Manitoba aboriginal kindred with original cerebro-oculo- facio-skeletal syndrome has a mutation in the Cockayne syndrome group B (CSB) gene.
ABSTRACT: Cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal (COFS) syndrome is a rapidly progressive neurological disorder leading to brain atrophy with calcification, cataracts, microcornea, optic atrophy, progressive joint contractures, and growth failure. Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a recessively inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by low-to-normal birth weight; growth failure; brain dysmyelination with calcium deposits; cutaneous photosensitivity; pigmentary retinopathy, cataracts, or both; and sensorineural hearing loss. CS cells are hypersensitive to UV radiation because of impaired nucleotide excision repair of UV radiation-induced damage in actively transcribed DNA. The abnormalities in CS are associated with mutations in the CSA or CSB genes. In this report, we present evidence that two probands related to the Manitoba Aboriginal population group within which COFS syndrome was originally reported have cellular phenotypes indistinguishable from those in CS cells. The identical mutation was detected in the CSB gene from both children with COFS syndrome and in both parents of one of the patients. This mutation was also detected in three other patients with COFS syndrome from the Manitoba Aboriginal population group. These results suggest that CS and COFS syndrome share a common pathogenesis.
Project description:Cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal (COFS) syndrome is a recessively inherited rapidly progressive neurologic disorder leading to brain atrophy, with calcifications, cataracts, microcornea, optic atrophy, progressive joint contractures, and growth failure. Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a recessively inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by low to normal birth weight, growth failure, brain dysmyelination with calcium deposits, cutaneous photosensitivity, pigmentary retinopathy and/or cataracts, and sensorineural hearing loss. Cultured CS cells are hypersensitive to UV radiation, because of impaired nucleotide-excision repair (NER) of UV-induced damage in actively transcribed DNA, whereas global genome NER is unaffected. The abnormalities in CS are caused by mutated CSA or CSB genes. Another class of patients with CS symptoms have mutations in the XPB, XPD, or XPG genes, which result in UV hypersensitivity as well as defective global NER; such patients may concurrently have clinical features of another NER syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). Clinically observed similarities between COFS syndrome and CS have been followed by discoveries of cases of COFS syndrome that are associated with mutations in the XPG and CSB genes. Here we report the first involvement of the XPD gene in a new case of UV-sensitive COFS syndrome, with heterozygous substitutions-a R616W null mutation (previously seen in patients in XP complementation group D) and a unique D681N mutation-demonstrating that a third gene can be involved in COFS syndrome. We propose that COFS syndrome be included within the already known spectrum of NER disorders: XP, CS, and trichothiodystrophy. We predict that future patients with COFS syndrome will be found to have mutations in the CSA or XPB genes, and we document successful use of DNA repair for prenatal diagnosis in triplet and singleton pregnancies at risk for COFS syndrome. This result strongly underlines the need for screening of patients with COFS syndrome, for either UV sensitivity or DNA-repair abnormalities.
Project description:Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by a deficiency in the transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair pathway. Mutation of Cockayne syndrome B (CSB) affects basal transcription which is considered a major cause of CS neurological dysfunction. Here, we generated a rat model by mimicking a nonsense mutation in the CSB(ERCC6) gene of CS-B patients. CSB-deficient rats exhibit the well-known CS repair characteristics: inability to resume RNA synthesis from stalled RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) and persistent gamma H2AX overexpression after UV damage. In contrast to that of the Csb-/- mouse models, the cerebella of the CSB-deficient rats are more profoundly affected. Both the molecular and the granular layers of the cerebellum cortex showed significant atrophy. The white matter of the cerebellum demonstrated high GFAP staining indicative of reactive astrogliosis. RNA-seq analysis of CSB-deficient rat cerebella revealed that even in the absence of UV damage, CSB affects the expression of hundreds of genes, many of which are neuronal genes, suggesting that transcription dysregulation could contribute to the neurological features in CSB rat models. Overall design: Cerebellar mRNA profiles of CSBR571X/R571X, CSBR571X/- and WT rats were generated by deep sequencing, using Illumina HiSeq X Ten in paired-end mode.
