Detection of carp interstitial nephritis and gill necrosis virus in fish droppings.
ABSTRACT: Carp interstitial nephritis and gill necrosis virus (CNGV) is an unclassified large DNA virus that morphologically resembles members of the Herpesviridae but contains a large (ca. approximately 280-kbp) linear double-stranded DNA. This virus has also been named koi herpesvirus, koi herpes-like virus, and cyprinid herpesvirus 3. CNGV is the cause of a lethal disease that afflicts common carp and koi. By using immunohistochemistry, molecular analysis, and electron microscopy we previously demonstrated that this virus is present mainly in the intestine and kidney of infected fish. Based on these observations, we postulated that viruses and/or viral components may appear in droppings of infected carp. Here we report that (i) by using PCR we demonstrated that fish droppings contain viral DNA, (ii) fish droppings contain viral antigens which are useful for CNGV diagnosis, and (iii) fish droppings contain active virus which can infect cultured common carp brain cells and induce the disease in naïve fish following inoculation. Thus, our findings show that CNGV can be identified by using droppings without taking biopsies or killing fish and that infectious CNGV is present in the stools of sick fish. The possibility that fish droppings preserve viable CNGV during the nonpermissive seasons is discussed.
Project description:Numerous deaths of koi and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were observed on many farms throughout Israel, resulting in severe financial losses. The lethal viral disease observed is highly contagious and extremely virulent, but morbidity and mortality are restricted to koi and common carp populations. Diseased fish exhibit fatigue and gasping movements in shallow water. Infected fish had interstitial nephritis and gill necrosis as well as petechial hemorrhages in the liver and other symptoms that were not consistent with viral disease, suggesting a secondary infection. Here we report the isolation of carp nephritis and gill necrosis virus (CNGV), which is the etiologic agent of this disease. The virus propagates and induces severe cytopathic effects by 5 days postinfection in fresh koi or carp fin cell cultures (KFC and CFC, respectively), but not in epithelioma papillosum cyprini cells. The virus harvested from KFC cultures induced the same clinical signs, with a mortality of 75 to 95%, upon inoculation into naive koi and common carp. Using PCR, we provide final proof that the isolated virus is indeed the etiologic agent of food and ornamental carp mortalities in fish husbandry. Electron microscopy revealed viral cores with icosahedral morphology of 100 to 110 nm that resembled herpesviruses. Electron micrographs of purified pelleted CNGV sections, together with viral sensitivities to ether and Triton X-100, suggested that it is an enveloped virus. However, the genome of the isolated virus is a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecule of 270 to 290 kbp, which is larger than known herpesviruses. The viral DNA seems highly divergent and bears only small fragments (16 to 45 bp) that are similar to the genomes of several DNA viruses. Nevertheless, amino acid sequences encoded by CNGV DNA fragments bear similarities primarily to members of the Poxviridae and Herpesviridae and to other large dsDNA viruses. We suggest, therefore, that the etiologic agent of this disease may represent an as yet unclassified virus species that is endemic in C. carpio (carp).
Project description:A lethal disease of koi and common carp (species Cyprinus carpio) has afflicted many fish farms worldwide since 1998, causing severe financial losses. Morbidity and mortality are restricted to common carp and koi and appear in spring and autumn, when water temperatures are 18 to 28 degrees C. We have isolated the virus causing the disease from sick fish, propagated it in koi fin cell culture, and shown that virus from a single clone causes lethal disease in carp and koi upon infection. Intraperitoneal virus injection or bathing the fish in virus-containing water kills 85 to 100% of the fish within 7 to 21 days. This virus is similar to the previously reported koi herpesvirus; however, it has characteristics inconsistent with the herpesvirus family, and thus we have called it carp interstitial nephritis and gill necrosis virus. We examined the pathobiology of this disease in carp by using immunohistochemistry and PCR. We found large amounts of the virus in the kidneys of sick fish and smaller amounts in liver and brain. A rapid increase in the viral load in the kidneys was detected by using both immunofluorescence and semiquantitative PCR. Histological analyses of fish at various times after infection revealed signs of interstitial nephritis as early as 2 days postinfection, which increased in severity up to 10 days postinfection. There was severe gill disease evidenced by loss of villi with accompanying inflammation in the gill rakers. Minimal focal inflammation was noted in livers and brains. This report describes the etiology and pathology of a recently described viral agent in fish.
