CTX-M-2 and a new CTX-M-39 enzyme are the major extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in multiple Escherichia coli clones isolated in Tel Aviv, Israel.
ABSTRACT: The rate of occurrence of the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing phenotype among Escherichia coli isolates in Tel Aviv is 12% (22). The aim of this study was to understand the molecular epidemiology of E. coli ESBL producers and to identify the ESBL genes carried by them. We studied 20 single-patient ESBL-producing E. coli clinical isolates. They comprised 11 distinct nonrelated pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotypes: six isolates belonged to the same PFGE clone, four other clones included two isolates each, and six unrelated clones included only one isolate. All isolates produced various beta-lactamases with pIs ranging from 5.2 to 8.2, varying within similar PFGE clones. The most prevalent ESBL gene was bla(CTX-M); 16 isolates carried bla(CTX-M-2) and three carried a new ESBL gene designated bla(CTX-M-39). Three strains carried bla(SHV) (two bla(SHV-12) and one bla(SHV-5)), and two strains carried inhibitor-resistant ESBL genes, bla(TEM-33) and bla(TEM-30); 18 strains carried bla(TEM-1) and eight strains carried bla(OXA-2). Plasmid mapping and Southern blot analysis with a CTX-M-2 probe demonstrated that bla(CTX-M-2) is plasmid borne. The wide dissemination of ESBLs among E. coli isolates in our institution is partly related to clonal spread, but more notably to various plasmid-associated ESBL genes, occurring in multiple clones, wherein the CTX-M gene family appears almost uniformly. We report here a new CTX-M gene, designated bla(CTX-M-39), which revealed 99% homology with bla(CTX-M-26), with a substitution of arginine for glutamine at position 225.
Project description:Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae have rapidly spread worldwide and pose a serious threat for health care-associated (HA) infection. We conducted molecular detection and characterization of ESBL-related bla genes, including bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(CTX-M), bla(VEB), bla(OXA), bla(PER), and bla(GES), among 362 isolates of ESBL-producing E. coli (n = 235) and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae (n = 127) collected from patients who met the definition of HA infection at two major university hospitals in Thailand from December 2004 to May 2005. The prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae, patient demographics and the susceptibilities of these bacteria to various antimicrobial agents were described. A total of 87.3% of isolates carried several bla genes. The prevalence of bla(CTX-M) was strikingly high: 99.6% for ESBL-producing E. coli (CTX-M-14, -15, -27, -40, and -55) and 99.2% for ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae (CTX-M-3, -14, -15, -27, and -55). ISEcp1 was found in the upstream region of bla(CTX-M) in most isolates. Up to 77.0% and 71.7% of ESBL-producing E. coli and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae, respectively, carried bla(TEM); all of them encoded TEM-1. ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae carried bla(SHV) at 87.4% (SHV-1, -2a, -11, -12, -27, -71, and -75) but only at 3.8% for ESBL-producing E. coli (SHV-11 and -12). bla genes encoding VEB-1 and OXA-10 were found in both ESBL-producing E. coli (8.5% and 8.1%, respectively) and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae (10.2% and 11.8%, respectively). None of the isolates were positive for bla(PER) and bla(GES). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that there was no major clonal relationship among these ESBL producers. This is the first study to report CTX-M-3, CTX-M-27, CTX-M-40, SHV-27, SHV-71, and SHV-75 in Thailand and to show that CTX-M ESBL is highly endemic in the country.
