Analytical verification of a PCR assay for identification of Bordetella avium.
ABSTRACT: Bordetella avium is the etiologic agent of turkey coryza or bordetellosis, a respiratory disease responsible for substantial economic losses to the turkey industry. At present, identification of this bacterium relies on isolation and biochemical testing. Although a PCR for the detection of B. avium was proposed a number of years ago, lack of analytical verification precludes its use as a diagnostic tool. Furthermore, a number of details pertaining to the reaction conditions used are missing or unclear. In the present study we have identified an optimal set of PCR conditions for use with the previously described primer pair and determined the limit of detection under these conditions to be approximately 20 pg. Assay sensitivity is 100%, based on an analysis of 72 B. avium isolates from diverse geographic locations and covering a time span of at least 25 years. Evaluation of a separate group of 87 bacterial isolates from poultry, comprising both gram-positive and gram-negative commensals and pathogens representing 11 genera, demonstrated an assay specificity of 98.8%. Reproducibility is 100% using either purified genomic DNA or boiled cell lysates less than 3 days old. Sequence analysis of the B. avium PCR amplicons identified only three occasional sequence polymorphisms. These data indicate the B. avium PCR assay can provide clinically significant results.
Project description:Bordetellosis or turkey coryza, caused by Bordetella avium, has been an issue for turkey industry since its first description in 1967 when it was reported for the first time. Bordetella avium causes a highly contagious upper respiratory disease in turkeys. Therefore, this study aimed to isolate and characterize this species from commercial and backyard turkeys in Tehran, Isfahan, and Northern provinces of Iran. For the purpose of the study, 625 tracheal swabs were taken from 425 commercial poults and 200 backyard poults aged 2-6 weeks from September 2016 to September 2018. The swabs were immediately plated on MacConkey and blood agar plates and then pooled (5 swabs/pool) in tubes, containing 2 mL distilled water, to perform direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the identification of B. avium. A total of 17 swab pools were found to be positive for B. avium. A subset of seven positive samples were sequenced for the flanking region of piuA gene. The analysis of the sequences indicated that the sequences were 98%, 96%, and 98% similar to B. avium 197N (AM167904.1), 4142 (AY925058.1), and 4156 (AY925068.1) sequences, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, the current study is the first attempt toward the molecular detection and characterization of B. avium in Iran. It is highly recommended to perform further studies to isolate, characterize, and differentiate the regional isolates in order to help the developing turkey industry of Iran meet the increasing demands for protein in the diet of the citizenry.
Project description:Bordetella avium continues to be an economic issue in the turkey industry as the causative agent of bordetellosis, which often leads to serious secondary infections. This study presents a broad characterization of the antibiotic resistance patterns in this diverse collection of B. avium strains collected over the past thirty years. In addition, the plasmid basis for the antibiotic resistance was characterized. The antibiotic resistance pattern allowed the development of a novel enrichment culture method that was subsequently employed to gather new isolates from diseased turkeys and a healthy sawhet owl. While a healthy turkey flock was shown to seroconvert by four weeks-of-age, attempts to culture B. avium from healthy turkey poults were unsuccessful. Western blot of B. avium strains using pooled serum from diseased and healthy commercial turkey flocks revealed both antigenic similarities and differences between strains. In sum, the work documents the continued exposure of commercial turkey flocks to B. avium and the need for development of an effective, inexpensive vaccine to control spread of the disease.
Project description:Bordetellosis is an upper respiratory disease of turkeys caused by Bordetella avium in which the bacteria attach specifically to ciliated respiratory epithelial cells. Little is known about the mechanisms of pathogenesis of this disease, which has a negative impact in the commercial turkey industry. In this study, we produced a novel explant organ culture system that was able to successfully reproduce pathogenesis of B. avium in vitro, using tracheal tissue derived from 26 day-old turkey embryos. Treatment of the explants with whole cells of B. avium virulent strain 197N and culture supernatant, but not lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or tracheal cytotoxin (TCT), specifically induced apoptosis in ciliated cells, as shown by annexin V and TUNEL staining. LPS and TCT are known virulence factors of Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. Treatment with whole cells of B. avium and LPS specifically induced NO response in ciliated cells, shown by uNOS staining and diaphorase activity. The explant system is being used as a model to elucidate specific molecules responsible for the symptoms of bordetellosis.