Project description:Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), previously designated carp interstitial nephritis and gill necrosis virus or koi herpesvirus, is the cause of a worldwide mortal disease of koi and carp. Morphologically, the virus resembles herpesviruses, yet it bears a genome of 277 to 295 kbp, which is divergent from most of the genomic sequences available in GenBank. The disease afflicts fish in the transient seasons, when the water temperature is 18 to 28 degrees C, conditions which permit virus propagation in cultured cells. Here we report that infectious virus is preserved in cultured cells maintained for 30 days at 30 degrees C. CyHV-3-infected vacuolated cells with deformed morphology converted to normal, and plaques disappeared following shifting up of the temperature and reappeared after transfer to the permissive temperature. Viral propagation and viral gene transcription were turned off by shifting cells to the nonpermissive temperature. Upon return of the cells to the permissive temperature, transcription of viral genes was reactivated in a sequence distinguished from that occurring in naïve cells following infection. Our results show that CyHV-3 persists in cultured cells maintained at the nonpermissive temperature and suggest that viruses could persist for long periods in the fish body, enabling a new burst of infection upon a shift to a permissive temperature.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Infections with carp edema virus, a pox virus, are known from Japanese koi populations since 1974. A characteristic clinical sign associated with this infection is lethargy and therefore the disease is called "koi sleepy disease". Diseased koi also show swollen gills, enophthalmus, and skin lesions. Mortality rates up to 80 % are described. For a long period of time, disease outbreaks seemed to be restricted to Japan. However, during the last years clinical outbreaks of koi sleepy disease also occurred in the UK and in the Netherlands. CASE PRESENTATION:In spring 2014 koi from different ponds showing lethargic behavior, skin ulcers, inflammation of the anus, enophthalmus, and gill necrosis were presented to the laboratory for diagnosis. In all cases, new koi had been purchased earlier that spring from the same retailer and introduced into existing populations. Eleven koi from six ponds were examined for ectoparasites and for bacterial and viral infections (cyprinid herpesviruses in general and especially koi herpesvirus (KHV) known formally as Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3); and Carp Edema Virus). In most of the cases parasites were not detected from skin and gills. Only opportunistic freshwater bacteria were isolated from skin ulcers. In cell cultures no cytopathic effect was observed, and none of the samples gave positive results in PCR tests for cyprinid herpesviruses. By analyzing gill tissues for CEV in seven out of eleven samples by a nested PCR, PCR products of 547 bp and 180 bp (by using nested primers) could be amplified. An outbreak of Koi Sleepy Disease was confirmed by sequencing of the PCR products. These results confirm the presence of CEV in German koi populations. CONCLUSION:A clinical outbreak of "koi sleepy disease" due to an infection with Carp Edema Virus was confirmed for the first time in Germany. To avoid transmission of CEV to common carp testing of CEV should become part of fish disease surveillance programs.