Project description:The worldwide dissemination of extended-spectrum-?-lactamase (ESBL)- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is a major concern in both hospital and community settings. Rapid identification of these resistant pathogens and the genetic determinants they possess is needed to assist in clinical practice and epidemiological studies. A collection of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Proteus mirabilis isolates, including phenotypically ESBL-positive (n = 1,093) and ESBL-negative isolates (n = 59), obtained in 2008-2009 from a longitudinal surveillance study (SMART) was examined using an in vitro nucleic acid-based microarray. This approach was used to detect and identify bla(ESBL) (bla(SHV), bla(TEM), and bla(CTX-M) genes of groups 1, 2, 9, and 8/25) and bla(KPC) genes and was combined with selective PCR amplification and DNA sequencing for complete characterization of the bla(ESBL) and bla(KPC) genes. Of the 1,093 phenotypically ESBL-positive isolates, 1,041 were identified as possessing at least one bla(ESBL) gene (95.2% concordance), and 59 phenotypically ESBL-negative isolates, used as negative controls, were negative. Several ESBL variants of bla(TEM) (n = 5), bla(SHV) (n = 11), bla(CTX-M) (n = 19), and bla(KPC) (n = 3) were detected. A new bla(SHV) variant, bla(SHV-129), and a new bla(KPC) variant, bla(KPC-11), were also identified. The most common bla genes found in this study were bla(CTX-M-15), bla(CTX-M-14), and bla(SHV-12). Using nucleic acid microarrays, we obtained a "molecular snapshot" of bla(ESBL) genes in a current global population; we report that CTX-M-15 is still the dominant ESBL and provide the first report of the new ?-lactamase variants bla(SHV-129) and bla(KPC-11).
Project description:The contribution of integrons to the dissemination of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) was analyzed on all ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolates from 1988 to 2000 at Ramon y Cajal Hospital. We studied 133 E. coli pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types: (i) 52 ESBL-producing clinical strains (C-ESBL) (16 TEM, 9 SHV, 21 CTX-M-9, 1 CTX-M-14, and 5 CTX-M-10); (ii) 43 non-ESBL blood clinical strains (C-nESBL); and (iii) 38 non-ESBL fecal isolates from healthy volunteers (V-nESBL). Class 1 integrons were more common among C-ESBL (67%) than among C-nESBL (40%) or V-nESBL (26%) (P < 0.001) due to the high number of strains with bla(CTX-M-9), which is linked to an In6-like class 1 integron. Without this bias, class 1 integron occurrence would be similar in C-ESBL and C-nESBL groups (47% versus 40%). Occurrence of class 2 integrons was similar among clinical and community isolates (13 to 18%). No isolates contained class 3 integrons. The relatively low rate of class 1 integrons within transferable elements carrying bla(TEM) (23%) or bla(SHV) (33%) and the absence of class 2 integrons in all ESBL transconjugants mirror the assembly of translocative pieces containing bla(TEM) or bla(SHV) on local available transferable elements lacking integrons. The low diversity of class 1 integrons (seven types recovered in all groups) might indicate a wide dissemination of specific genetic elements in which they are located. In our environment, the spread of genetic elements encoding ESBL has no major impact on the dispersion of integrons, nor do integrons have a major impact on the spread of ESBL, except when bla(ESBL) genes are within an integron platform such as bla(CTX-M-9).
Project description:BACKGROUND: Although ?-lactam antibiotics are heavily used in many developing countries, the diversity of ?-lactamase genes (bla) is poorly understood. We screened for major ?-lactamase phenotypes and diversity of bla genes among 912 E. coli strains isolated from clinical samples obtained between 1992 and 2010 from hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients. RESULTS: None of the isolates was resistant to carbapenems but 30% of all isolates were susceptible to cefepime, cephamycins and piperacillin-tazobactam. Narrow spectrum ?