A locus for autosomal dominant colobomatous microphthalmia maps to chromosome 15q12-q15.
ABSTRACT: Congenital microphthalmia is a common developmental ocular disorder characterized by shortened axial length. Isolated microphthalmia is clinically and genetically heterogeneous and may be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked manner. Here, we studied a five-generation family of Sephardic Jewish origin that included 38 members, of whom 7 have either unilateral or bilateral microphthalmia of variable severity inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with incomplete penetrance. After exclusion of several candidate loci, we performed a genome-scan study and demonstrated linkage to chromosome 15q12-q15. Positive LOD scores were obtained with a maximum at the D15S1007 locus (maximum LOD score 3.77, at recombination fraction 0.00). Haplotype analyses supported the location of the disease-causing gene in a 13.8-cM interval between loci D15S1002 and D15S1040.
Project description:PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical, histopathologic, and genetic characteristics of a microphthalmia pedigree. METHODS: A five-generation Chinese family with microphthalmia was recruited. Clinical and histological examinations were performed in the affected patients and their family members. Cyrillic software was used to map the pedigree. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood, and linkage analysis was performed using short tandem repeat polymorphism markers. Two-point LOD scores were calculated using the MLINK program. RESULTS: Microphthalmia was inherited in an autosomal dominant manner in this family. All nine affected members had hyperopia (mean: +8.00 diopters) and physiologically reduced axis oculi (mean: 19.29 mm) with a visual acuity of less than 0.5. Refractory angle-closure glaucoma occurred in three of them and atrophia bulbi in two. Histological examination showed diffuse degenerated collagen fibers in the scleral stroma. Two-point LOD score linkage analysis excluded all known genetic loci associated with simple microphthalmia in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: Simple microphthalmia was dominantly inherited in this Chinese pedigree with typical phenotypes, which resulted in severe visual deterioration by middle age. A novel locus is predicted to be responsible for the microphthalmia in this family, which may prove a high genetic heterogeneity in microphthalmia.
Project description:Congenital microphthalmia (CMIC) (OMIM 309700) may occur in isolation or in association with a variety of systemic malformations. Isolated CMIC may be inherited as an autosomal dominant, an autosomal recessive, or an X-linked trait. On the basis of a whole-genome linkage analysis, we have mapped the first locus for isolated CMIC, in a five-generation consanguineous family with autosomal recessive inheritance, to chromosome 14q32. All affected individuals in this family have bilateral CMIC. Linkage analysis gave a maximum two-point LOD score of 3.55 for the marker D14S65. Surrounding this marker is a region of homozygosity of 7.3 cM, between the markers D14S987 and D14S267, within which the disease gene is predicted to lie. The genes for several eye-specific transcription factors are located on human chromosome 14q and in the syntenic region of mouse chromosome 12. However, both CHX10 (14q24.3), mutations of which give rise to CMIC in mouse models, and OTX2 (14q21-22) can be excluded as candidates for autosomal recessive congenital microphthalmia (arCMIC), since they map outside the critical disease region defined by recombination events. This suggests that arCMIC is caused by defects in a novel developmental gene that may be important or even essential in eye development.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Congenital microphthalmia (OMIM: 309700) may occur in isolation or in association with a variety of systemic malformations. Isolated microphthalmia may be inherited as an autosomal dominant, an autosomal recessive, or an X linked trait. METHODS:Based on a whole genome linkage analysis, in a six generation consanguineous family with autosomal recessive inheritance, the first locus for isolated microphthalmia was mapped to chromosome 14q32. Eight members of this family underwent clinical examination to determine the nature of the microphthalmia phenotype associated with this locus. RESULTS:All affected individuals in this family suffered from bilateral microphthalmia in association with anterior segment abnormalities, and the best visual acuity achieved was "perception of light". Corneal changes included partial or complete congenital sclerocornea, and the later development of corneal vascularisation and anterior staphyloma. Intraocular pressure, as measured by Schiotz tonometry, was greatly elevated in many cases. CONCLUSIONS:This combination of ocular defects suggests an embryological disorder involving tissues derived from both the neuroectoderm and neural crest. Other families with defects in the microphthalmia gene located on 14q32 may have a similar ocular phenotype aiding their identification.
