [Ca2+]. The stimulatory action of GTP[S] required millimolar Mg2+. [8-arginine]Vasopressin (100 nM) stimulated the PLC activity approx. 2-fold in the presence of 10 nM-GTP[S], but had no effect in the absence of GTP[S] or at 1 microM-GTP[S]. The hydrolysis of PtdIns(4,5)P2 by membrane-bound PLC was increased when the substrate was mixed with phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine or various combinations of these with phosphatidylserine. With PtdIns(4,5)P2, alone or mixed with phosphatidylcholine, GTP[S] evoked little or no stimulation of the PLC activity. However, maximal stimulation by GTP[S] was observed in the presence of a 2-fold molar excess of phosphatidylserine or various combinations of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine. Hydrolysis of [3H]phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate by membrane-bound PLC was also increased by GTP[S]. However, [3H]phosphatidylinositol was a poor substrate, and its hydrolysis was barely affected by GTP[S]. Cytosolic PtdIns(4,5)P2-PLC exhibited a Ca2+-dependence similar to that of the membrane-bound activity, but was unaffected by GTP[S]. It is concluded that rat liver plasma membranes possess a Ca2+-dependent polyphosphoinositide PLC that is activated by hormones and GTP analogues, depending on the Mg2+ concentration and phospholipid environment. It is proposed that GTP analogues and hormones, acting through a guanine nucleotide-binding protein, activate the enzyme mainly by lowering its Ca2+ requirement.
Project description:The voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP) is a unique protein that shows voltage-dependent phosphoinositide phosphatase activity. Here we report that VSP is activated in mice sperm flagellum and generates a unique subcellular distribution pattern of PtdIns(4,5)P2 Sperm from VSP-/- mice show more Ca2+ influx upon capacitation than VSP+/- mice and abnormal circular motion. VSP-deficient sperm showed enhanced activity of Slo3, a PtdIns(4,5)P2-sensitive K+ channel, which selectively localizes to the principal piece of the flagellum and indirectly enhances Ca2+ influx. Most interestingly, freeze-fracture electron microscopy analysis indicates that normal sperm have much less PtdIns(4,5)P2 in the principal piece than in the midpiece of the flagellum, and this polarized PtdIns(4,5)P2 distribution disappeared in VSP-deficient sperm. Thus, VSP appears to optimize PtdIns(4,5)P2 distribution of the principal piece. These results imply that flagellar PtdIns(4,5)P2 distribution plays important roles in ion channel regulation as well as sperm motility.