-lactamase (NSBL) phenotype was observed in 278 (30%) isolates that contained bla(TEM-1) (54%) or bla(SHV-1) (35%) or both (11%). Extended Spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype was detected in 247 (27%) isolates which carried blaCTX-M-14 (29%), bla(CTX-M-15) (24%), bla(CTX-M-9) (2%), bla(CTX-M-8) (4%), bla(CTX-M-3) (11%), bla(CTX-M-1) (6%), blaSHV-5 (3%), bla(SHV-12) (5%), and bla(TEM-52) (16%). Complex Mutant TEM-like (CMT) phenotype was detected in 220 (24%) isolates which carried bla(TEM-125) (29%), while bla(TEM-50), bla(TEM-78), bla(TEM-109), bla(TEM -152) and bla(TEM-158) were detected in lower frequencies of between 7% and 11%. Majority of isolates producing a combination of CTX-M-15 + OXA-1 + TEM-1 exhibited resistance phenotypes barely indistinguishable from those of CMT-producers. Although 73 (8%) isolates exhibited Inhibitor Resistant TEM-like (IRT) phenotype, bla(TEM-103) was the only true IRT-encoding gene identified in 18 (25%) of strains with this phenotype while the rest produced a combination of TEM-1 + OXA-1. The pAmpCs-like phenotype was observed in 94 (10%) isolates of which 77 (82%) carried bla(CMY-2) while 18% contained blaCMY-1.Isolates from urine accounted for 53%, 53%, 74% and 72% of strains exhibiting complex phenotypes such as IRT, ESBL, CMT or pAmpC respectively. On the contrary, 55% isolates from stool exhibited the relatively more susceptible NSBL-like phenotype. All the phenotypes, and majority of the bla genes, were detected both in isolates from hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients but complex phenotypes were particularly common among strains obtained between 2000 and 2010 from urine of hospitalized patients. CONCLUSIONS: The phenotypes and diversity of bla genes in E. coli strains implicated in clinical infections in non-hospitalized and hospitalized patients in Kenya is worryingly high. In order to preserve the efficacy of ?-lactam antibiotics, culture and susceptibility data should guide therapy and surveillance studies for ?-lactamase-producers in developing countries should be launched.
Project description:Of 15 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae collected from the First Municipal People's Hospital of Guangzhou, in the southern part of the People's Republic of China, 9 were found to produce CTX-M ESBLs, 3 produced SHV-12, and 3 produced both CTX-M and SHV-12. Eleven isolates produced either TEM-1B or SHV-11, in addition to an ESBL. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 12 isolates carrying bla(CTX-M) genes revealed that they harbored three different bla(CTX-M) genes, bla(CTX-M-9) (5 isolates), bla(CTX-M-13) (1 isolate), and bla(CTX-M-14) (6 isolates). These genes have 98% nucleotide homology with bla(Toho-2). The bla(CTX-M) genes were carried on plasmids that ranged in size from 35 to 150 kb. Plasmid fingerprints and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed the dissemination of the bla(CTX-M) genes through transfer of different antibiotic resistance plasmids to different bacteria, suggesting that these resistance determinants are highly mobile. Insertion sequence ISEcp1, found on the upstream region of these genes, may be involved in the translocation of the bla(CTX-M) genes. This is the first report of the occurrence of SHV-12 and CTX-M ESBLs in China. The presence of strains with these ESBLs shows both the evolution of bla(CTX-M) genes and their dissemination among at least three species of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae, isolated within a single hospital. The predominance of CTX-M type enzymes seen in this area of China appears to be similar to that seen in South America but is different from those seen in Europe and North America, suggesting different evolutionary routes and selective pressures. A more comprehensive survey of the ESBL types from China is urgently needed.
Project description:Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) provide high level resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics among bacteria. In this study, previously described multidrug resistant bacteria from raw, treated, and municipal taps of DWDS from selected dams in southwestern Nigeria were assessed for the presence of ESBL resistance genes which include bla TEM, bla SHV, and bla CTX by PCR amplification. A total of 164 bacteria spread across treated (33), raw (66), and municipal taps (68), belonging to ?-Proteobacteria, ?-Proteobacteria, ?-Proteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria group, were selected for this study. Among these bacteria, the most commonly observed resistance was for ampicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (61 isolates). Sixty-one isolates carried at least one of the targeted ESBL genes with bla TEM being the most abundant (50/61) and bla CTX being detected least (3/61). Klebsiella was the most frequently identified genus (18.03%) to harbour ESBL gene followed by Proteus (14.75%). Moreover, combinations of two ESBL genes, bla SHV + bla TEM or bla CTX + bla TEM, were observed in 11 and 1 isolate, respectively. In conclusion, classic bla TEM ESBL gene was present in multiple bacterial strains that were isolated from DWDS sources in Nigeria. These environments may serve as foci exchange of genetic traits in a diversity of Gram-negative bacteria.
