Molecular identification of Rhizomucor pusillus as a cause of sinus-orbital zygomycosis in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia.
ABSTRACT: Sinus-orbital zygomycosis caused by Rhizomucor pusillus in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia is described. Identification was achieved by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the rRNA gene and by expression of zygospores in mating. This report highlights the value of ITS sequencing as a diagnostic tool for the identification of R. pusillus and expands the understanding of infection types caused by this zygomycete.
Project description:We report here the annotated draft genome sequence of the thermophilic zygomycete <i>Rhizomucor pusillus</i> strain FCH 5.7, isolated from compost soil in Vietnam. The genome assembly contains 25.59 Mb with an overall GC content of 44.95%, and comprises 10,898 protein coding genes. Genes encoding putative cellulose-, xylan- and chitin-degrading proteins were identified, including two putative endoglucanases (EC 220.127.116.11) from glycoside hydrolase family 9, which have so far been mostly assigned to bacteria and plants.
Project description:We describe an unusual presentation of fatal infection due to Rhizomucor pusillus bloodstream infection in a 12-year old pediatric patient recently diagnosed with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. R. pusillus was isolated from one blood culture drawn on Day 11 of hospitalization.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In recent years, the fungal infectious disease zygomycosis has increased in incidence worldwide, especially among the immunodeficient population. Despite the rates of zygomycosis-related death and deformation being very high, the mechanism(s) by which the fungal pathogens cause these severe manifestations remain unknown. METHODS: Using the associated Rhizomucor variabilis species, which can selectively induce cutaneous zygomycosis in otherwise healthy individuals, we investigated the host mechanisms of infection-related responses, including cytokine and chemokine expression as well as contributions of particular T cell subsets. siRNA specifically targeting IL-22,IL-17 and IFN-? were used to down-regulate expression of those molecules. RESULTS: In mouse models of infection, IL-22 was implicated in development of Rhizomucor spp.-induced skin lesions. In cultured human peripheral blood monocytes, R. pusilluscan, which is often found in immunodeficient patients, induced the production of IL-22, while R. variabilis did not. Moreover, Rhizomucor spp.-induced secretion of Il-22 from CCR6(+)CCR4(+)CCR10(+) cells was down-regulated by knockdown of IL-22 related signaling receptors, RORC and ARH. CONCLUSION: Our data strongly suggest that avoidance of IL-22 may be one mechanism by which mucor species produce morbidity and mortality in infected individuals.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Fungal amylase, mainly constitute of fungal ?-amylase and glucoamylase, are utilized in a broad range of industries, such as starch hydrolysis, food and brewing. Although various amylases have been found in fungi, the amylases from Aspergillus dominate the commercial application. One of main problems exist with regard to these commercial use of amylases is relatively low thermal and acid stability. In order to maximize the efficiency of starch process, developing fungal amylases with increased thermostability and acid stability has been attracting researchers' interest continually. Besides, synergetic action of glucoamylase and ?-amylase could facilitate the degradation of starch. And co-expressing glucoamylase with ?-amylase in one host could avoid the need to ferment repeatedly and improves cost-effectiveness of the process. RESULTS: A novel fungal glucoamylase (RpGla) gene encoding a putative protein of 512 amino acid residues was cloned from Rhizomucor pusillus. BLAST analysis revealed that RpGla shared highest identity of 51% with the Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase (ABB77799.1). The fungal glucoamylase RpGla was expressed in Pichia pastoris (KM71/9KGla) with maximum activity of 1237 U ml(-1). The optimum pH and temperature of RpGla were pH 4.0 and 70 °C, respectively. Fungal ?-amylase (RpAmy) gene was also cloned from R. pusillus and transformed into KM71/9KGla, resulted in recombinant yeast KM71/9KGla-Z?Amy harboring the RpGla and RpAmy genes simultaneously. The maximum saccharogenic activity of KM71/9KGla-Z?Amy was 2218 U ml(-1), which improved 79% compared to KM71/9KGla. Soluble starch hydrolyzed by purified RpGla achieved 43% glucose and 34% maltose. Higher productivity was achieved with a final yield of 48% glucose and 47% maltose catalyzed by purified enzyme preparation produced by KM71/9KGla-Z?Amy. CONCLUSIONS: A novel fungal glucoamylase and fungal ?-amylase genes were cloned from Rhizomucor pusillus. The two enzymes showed good thermostability and acid stability, and similar biochemical properties facilitated synergetic action of the two enzymes. A dramatic improvement was seen in amylase activity through co-expressing RpGla with RpAmy in Pichia pastoris. This is the first report of improving activity through co-expression glucoamylase with ?-amylase in P. pastoris. Besides, fungal glucoamylase and ?-amylase from R. pusillus were shown as promising candidates for further application in starch hydrolysis.
Project description:This report presents a new case of mucormycosis encountered in penguin characterized by morphological variation of hyphae and presence of sporangia with numerous sporangiospores. A 4.5-year-old Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) died after exhibiting anorexia, poor nutritional condition and dyspnea. Multiple nodular lesions were observed in the thoracic and abdominal regions. Histopathologically, hyphae of various sizes were seen in the lungs, air sac and nodular lesions. Myriad sporangiospores and several sporangia were observed in/around the bronchi or parabronchi. The very narrow and short hyphae in the nodules were not consistent with the characteristics of Mucorales. However, for most hyphae, including those in the nodules, sporangiospores and sporangia, immunohistochemistry revealed Mucorales-positive reactions. In addition, these fungi were identified as Rhizomucor pusillus by gene analysis.
Project description:This work reports the production of an exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG) by Rhizomucor pusillus A13.36 in submerged cultivation (SmC) in a shaker at 45°C for 96?h. A single pectinase was found and purified in order to analyze its thermal stability, by salt precipitation and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The pectinase has an estimated Mw of approximately 43.5-47?kDa and optimum pH of 4.0 but is stable in pH ranging from 3.5 to 9.5 and has an optimum temperature of 61°C. It presents thermal stability between 30 and 60°C, has 70% activation in the presence of Ca2+, and was tested using citrus pectin with a degree of methyl esterification (DE) of 26%. Ea(d) for irreversible denaturation was 125.5?kJ/mol with positive variations of entropy and enthalpy for that and ?G(d) values were around 50?kJ/mol. The hydrolysis of polygalacturonate was analyzed by capillary electrophoresis which displayed a pattern of sequential hydrolysis (exo). The partial identification of the primary sequence was done by MS MALDI-TOF and a comparison with data banks showed the highest identity of the sequenced fragments of exo-PG from R. pusillus with an exo-pectinase from Aspergillus fumigatus. Pectin hydrolysis showed a sigmoidal curve for the Michaelis-Menten plot.