A locus for brachydactyly type A-1 maps to chromosome 2q35-q36.
ABSTRACT: Brachydactyly type A-1 (BDA1) was, in 1903, the first recorded example of a human anomaly with Mendelian autosomal dominant inheritance. Two large families, the affected members of which were radiographed, were recruited in the study we describe here. Two-point linkage analysis for pedigree 1 (maximum LOD score [Zmax] 6.59 at recombination fraction [theta] 0.00) and for pedigree 2 (Zmax=5.53 at straight theta=0.00) mapped the locus for BDA1 in the two families to chromosome 2q. Haplotype analysis of pedigree 1 confined the locus for family 1 within an interval of <8.1 cM flanked by markers D2S2248 and D2S360, which was mapped to chromosome 2q35-q36 on the cytogenetic map. Haplotype analysis of pedigree 2 confined the locus for family 2 within an interval of <28. 8 cM flanked by markers GATA30E06 and D2S427, which was localized to chromosome 2q35-q37. The two families had no identical haplotype within the defined region, which suggests that the two families were not related.
Project description:Dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria (DSH) is a hereditary skin disease characterized by the presence of hyperpigmented and hypopigmented macules on extremities and face. The gene, or even its chromosomal location, for DSH has not yet been identified. In this study, two Chinese families with DSH were identified and subjected to a genomewide screen for linkage analysis. Two-point linkage analysis for pedigree A (maximum LOD score [Z(max)] = 7.28 at recombination fraction [theta] = 0.00) and pedigree B (Z(max) = 2.41 at theta = 0.00) mapped the locus for DSH in the two families to chromosome 6q. Subsequent multipoint analysis of the two families also provided additional support for the DSH gene being located within the region 6q24.2-q25.2, with Z(max) = 10.64. Haplotype analysis confined the locus within an interval of 10.2 Mbp, flanked by markers D6S1703 and D6S1708. The two families had no identical haplotype within the defined region, which suggests that the two families were different in origin. Further work on identification of the gene for DSH will open new avenues to exploration of the genetics of pigmentation.
Project description:Myxomatous mitral-valve prolapse (MMVP), also called Barlow disease, is a common cardiac abnormality and affects up to 5% of the population. It is characterized by an excess of tissue that leads to billowing of the mitral leaflets, sometimes complicated by prolapse. Typical histological findings include myxomatous degeneration and degradation of collagen and elastin. Previous reports have proposed an autosomal dominant inheritance of the trait, with age- and sex-dependent expression. By systematic echocardiographic screening of the first-degree relatives of 17 patients who underwent mitral-valve repair, we have identified four pedigrees showing such an inheritance. Genomewide linkage analysis of the most informative pedigree (24 individuals, three generations) showed a significant linkage for markers mapping to chromosome 16p, with a two-point maximum LOD score for D16S3068 (Zmax=3.30 at straight theta=0). Linkage to D16S3068 was confirmed in a second family (Zmax=2.02 at straight theta=0) but was excluded for the two remaining families, thus demonstrating the genetic heterogeneity of the disease. Multipoint linkage analysis performed, with nine additional markers, on the two families with linkage gave maximum multipoint LOD scores of 5.45 and 5.68 for D16S3133, according to a conservative and a stringent model, respectively. Haplotype analysis defined a 5-cM minimal MMVP-1 locus between D16S3068 (16p11.2) and D16S420 (16p12. 1) and a 34-cM maximal interval between D16S404 and D16S3068 when recombination events were taken into account only in affected individuals. The identification of this locus represents a first step toward a new molecular classification of mitral-valve prolapse.