Project description:The activities of ceftazidime-avibactam, ceftolozane-tazobactam, and comparators were evaluated for 733 isolates displaying resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins and carrying extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) genes detected by whole-genome sequencing analysis. Isolates were collected during 2017 in U.S. hospitals. The ESBL producers were 486 Escherichia coli, 190 Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 42 Enterobacter cloacae isolates and isolates from 3 other species. The most common groups of ESBL-encoding genes were bla CTX-M-15-like (n?=?491 isolates) and bla CTX-M-15 alone (n?=?168) or plus bla OXA-1 (n?=?260), followed by bla CTX-M-14-like (n?=?162), which included bla CTX-M-27 and bla CTX-M-14 (104 and 51 isolates, respectively), and bla SHV-12 and bla SHV-7 (48 and 22 isolates, respectively). ESBL producers carried other ?-lactamases, including 1 E. cloacae harboring bla KPC-3 All ESBL-producing isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime-avibactam, and 90.2/83.9% (CLSI/EUCAST breakpoints) were susceptible to ceftolozane-tazobactam. Tigecycline (98.1/95.8% susceptible) and colistin (99.2%) were comparators that displayed the greatest activity against these isolates. Ceftolozane-tazobactam inhibited 91.4/83.9% of isolates carrying bla CTX-M-15-like and 97.5/95.1% of isolates carrying bla CTX-M-14-like, and its activity was more limited against the 91 isolates carrying bla SHV (66.7/61.1% susceptible). Ceftolozane-tazobactam inhibited 95.5% of the E. coli isolates but only 83.0%, 64.3%, and 80.0% of K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae, and other species harboring ESBL-encoding genes (CLSI breakpoints), respectively. Outer membrane protein sequences for ceftolozane-tazobactam-nonsusceptible isolates did not exhibit significant differences compared to those in genetically related ceftolozane-tazobactam-susceptible isolates. Ceftazidime-avibactam was more active than other agents tested, including ceftolozane-tazobactam, and the activity of this combination was stable regardless of species or ESBL gene carried.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The CTX-M family of extended-spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) enzymes is comprised of over 60 <i>bla</i><sub>CTX-M</sub> gene variants with the predominance of <i>bla</i><sub>CTX-M-15</sub> in many regions. In this report, we present the first description of <i>bla</i><sub>CTX-M-28</sub> in the United Arab Emirates.<h4>Methods</h4>Forty-five non-duplicate ESBL producing isolates identified in a secondary care facility in the United Arab Emirates from June to July 2016 were studied. Gene sequencing was performed and DNA sequences were annotated using the BLAST program to identify the gene subtypes.<h4>Results</h4>The majority of the ESBL positive isolates were <i>E. coli</i> (<i>n</i>/<i>N</i> = 39/45; 86.6%) followed by <i>K. pneumoniae</i> (<i>n</i> = 5) and <i>K. oxytoca</i> (<i>n</i> = 1). All isolates harboured <i>bla</i><sub>CTX-M</sub> and <i>bla</i><sub>TEM</sub> genes, 18 had <i>bla</i><sub>SHV</sub>, and 2 were <i>bla</i><sub>VIM</sub> positive. Thirty-seven isolates (82.2%) were positive for <i>bla</i><sub>CTX-M-28</sub>. Other <i>bla</i><sub>CTX-M</sub> genes identified include <i>bla</i><sub>CTX-M-167</sub> (<i>n</i> = 2; isolates #1 and 26) and one each for <i>bla</i><sub>CTX-M-38</sub>, <i>bla</i><sub>CTX-M-163</sub>, and <i>bla</i><sub>CTX-M-198</sub>. No <i>bla</i><sub>CTX-M-15</sub> was identified. The predominant <i>bla</i><sub>TEM</sub> subtype was <i>bla</i><sub>TEM-171</sub> (<i>n</i> = 8) followed by one of each of <i>bla</i><sub>TEM-120</sub>, <i>bla</i><sub>TEM-163</sub>, and <i>bla</i><sub>TEM-206</sub>. The <i>bla</i><sub>SHV</sub> subtypes were <i>bla</i><sub>SHV-148</sub> and <i>bla</i><sub>SHV-187</sub>.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The findings indicate the first description of <i>bla</i><sub>CTX-M-28</sub> in a setting where <i>bla</i><sub>CTX-M-15</sub> was previously predominant.