Project description:Genetic analysis of a large Indian family with an autosomal dominant cataract phenotype allowed us to identify a novel cataract gene, CRYBA4. After a genomewide screen, linkage analysis identified a maximum LOD score of 3.20 (recombination fraction [theta] 0.001) with marker D22S1167 of the beta -crystallin gene cluster on chromosome 22. To date, CRYBA4 was the only gene in this cluster not associated with either human or murine cataracts. A pathogenic mutation was identified in exon 4 that segregated with the disease status. The c.317T-->C sequence change is predicted to replace the highly conserved hydrophobic amino acid phenylalanine94 with the hydrophilic amino acid serine. Modeling suggests that this substitution would significantly reduce the intrinsic stability of the crystalline monomer, which would impair its ability to form the association modes critical for lens transparency. Considering that CRYBA4 associates with CRYBB2 and that the latter protein has been implicated in microphthalmia, mutational analysis of CRYBA4 was performed in 32 patients affected with microphthalmia (small eye). We identified a c.242T-->C (Leu69Pro) sequence change in exon 4 in one patient, which is predicted here to disrupt the beta -sheet structure in CRYBA4. Protein folding would consequently be impaired, most probably leading to a structure with reduced stability in the mutant. This is the first report linking mutations in CRYBA4 to cataractogenesis and microphthalmia.
Project description:To further explore the spectrum of mutations in the Visual System Homeobox 2 (VSX2/CHX10) gene previously found to be associated with autosomal recessive microphthalmia.We screened 95 probands with syndromic or isolated developmental ocular conditions (including 55 with anophthalmia/microphthalmia) for mutations in VSX2.Homozygous mutations in VSX2 were identified in two out of five consanguineous families with isolated microphthalmia. A novel missense mutation, c.668G>C (p.G223A), was identified in a large Pakistani family with multiple sibships affected with bilateral microphthalmia. This p.G223A mutation affects the conserved CVC motif that was shown to be important for DNA binding and repression activities of VSX2. The second mutation, c.249delG (p.Leu84SerfsX57), was identified in an Iranian family with microphthalmia; this mutation has been previously reported and is predicted to generate a severely truncated mutant protein completely lacking the VSX2 homeodomain, CVC domain and COOH-terminal regions.Mutations in VSX2 represent an important cause of autosomal recessive microphthalmia in consanguineous pedigrees. Identification of a second missense mutation in the CVC motif emphasizes the importance of this region for normal VSX2 function.
Project description:Microphthalmia in sheep is an autosomal recessive inherited congenital anomaly found within the Texel breed. It is characterized by extremely small or absent eyes and affected lambs are absolutely blind. For the first time, we use a genome-wide ovine SNP array for positional cloning of a Mendelian trait in sheep. Genotyping 23 cases and 23 controls using Illumina's OvineSNP50 BeadChip allowed us to localize the causative mutation for microphthalmia to a 2.4 Mb interval on sheep chromosome 22 by association and homozygosity mapping. The PITX3 gene is located within this interval and encodes a homeodomain-containing transcription factor involved in vertebrate lens formation. An abnormal development of the lens vesicle was shown to be the primary event in ovine microphthalmia. Therefore, we considered PITX3 a positional and functional candidate gene. An ovine BAC clone was sequenced, and after full-length cDNA cloning the PITX3 gene was annotated. Here we show that the ovine microphthalmia phenotype is perfectly associated with a missense mutation (c.338G>C, p.R113P) in the evolutionary conserved homeodomain of PITX3. Selection against this candidate causative mutation can now be used to eliminate microphthalmia from Texel sheep in production systems. Furthermore, the identification of a naturally occurring PITX3 mutation offers the opportunity to use the Texel as a genetically characterized large animal model for human microphthalmia.
Project description:FOXE3 forkhead transcription factor is essential to lens development in vertebrates. The eyes of Foxe3/foxe3-deficient mice and zebrafish fail to develop normally. In humans, autosomal dominant and recessive mutations in FOXE3 have been associated with variable phenotypes including anterior segment anomalies, cataract, and microphthalmia. We undertook sequencing of FOXE3 in 116 probands with a spectrum of ocular defects ranging from anterior segment dysgenesis and cataract to anophthalmia/microphthalmia. Recessive mutations in FOXE3 were found in four of 26 probands affected with bilateral microphthalmia (15% of all bilateral microphthalmia and 100% of consanguineous families with this phenotype). FOXE3-positive microphthalmia was accompanied by aphakia and/or corneal defects; no other associated systemic anomalies were observed in FOXE3-positive families. The previously reported c.720C > A (p.C240X) nonsense mutation was identified in two additional families in our sample and therefore appears to be recurrent, now reported in three independent microphthalmia families of varied ethnic backgrounds. Several missense variants were identified at varying frequencies in patient and control groups with some apparently being race-specific, which underscores the importance of utilizing race/ethnicity-matched control populations in evaluating the relevance of genetic screening results. In conclusion, FOXE3 mutations represent an important cause of nonsyndromic autosomal recessive bilateral microphthalmia.