Project description:PURPOSE: To genetically map the gene causing isolated X linked cataract in a large European pedigree. METHODS: Using the patient registers at Birmingham Women's Hospital, UK, we identified and examined 23 members of a four generation family with nuclear cataract. Four of six affected males also had complex congenital heart disease. Pedigree data were collated and leucocyte DNA extracted from venous blood. Linkage analysis by PCR based microsatellite marker genotyping was used to identify the disease locus and mutations within candidate genes screened by direct sequencing. RESULTS: The disease locus was genetically refined to chromosome Xp22, within a 3 cM linkage interval flanked by markers DXS9902 and DXS999 (Zmax=3.64 at theta=0 for marker DXS8036). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of a locus for isolated inherited cataract on the X chromosome. The disease interval lies within the Nance-Horan locus suggesting allelic heterogeneity. The apparent association with congenital cardiac anomalies suggests a possible new oculocardiac syndrome.
Project description:PURPOSE: To describe the clinical and genetic findings in two Chinese families with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). METHODS: Two unrelated families were examined clinically. After informed consent was obtained, genomic DNA was extracted from the venous blood of all participants. Genotyping and haplotyping analysis was performed on the known genetic loci for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) with a panel of polymorphic markers in the two families, and then mutation screening of all coding exons of the RHO gene was performed by direct sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA fragments. Whenever substitutions were identified in a patient, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed on all available family members and on 100 normal controls. RESULTS: Clinical examination and pedigree analysis revealed two four-generation families (83 and 112) with adRP. A significant two-point linkage odd disequilibrium (LOD) score was generated at marker D3S1292 (Zmax=1.90, θ=0) for family 83 and (Zmax=2.77, θ=0) for family 112, respectively, and further linkage and haplotype studies confined the disease locus to 3q21-22 where the RHO gene is located. Mutation screening of the RHO gene in the two families revealed a G→C transversion at position 505 (p.A169P) of the cDNA sequence in family 83 and a C→A transversion at position 1040 (p.P347Q) of the cDNA in family 112. The novel p.A169P and recurrent p.P347Q mutations cosegregated with the phenotypes of the two families. Secondary structure prediction suggested that the mutant rhodopsin 169P led to significant secondary structure changes between residues 165 and 169, which may interfere with the correct folding of the transmembrane domain. CONCLUSIONS: Two mutations of the RHO gene were identified in two Chinese families with adRP. Our findings further suggest codon 347 is the mutation hotspot of the RHO.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To identify and clinically evaluate four consanguineous families of Israeli Arab origin with non-syndromic mental retardation (NSMR), comprising a total of 10 affected and 24 unaffected individuals. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: All the families originated from the same small village and had the same family name. Association of the condition in these families with the two known autosomal recessive NSMR loci on chromosomes 3p25-pter and 4q24 (neurotrypsin gene) was excluded. RESULTS: Linkage of the disease gene to chromosome 19p13.12-p13.2(Zmax = 7.06 at theta = 0.00) for the marker D19S840 was established. All the affected individuals were found to be homozygous for a common haplotype for the markers cen-RFX1-D19S840-D19S558-D19S221-tel. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the disease is caused by a single mutation derived from a single ancestral founder in all the families. Recombination events and a common disease bearing haplotype defined a critical region of 2.4 Mb, between the loci D19S547 proximally and D19S1165 distally.
Project description:Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) is a group of dominantly inherited degenerative disorders of peripheral nerve in which sensory features are more prominent than motor involvement. We have described a new form of HSN I that is associated with cough and gastroesophageal reflux. To map the chromosomal location of the gene causing the disorder, a 10-cM genome screen was undertaken in a large Australian family. Two-point analysis showed linkage to chromosome 3p22-p24 (Zmax=3.51 at recombination fraction (theta) 0.0 for marker D3S2338). A second family with a similar phenotype shares a different disease haplotype but segregates at the same locus. Extended haplotype analysis has refined the region to a 3.42-cM interval, flanked by markers D3S2336 and D3S1266.