Project description:UV-sensitive syndrome (UV(S)S) and Cockayne syndrome (CS) are human disorders caused by CSA or CSB gene mutations; both conditions cause defective transcription-coupled repair and photosensitivity. Patients with CS also display neurological and developmental abnormalities and dramatic premature aging, and their cells are hypersensitive to oxidative stress. We report CSA/CSB-dependent depletion of the mitochondrial DNA polymerase-? catalytic subunit (POLG1), due to HTRA3 serine protease accumulation in CS, but not in UV(s)S or control fibroblasts. Inhibition of serine proteases restored physiological POLG1 levels in either CS fibroblasts and in CSB-silenced cells. Moreover, patient-derived CS cells displayed greater nitroso-redox imbalance than UV(S)S cells. Scavengers of reactive oxygen species and peroxynitrite normalized HTRA3 and POLG1 levels in CS cells, and notably, increased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, which was altered in CS cells. These data reveal critical deregulation of proteases potentially linked to progeroid phenotypes in CS, and our results suggest rescue strategies as a therapeutic option.
Project description:UV-sensitive syndrome (UVsS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by photosensitivity and mild freckling but without neurological abnormalities or skin tumors. UVsS cells show UV hypersensitivity and defective transcription-coupled DNA repair of UV damage. It was suggested that UVsS does not belong to any complementation groups of known photosensitive disorders such as xeroderma pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome (CS). To identify the gene responsible for UVsS, we performed a microcell-mediated chromosome transfer based on the functional complementation of UV hypersensitivity. We found that one of the UVsS cell lines, UVs1KO, acquired UV resistance when human chromosome 10 was transferred. Because the gene responsible for CS group B (CSB), which involves neurological abnormalities and photosensitivity as well as a defect in transcription-coupled DNA repair of UV damage, is located on chromosome 10, we sequenced the CSB gene from UVs1KO and detected a homozygous null mutation. Our results indicate that previous complementation analysis of UVs1KO was erroneous. This finding was surprising because a null mutation of the CSB gene would be expected to result in CS features such as severe developmental and neurological abnormalities. On the other hand, no mutation in the CSB cDNA and a normal amount of CSB protein was detected in Kps3, a UVsS cell line obtained from an unrelated patient, indicating genetic heterogeneity in UVsS. Possible explanations for the discrepancy in the genotype-phenotype relationship in UVs1KO are presented.
Project description:Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a recessive disorder that results in deficiencies in transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER), a subpathway of nucleotide excision repair, and cells from CS patients exhibit hypersensitivity to UV light. CS group B protein (CSB), which is the gene product of one of the genes responsible for CS, belongs to the SWI2/SNF2 DNA-dependent ATPase family and has an ATPase domain and an ubiquitin-binding domain (UBD) in the central region and the C-terminal region, respectively. The C-terminal region containing the UBD is essential for the functions of CSB. In this study, we generated several CSB deletion mutants and analyzed the functions of the C-terminal region of CSB in TC-NER. Not only the UBD but also the C-terminal 30-amino acid residues were required for UV light resistance and TC-NER. This region was needed for the interaction of CSB with RNA polymerase II, the translocation of CS group A protein to the nuclear matrix, and the association of CSB with chromatin after UV irradiation. CSB was modified by small ubiquitin-like modifier 2/3 in a UV light-dependent manner. This modification was abolished in a CSB mutant lacking the C-terminal 30 amino acid residues. However, the substitution of lysine residues in this region with arginine did not affect SUMOylation or TC-NER. By contrast, substitution of a lysine residue in the N-terminal region with arginine decreased SUMOylation and resulted in cells with defects in TC-NER. These results indicate that both the most C-terminal region and SUMOylation are important for the functions of CSB in TC-NER.
Project description:Transcription-coupled repair (TCR) is the major pathway involved in the removal of UV-induced photolesions from the transcribed strand of active genes. Two Cockayne syndrome (CS) complementation group proteins, CSA and CSB, are important for TCR repair. The molecular mechanisms by which CS proteins regulate TCR remain elusive. Here, we report the characterization of KIAA1530, an evolutionarily conserved protein that participates in this pathway through its interaction with CSA and the TFIIH complex. We found that UV irradiation led to the recruitment of KIAA1530 onto chromatin in a CSA-dependent manner. Cells lacking KIAA1530 were highly sensitive to UV irradiation and displayed deficiency in TCR. In addition, KIAA1530 depletion abrogated stability of the CSB protein following UV irradiation. More excitingly, we found that a unique CSA mutant (W361C), which was previously identified in a patient with UV(s)S syndrome, showed defective KIAA1530 binding and resulted in a failure of recruiting KIAA1530 and stabilizing CSB after UV treatment. Together, our data not only reveal that KIAA1530 is an important player in TCR but also lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying UV(s)S syndrome.