Project description:Koi herpesvirus (KHV) is highly contagious and lethal to cyprinid fish, causing significant economic losses to the carp aquaculture industry, particularly to koi carp breeders. Vaccines delivered through intramuscular needle injection or gene gun are not suitable for mass vaccination of carp. So, the development of cost-effective oral vaccines that are easily applicable at a farm level is highly desirable. In this study, we utilized chitosan-alginate capsules as an oral delivery system for a live probiotic (<i>Lactobacillus rhamnosus</i>) vaccine, pYG-KHV-ORF81/LR CIQ249, expressing KHV ORF81 protein. The tolerance of the encapsulated recombinant <i>Lactobacillus</i> to various digestive environments and the ability of the probiotic strain to colonize the intestine of carp was tested. The immunogenicity and the protective efficacy of the encapsulated probiotic vaccine was evaluated by determining IgM levels, lymphocyte proliferation, expression of immune-related genes, and viral challenge to vaccinated fish. It was clear that the chitosan-alginate capsules protected the probiotic vaccine effectively against extreme digestive environments, and a significant level (<i>P</i> < 0.01) of antigen-specific IgM with KHV-neutralizing activity was detected, which provided a protection rate of ca. 85% for koi carp against KHV challenge. The strategy of using chitosan-alginate capsules to deliver probiotic vaccines is easily applicable for mass oral vaccination of fish.<b>IMPORTANCE</b> An oral probiotic vaccine, pYG-KHV-ORF81/LR CIQ249, encapsulated by chitosan-alginate capsules as an oral delivery system was developed for koi carp against koi herpesvirus (KHV) infection. This encapsulated probiotic vaccine can be protected from various digestive environments and maintain effectively high viability, showing a good tolerance to digestive environments. This encapsulated probiotic vaccine has a good immunogenicity in koi carp via oral vaccination, and a significant level of antigen-specific IgM was effectively induced after oral vaccination, displaying effective KHV-neutralizing activity. This encapsulated probiotic vaccine can provide effective protection for koi carp against KHV challenge, which is handling-stress free for the fish, cost effective, and suitable for the mass oral vaccination of koi carp at a farm level, suggesting a promising vaccine strategy for fish.
Project description:Common carp (including ornamental koi carp) Cyprinus carpio L. are ecologically and economically important freshwater fish in Europe and Asia. C. carpio have recently been endangered by a third cyprinid herpesvirus, known as cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3), the etiological agent of koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD), which causes significant morbidity and mortality in koi and common carp. Clinical and pathological signs include epidermal abrasions, excess mucus production, necrosis of gill and internal organs, and lethargy. KHVD has decimated major carp populations in Israel, Indonesia, Taiwan, Japan, Germany, Canada, and the USA, and has been listed as a notifiable disease in Germany since 2005, and by the World Organisation for Animal Health since 2007. KHVD is exacerbated in aquaculture because of the relatively high host stocking density, and CyHV-3 may be concentrated by filter-feeding aquatic organisms. CyHV-3 is taxonomically grouped within the family Alloherpesviridae, can be propagated in a number of cell lines, and is active at a temperature range of 15 to 28°C. Three isolates originating from Japan (KHV-J), USA (KHV-U), and Israel (KHV-I) have been sequenced. CyHV-3 has a 295 kb genome with 156 unique open reading frames and replicates in the cell nucleus, and mature viral particles are 170 to 200 nm in diameter. CyHV-3 can be detected by multiple PCR-based methods and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Several modes of immunization have been developed for KHVD; however, fish immunized with either vaccine or wild-type virus may become carriers for CyHV-3. There is no current treatment for KHVD.
Project description:As koi and common carp gain importance in the Korean fish industry, the need for better diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of associated diseases has increased. In June 2019, the first known case of mass mortality involving cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) and the second involving carp edema virus (CEV) occurred in a koi farm in Jeolla-do, Korea. Notably, the CEV exhibited a closer phylogenetic relationship with certain CEV strains originating from Poland, Germany, and India than with strains originating from China or Japan. Epidemiological studies and detailed surveillance and control for CEV and CyHV-3 are needed along with quarantine inspections.