Project description:Infection by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae has been increasing in Taiwan. Accurate identification of the ESBL genes is necessary for surveillance and for epidemiological studies of the mode of transmission in the hospital setting. We describe herein the development of a novel system, which consists of a multiplex PCR to identify bla(SHV), bla(CTX-M-3)-like, and bla(CTX-M-14)-like genes and a modified SHV melting-curve mutation detection method to rapidly distinguish six prevalent bla(SHV) genes (bla(SHV-1), bla(SHV-2), bla(SHV-2a), bla(SHV-5), bla(SHV-11), and bla(SHV-12)) in Taiwan. Sixty-five clinical isolates, which had been characterized by nucleotide sequencing of the bla(SHV) and bla(CTX-M) genes, were identified by the system. The system was then used to genotype the ESBLs from 199 clinical isolates, including 40 Enterobacter cloacae, 68 Escherichia coli, and 91 Klebsiella pneumoniae, collected between August 2002 and March 2003. SHV-12 (80 isolates) was the most prevalent type of ESBL identified, followed in order of frequency by CTX-M-3 (65 isolates) and CTX-M-14 (36 isolates). Seventeen (9%) of the 199 clinical isolates harbored both SHV- and CTX-M-type ESBLs. In contrast to Enterobacter cloacae, the majority of which produced SHV-type ESBLs, E. coli and K. pneumoniae were more likely to possess CTX-M-type ESBLs. Three rare CTX-M types were identified through sequencing of the bla(CTX-M-3)-like (CTX-M-15) and bla(CTX-M-14)-like (CTX-M-9 and CTX-M-13) genes. The system appears to provide an efficient differentiation of ESBLs among E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae in Taiwan. Moreover, the design of the system can be easily adapted for similar purposes in areas where different ESBLs are prevalent.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The increasing prevalence of broad-spectrum ampicillin-resistant and third-generation cephalosporin-resistant <i>Enterobacteriaceae</i>, particularly <i>Escherichia coli</i> and <i>Klebsiella pneumoniae</i>, has become a global concern, with its clinical impacts on both human and veterinary medicine. This study examined the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, and molecular genetic features of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing <i>E. coli</i> and <i>K. pneumoniae</i> isolates from 10 types of raw vegetables.<h4>Methods</h4>In total, 305 samples were collected from 9 markets in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand, in 2020.<h4>Results</h4>ESBL-producing <i>E. coli</i> and <i>K. pneumoniae</i> isolates were found in 14 of the 305 samples obtained from 7 out of 10 types of vegetables (4.6% of the total). Further, 14 ESBL-producing <i>E. coli</i> (<i>n</i> = 5/14) and <i>K. pneumoniae</i> isolates (<i>n</i> = 9/14) (1.6% and 3.0%, respectively) were highly sensitive to β-lactam/carbapenem antibiotics (imipenem, 100%). ESBL-producing <i>E. coli</i> (<i>n</i> = 4) and <i>K. pneumoniae</i> isolates (<i>n</i> = 8) were also sensitive to non-β-lactam aminoglycosides (amikacin, 80.00% and 88.89%, respectively). ESBL producers were most resistant to β-lactam antibiotics, including ampicillin (85.71%) and the cephalosporins cefotaxime and ceftazidime (64.29%). The most frequently detected gene in ESBL-producing <i>E. coli</i> and <i>K. pneumoniae</i> was <i>bla<sub>SHV</sub></i> . However, two ESBL-producing <i>E. coli</i> isolates also carried three other ESBL-encoding variants, <i>bla<sub>TEM</sub></i> , <i>bla<sub>CTX-M1</sub></i> , <i>bla<sub>GES</sub> and bla<sub>TEM</sub>, bla<sub>SHV</sub>, bla<sub>CTX-M9</sub></i> , which may be due to their association with food chains and humans.<h4>Discussion</h4>Indeed, our results suggest that raw vegetables are an important source of ESBL-resistant <i>E. coli</i> and <i>K. pneumoniae</i>, which are potentially transmittable to humans via raw vegetable intake.