Project description:Cockayne syndrome B (CSB) protein is a member of the SWI/SNF family and has DNA-dependent ATPase and ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling activities. The CSB protein is missing or altered in CS-B cells. CS-B cells are hypersensitive to UV light and defective in transcription-coupled DNA repair (TCR). TCR efficiently removes a variety of lesions from the transcribed strand of active genes. It has been shown that lesions specifically in the transcribed strand of active genes trigger the induction of apoptosis following UV irradiation. Several DNA damage signaling cascades, including the ATR/Chk1, p38 kinase, p53, and jun N-terminal kinase pathways are activated following UV irradiation. However, the role of TCR in cellular global transcriptional responses to UV irradiation remains to be elucidated. Using oligonucleotide microarray technology, we analyzed the time course of responses of CS-B cells (CS-B) and CS-B cells complemented with wild-type CSB cDNA (CS-B wt). Keywords: UV response, time course, disease state analysis Overall design: In order to investigate the global transcriptional responses to UV damage in TCR-proficient or TCR-deficient cells, CS-B wt and CS-B cells were irradiated with 10 J/m2 of UV light and incubated for 2 or 12 hours. All experiments were performed in triplicate.
Project description:Cockayne syndrome B (CSB) protein is a member of the SWI/SNF family and has DNA-dependent ATPase and ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling activities. The CSB protein is missing or altered in CS-B cells. CS-B cells are hypersensitive to UV light and defective in transcription-coupled DNA repair (TCR). TCR efficiently removes a variety of lesions from the transcribed strand of active genes. It has been shown that lesions specifically in the transcribed strand of active genes trigger the induction of apoptosis following UV irradiation. Several DNA damage signaling cascades, including the ATR/Chk1, p38 kinase, p53, and jun N-terminal kinase pathways are activated following UV irradiation. However, the role of TCR in cellular global transcriptional responses to UV irradiation remains to be elucidated. Using oligonucleotide microarray technology, we analyzed the time course of responses of CS-B cells (CS-B) and CS-B cells complemented with wild-type CSB cDNA (CS-B wt). Experiment Overall Design: In order to investigate the global transcriptional responses to UV damage in TCR-proficient or TCR-deficient cells, CS-B wt and CS-B cells were irradiated with 10 J/m2 of UV light and incubated for 2 or 12 hours. All experiments were performed in triplicate.
Project description:We report on a male patient born to healthy, first cousin, Moroccan parents. During the pregnancy growth retardation was observed. Birth weight, length, and OFC were all well below the 3rd centile. Facial anomalies, microphthalmia, cleft palate, small penis, and flexion contractures of large joints were noted. Cerebral MRI showed dysmyelination. The clinical course was characterised by feeding difficulties, growth failure, lack of development, photosensitivity, and death at 7 months. The main differential diagnoses were COFS syndrome and early onset Cockayne syndrome (CS). UV exposure of cultured fibroblasts showed inhibition of nucleic acids synthesis. Further DNA repair studies showed extreme cellular sensitivity to UV and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP)-like defective nucleotide excision repair (NER), which in combination with the clinical symptoms indicated the very rare XP-CS complex. Complementation analysis showed that the XPG gene is affected in this patient. In cases suspected of having COFS syndrome and early onset CS, extensive DNA repair studies are needed to reach the definitive diagnosis, thereby allowing reliable genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis.
Project description:Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a congenital syndrome characterized by growth and mental retardation, and premature ageing. The complexity of CS and mammalian models warrants simpler metazoan models that display CS-like phenotypes that could be studied in the context of a live organism. Here, we provide a characterization of neuronal and mitochondrial aberrations caused by a mutation in the csb-1 gene in Caenorhabditis elegans. We report a progressive neurodegeneration in adult animals that is enhanced upon UV-induced DNA damage. The csb-1 mutants show dysfunctional hyperfused mitochondria that degrade upon DNA damage, resulting in diminished respiratory activity. Our data support the role of endogenous DNA damage as a driving factor of CS-related neuropathology and underline the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the disease.