Project description:Bordetella avium causes an upper-respiratory-tract disease called bordetellosis in birds. Bordetellosis shares many of the clinical and histopathological features of disease caused in mammals by Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica. In this study we determined several parameters of infection in the domestic turkey, Meleagris galapavo, and compared these in vivo findings with an in vitro measure of adherence using turkey tracheal rings. In the in vivo experiments, we determined the effects of age, group size, infection duration, and interindividual spread of B. avium. Also, the effect of host genetic background on susceptibility was tested in the five major commercial turkey lines by infecting each with the parental B. avium strain and three B. avium insertion mutants. The mutant strains lacked either motility, the ability to agglutinate guinea pig erythrocytes, or the ability to produce dermonecrotic toxin. The susceptibilities of 1-day-old and 1-week-old turkeys to B. avium were the same, and challenge group size (5, 8, or 10 birds) had no effect upon the 50% infectious dose. Two weeks between inoculation and tracheal culture was optimal, since an avirulent mutant (unable to produce dermonecrotic toxin) persisted for a shorter time. Communicability of the B. avium parental strain between confined birds was modest, but a nonmotile mutant was less able to spread between birds. There were no host-associated differences in susceptibility to the parental strain and the three B. avium mutant strains just mentioned: in all turkey lines tested, the dermonecrotic toxin- and hemagglutination-negative mutants were avirulent whereas the nonmotile mutants showed no loss of virulence. Interestingly, the ability of a strain to cause disease in vivo correlated completely with its ability to adhere to ciliated tracheal cells in vitro.
Project description:<i>Bordetella avium</i> (BA) is one of many pathogens that cause respiratory diseases in turkeys. However, other bacterial species can easily overgrow it during isolation attempts. This makes confirming the diagnosis of BA as the causative agent of turkey coryza more difficult. Currently, there are two PCR assays for the molecular detection of BA. One is conventional gel-based PCR and the other is TaqMan real-time PCR (qPCR) assay. However, multiple pitfalls were detected in both assays regarding their specificity, sensitivity, and efficiency, which limits their utility as diagnostic tools. In this study, we developed and validated two TaqMan qPCR assays and compared their performance to the currently available TaqMan qPCR. The two assays were able to correctly identify all BA isolates and showed negative results against a wide range of different microorganisms. The two assays were found to have high efficiency with a detection limit of approximately 1 × 10<sup>3</sup> plasmid DNA Copies/mL with high repeatability and reproducibility. In comparison to the currently available TaqMan qPCR assay, the newly developed assays showed significantly higher PCR efficiencies due to superior primers and probes design. The new assays can serve as a reliable tool for the sensitive, specific, and efficient diagnosis of BA.
Project description:Bordetella avium causes bordetellosis in birds, a disease similar to whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis in children. B. avium agglutinates guinea pig erythrocytes via an unknown mechanism. Loss of hemagglutination ability results in attenuation. We report the use of transposon mutagenesis to identify two genes required for hemagglutination. The genes (hagA and hagB) were adjacent and divergently oriented and had no orthologs in the genomes of other Bordetella species. Construction of in-frame, unmarked mutations in each gene allowed examination of the role of each in conferring erythrocyte agglutination, explanted tracheal cell adherence, and turkey poult tracheal colonization. In all of the in vitro and in vivo assays, the requirement for the trans-acting products of hagA and hagB (HagA and HagB) was readily shown. Western blotting, using antibodies to purified HagA and HagB, revealed proteins of the predicted sizes of HagA and HagB in an outer membrane-enriched fraction. Antiserum to HagB, but not HagA, blocked B. avium erythrocyte agglutination and explanted turkey tracheal ring binding. Bioinformatic analysis indicated the similarity of HagA and HagB to several two-component secretory apparatuses in which one product facilitates the exposition of the other. HagB has the potential to serve as a useful immunogen to protect turkeys against colonization and subsequent disease.
Project description:Bordetella avium causes an upper respiratory tract disease (bordetellosis) in avian species. Commercially raised turkeys are particularly susceptible. Like other pathogenic members of the genus Bordetella (B. pertussis and B. bronchiseptica) that infect mammals, B. avium binds preferentially to ciliated tracheal epithelial cells and produces similar signs of disease. These similarities prompted us to study bordetellosis in turkeys as a possible nonmammalian model for whooping cough, the exclusively human childhood disease caused by B. pertussis. One impediment to accepting such a host-pathogen model as relevant to the human situation is evidence suggesting that B. avium does not express a number of the factors known to be associated with virulence in the other two Bordetella species. Nevertheless, with signature-tagged mutagenesis, four avirulent mutants that had lesions in genes orthologous to those associated with virulence in B. pertussis and B. bronchiseptica (bvgS, fhaB, fhaC, and fimC) were identified. None of the four B. avium genes had been previously identified as encoding factors associated with virulence, and three of the insertions (in fhaB, bvgS, and fimC) were in genes or gene clusters inferred as being absent or incomplete in B. avium, based upon the lack of DNA sequence similarities in hybridization studies and/or the lack of immunological cross-reactivity of the putative products. We further found that the genotypic arrangements of most of the B. avium orthologues were very similar in all three Bordetella species. In vitro tests, including hemagglutination, tracheal ring binding, and serum sensitivity, helped further define the phenotypes conferred by the mutations. Our findings strengthen the connection between the causative agents and the pathogenesis of bordetellosis in all hosts and may help explain the striking similarities of the histopathologic characteristics of this upper airway disease in avian and mammalian species.