Project description:We recently described an autosomal dominant inclusion-body myopathy characterized by congenital joint contractures, external ophthalmoplegia, and predominantly proximal muscle weakness. A whole-genome scan, performed with 161 polymorphic markers and with DNA from 40 members of one family, indicated strong linkage for markers on chromosome 17p. After analyses with additional markers in the region and with DNA from eight additional family members, a maximum LOD score (Zmax) was detected for marker D17S1303 (Zmax=7.38; recombination fraction (theta)=0). Haplotype analyses showed that the locus (Genome Database locus name: IBM3) is flanked distally by marker D17S945 and proximally by marker D17S969. The positions of cytogenetically localized flanking markers suggest that the location of the IBM3 gene is in chromosome region 17p13.1. Radiation hybrid mapping showed that IBM3 is located in a 2-Mb chromosomal region and that the myosin heavy-chain (MHC) gene cluster, consisting of at least six genes, co-localizes to the same region. This localization raises the possibility that one of the MHC genes clustered in this region may be involved in this disorder.
Project description:Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an autosomal dominant inherited familial cancer syndrome characterised by a predisposition to the development of retinal, cerebellar, and spinal haemangioblastomas, renal cell carcinoma, and phaeochromocytoma. The gene for VHL disease has been mapped to chromosome 3p25-p26 and flanking markers identified. We report the detailed genetic mapping of the VHL disease locus in 38 families. Significant linkage was detected between VHL disease and D3S601 (Zmax = 18.86 at theta = 0.0, CI 0.0-0.025), D3S18 (Zmax = 11.42 at theta = 0.03, CI 0.005-0.08), RAF1 (Zmax = 11.02 at theta = 0.04, CI 0.007-0.01), and D3S1250 (Zmax = 4.73 at theta = 0.05, CI 0.005-0.15). Multipoint linkage analysis mapped the VHL disease locus between D3S1250 and D3S18 close to D3S601. There was no evidence of locus heterogeneity. This study has (1) confirmed the tight linkage between VHL disease and D3S601, (2) identified D3S1250 as the first marker telomeric to RAF1 which maps centromeric to the VHL disease gene, and (3) narrowed the target region for isolation of the VHL disease gene by positional cloning techniques to a 4 cM interval between D3S1250 and D3S18. These findings will improve the clinical management of families with VHL disease by improving the accuracy of presymptomatic diagnosis using linked DNA markers, and will enhance progress towards isolating the VHL disease gene.
Project description:Four DNA markers on the distal long arm of chromosome 4 have been analyzed for their linkage relationship to facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) in a series of 23 families with this disease. Two hypervariable markers, pH30 (D4S139) and EFD 139.1 (D4S184), both show close linkage with the disorder, with a maximum recombination fraction (theta max) of .02 and a maximum lod score (Zmax) of 36.77 and 34.50, respectively; two other markers, the locus for factor XI (F11) and the microsatellite marker Mfd22 (D4S171), both show less close linkage, with respective theta max of .16 (Zmax = 3.40) for F11 and .24 (Zmax = 1.61) for D4S171. While the relative ordering and orientation of the loci on the chromosome remain provisional, analysis of 15 individual recombination events in seven families supports the order D4S171-F11-D4S184-D4S139-FSHD, with the disease locus telomeric to all four markers.
Project description:Cystinuria is an autosomal recessive amino-aciduria where three urinary phenotypes have been described (I, II, and III). An amino acid transporter gene, SLC3A1 (formerly rBAT), was found to be responsible for this disorder. To assess whether mutations in SLC3A1 are involved in different cystinuria phenotypes, linkage with this gene and its nearest marker (D2S119) was analyzed in 22 families with type I and/or type III cystinuria. Linkage with heterogeneity was proved (alpha = 0.45; P < 0.008). Type I/I families showed homogeneous linkage to SLC3A1 (Zmax > 3.0 at theta = 0.00; alpha = 1), whereas types I/III and III/III were not linked. Our data suggest that type I cystinuria is due to mutations in the SLC3A1 gene, whereas another locus is responsible for type III. This result establishes genetic heterogeneity for cystinuria, classically considered as a multiallelic monogenic disease.