Project description:Mouse mutants are a long-lasting, valuable tool to identify genes underlying eye diseases, because the absence of eyes, very small eyes and severely affected, cataractous eyes are easily to detect without major technical equipment. In mice, actually 145 genes or loci are known for anophthalmia, 269 for microphthalmia, and 180 for cataracts. Approximately, 25% of the loci are not yet characterized; however, some of the ancient lines are extinct and not available for future research. The phenotypes of the mutants represent a continuous spectrum either in anophthalmia and microphthalmia, or in microphthalmia and cataracts. On the other side, mouse models are still missing for some genes, which have been identified in human families to be causative for anophthalmia, microphthalmia, or cataracts. Finally, the mouse offers the possibility to genetically test the roles of modifiers and the role of SNPs; these aspects open new avenues for ophthalmogenetics in the mouse.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Autosomal recessive anophthalmia and microphthalmia are rare developmental eye defects occurring during early fetal development. Syndromic and non-syndromic forms of anophthalmia and microphthalmia demonstrate extensive genetic and allelic heterogeneity. To date, disease mutations have been identified in 29 causative genes associated with anophthalmia and microphthalmia, with autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive and X-linked inheritance patterns described. Biallelic ALDH1A3 gene variants are the leading genetic causes of autosomal recessive anophthalmia and microphthalmia in countries with frequent parental consanguinity. METHODS:This study describes genetic investigations in two consanguineous Pakistani families with a total of seven affected individuals with bilateral non-syndromic clinical anophthalmia. RESULTS:Using whole exome and Sanger sequencing, we identified two novel homozygous ALDH1A3 sequence variants as likely responsible for the condition in each family; missense mutation [NM_000693.3:c.1240G?>?C, p.Gly414Arg; Chr15:101447332G?>?C (GRCh37)] in exon 11 (family 1), and, a frameshift mutation [NM_000693.3:c.172dup, p.Glu58Glyfs*5; Chr15:101425544dup (GRCh37)] in exon 2 predicted to result in protein truncation (family 2). CONCLUSIONS:This study expands the molecular spectrum of pathogenic ALDH1A3 variants associated with anophthalmia and microphthalmia, and provides further insight of the key role of the ALDH1A3 in human eye development.
Project description:We used exome sequencing to study a non-consanguineous family with two children who had anterior segment dysgenesis, sclerocornea, microphthalmia, hypotonia and developmental delays. Sanger sequencing verified two Peroxidasin (PXDN) mutations in both sibs--a maternally inherited, nonsense mutation, c.1021C>T predicting p.(Arg341*), and a paternally inherited, 23-basepair deletion causing a frameshift and premature protein truncation, c.2375_2397del23, predicting p.(Leu792Hisfs*67). We re-examined exome data from 20 other patients with structural eye defects and identified two additional PXDN mutations in a sporadic male with bilateral microphthalmia, cataracts and anterior segment dysgenesis--a maternally inherited, frameshift mutation, c.1192delT, predicting p.(Tyr398Thrfs*40) and a paternally inherited, missense substitution that was predicted to be deleterious, c.947 A>C, predicting p.(Gln316Pro). Mutations in PXDN were previously reported in three families with congenital cataracts, microcornea, sclerocornea and developmental glaucoma. The gene is expressed in corneal epithelium and is secreted into the extracellular matrix. Defective peroxidasin has been shown to impair sulfilimine bond formation in collagen IV, a constituent of the basement membrane, implying that the eye defects result because of loss of basement membrane integrity in the developing eye. Our finding of a broader phenotype than previously appreciated for PXDN mutations is typical for exome-sequencing studies, which have proven to be highly effective for mutation detection in patients with atypical presentations. We conclude that PXDN sequencing should be considered in microphthalmia with anterior segment dysgenesis.