Project description:Bordetella avium is the causative agent of bordetellosis, which remains to be the cause of severe losses in the turkey industry. Given the lack of vaccines that can provide good protection, developing a novel vaccine against B. avium infection is crucial. In this study, we constructed a eukaryotic expression plasmid, which expressed the outer membrane protein A (ompA) of B. avium, to prepare a B. avium recombinant ompA-DNA vaccine. Three concentrations (low, middle, and high) of Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharides (TPPPS), a known immunomodulator, were used as adjuvants, and their immune conditioning effects on the developed DNA vaccine were examined. The pure ompA-DNA vaccine, Freund's incomplete adjuvant ompA-DNA vaccine, and the empty plasmid served as the controls. The chickens in each group were separately inoculated with these vaccines three times at 1, 7, and 14 days old. Dynamic changes in antibody production, cytokine secretion, and lymphocyte count were then determined from 7 to 49 days after the first inoculation. Protective rates of the vaccines were also determined after the third inoculation. Results showed that the pure DNA vaccine obviously induced the production of antibodies, the secretion of cytokines, and the increase in CD(4+) and CD(8+) T lymphocyte counts in peripheral blood, as well as provided a protective rate of 50% to the B. avium-challenged chickens. The chickens inoculated with the TPPPS adjuvant ompA-DNA vaccine and Freund's adjuvant ompA-DNA vaccine demonstrated higher levels of immune responses than those inoculated with pure ompA-DNA vaccine, whereas only the ompA-DNA vaccine with 200 mg/mL TPPPS completely protected the chickens against B. avium infection. These findings indicate that the B. avium ompA-DNA vaccine combined with TPPPS is a potentially effective B. avium vaccine.
Project description:A light cycler-based real-time PCR (LC-PCR) assay that amplifies the F57 sequence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was developed. This assay also includes an internal amplification control template to monitor the amplification conditions in each reaction. The targeted F57 sequence element is unique for M.avium subsp. paratuberculosis and is not known to exist in any other bacterial species. The assay specificity was demonstrated by evaluation of 10 known M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates and 33 other bacterial strains. The LC-PCR assay has a broad linear range (2 x 10(1) to 2 x10(6) copies) for quantitative estimation of the number of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis F57 target copies in positive samples. To maximize the assay's detection sensitivity, an efficient strategy for isolation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA from spiked milk samples was also developed. The integrated procedure combining optimal M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA isolation and real-time PCR detection had a reproducible detection limit of about 10 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells per ml when a starting sample volume of 10 ml of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-spiked milk was analyzed. The entire process can be completed within a single working day and is suitable for routine monitoring of milk samples for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis contamination. The applicability of this protocol for naturally contaminated milk was also demonstrated using milk samples from symptomatic M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected cows, as well as pooled samples from a dairy herd with a confirmed history of paratuberculosis.
Project description:Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD) in cattle and may be associated with Crohn's disease (CD) in humans. It is the slowest growing of the cultivable mycobacteria, and culture from clinical, veterinary, food, or environmental specimens can take 4 months or even longer. Currently, the insertion element IS900 is used to detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA. However, closely related IS900 elements are also present in other mycobacteria, thus limiting its specificity as a target. Here we describe the use of novel primer sets derived from the sequences of two highly specific single copy genes, MAP2765c and MAP0865, for the quantitative detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis within 6 h by using real-time PCR. Specificity of the target was established using 40 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates, 67 different bacterial species, and two intestinal parasites. Using the probes and methods described, we detected 27 (2.09%) M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-positive stool specimens from 1,293 individual stool samples by the use of either IS900 or probes deriving from the MAP2765c and MAP0865 genes described here. In general, bacterial load due to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was uniformly low in these samples and we estimated 500 to 5,000 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis bacteria per gram of stool in assay-positive samples. Thus, the methods described here are useful for rapid and specific detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in clinical samples.