Project description:Koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD) is an emerging disease that causes mass mortality in koi and common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Its causative agent is Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), also known as koi herpesvirus (KHV). Although data on the pathogenesis of this deadly virus is relatively abundant in the literature, still little is known about its genomic diversity and about the molecular mechanisms that lead to such a high virulence. In this context, we developed a new strategy for sequencing full-length CyHV-3 genomes directly from infected fish tissues. Total genomic DNA extracted from carp gill tissue was specifically enriched with CyHV-3 sequences through hybridization to a set of nearly 2 million overlapping probes designed to cover the entire genome length, using KHV-J sequence (GenBank accession number AP008984) as reference. Applied to 7 CyHV-3 specimens from Poland and Indonesia, this targeted genomic enrichment enabled recovery of the full genomes with >99.9% reference coverage. The enrichment rate was directly correlated to the estimated number of viral copies contained in the DNA extracts used for library preparation, which varied between ?5000 and ?2×107. The average sequencing depth was >200 for all samples, thus allowing the search for variants with high confidence. Sequence analyses highlighted a significant proportion of intra-specimen sequence heterogeneity, suggesting the presence of mixed infections in all investigated fish. They also showed that inter-specimen genetic diversity at the genome scale was very low (>99.95% of sequence identity). By enabling full genome comparisons directly from infected fish tissues, this new method will be valuable to trace outbreaks rapidly and at a reasonable cost, and in turn to understand the transmission routes of CyHV-3.
Project description:Outbreaks of koi sleepy disease (KSD) caused by carp edema virus (CEV) may seriously affect populations of farmed common carp, one of the most important fish species for global food production. The present study shows further evidence for the involvement of CEV in outbreaks of KSD among carp and koi populations: in a series of infection experiments, CEV from two different genogroups could be transmitted to several strains of naïve common carp via cohabitation with fish infected with CEV. In recipient fish, clinical signs of KSD were induced. The virus load and viral gene expression results confirm gills as the target organ for CEV replication. Gill explants also allowed for a limited virus replication in vitro. The in vivo infection experiments revealed differences in the virulence of the two CEV genogroups which were associated with infections in koi or in common carp, with higher virulence towards the same fish variety as the donor fish. When the susceptibility of different carp strains to a CEV infection and the development of KSD were experimentally investigated, Amur wild carp showed to be relatively more resistant to the infection and did not develop clinical signs for KSD. However, the resistance could not be related to a higher magnitude of type I IFN responses of affected tissues. Despite not having a mechanistic explanation for the resistance of Amur wild carp to KSD, we recommend using this carp strain in breeding programs to limit potential losses caused by CEV in aquaculture.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Outbreaks with mass mortality among common carp Cyprinus carpio carpio and koi Cyprinus carpio koi have occurred worldwide since 1998. The herpes-like virus isolated from diseased fish is different from Herpesvirus cyprini and channel catfish virus and was accordingly designated koi herpesvirus (KHV). Diagnosis of KHV infection based on viral isolation and current PCR assays has a limited sensitivity and therefore new tools for the diagnosis of KHV infections are necessary. RESULTS:A robust and sensitive PCR assay based on a defined gene sequence of KHV was developed to improve the diagnosis of KHV infection. From a KHV genomic library, a hypothetical thymidine kinase gene (TK) was identified, subcloned and expressed as a recombinant protein. Preliminary characterization of the recombinant TK showed that it has a kinase activity using dTTP but not dCTP as a substrate. A PCR assay based on primers selected from the defined DNA sequence of the TK gene was developed and resulted in a 409 bp amplified fragment. The TK based PCR assay did not amplify the DNAs of other fish herpesviruses such as Herpesvirus cyprini (CHV) and the channel catfish virus (CCV). The TK based PCR assay was specific for the detection of KHV and was able to detect as little as 10 fentograms of KHV DNA corresponding to 30 virions. The TK based PCR was compared to previously described PCR assays and to viral culture in diseased fish and was shown to be the most sensitive method of diagnosis of KHV infection. CONCLUSION:The TK based PCR assay developed in this work was shown to be specific for the detection of KHV. The TK based PCR assay was more sensitive for the detection of KHV than previously described PCR assays; it was as sensitive as virus isolation which is the golden standard method for KHV diagnosis and was able to detect as little as 10 fentograms of KHV DNA corresponding to 30 virions.